The House of Lords known as the House of Peers and domestically referred to as the Lords, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is else by heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords are appointed; the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England. Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
Since 2008, only one of them is female. While the House of Commons has a defined number of seats membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed; the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament in the world to be larger than its lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills, it reviews and amends Bills from the Commons. While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons, independent from the electoral process. Bills can be introduced into the House of Commons. While members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, high-ranking officials such as cabinet ministers are drawn from the Commons; the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queen's Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament.
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom judicial system. The House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual. Today's Parliament of the United Kingdom descends, in practice, from the Parliament of England, through the Treaty of Union of 1706 and the Acts of Union that ratified the Treaty in 1707 and created a new Parliament of Great Britain to replace the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland; this new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland. The House of Lords developed from the "Great Council"; this royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics and representatives of the counties of England and Wales. The first English Parliament is considered to be the "Model Parliament", which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs.
The power of Parliament grew fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined. For example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, the shire and borough representatives powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not by custom or royal charter, but by an authoritative statute, passed by Parliament itself. During the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III, Parliament separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords; the authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the early 15th century both Houses exercised powers to an extent not seen before. The Lords were far more powerful than the Commons because of the great influence of the great landowners and the prelates of the realm; the power of the nobility declined during the civil wars of the late 15th century, known as the Wars of the Roses. Much of the nobility was killed on the battlefield or executed for participation in the war, many aristocratic estates were lost to the Crown.
Moreover, feudalism was dying, the feudal armies controlled by the barons became obsolete. Henry VII established the supremacy of the monarch, symbolised by the "Crown Imperial"; the domination of the Sovereign continued to grow during the reigns of the Tudor monarchs in the 16th century. The Crown was at the height of its power during the reign of Henry VIII; the House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House continued to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords during the middle 17th century. Conflicts between the King and the Parliament led to the English Civil War during the 1640s. In 1649, after the defeat and execution of King Charles I, the Commonwealth of England was declared, but the nation was under the overall cont
Garrett James Hardin was an American ecologist who warned of the dangers of human overpopulation. He is most famous for his exposition of the tragedy of the commons, in a 1968 paper of the same title in Science, which called attention to "the damage that innocent actions by individuals can inflict on the environment", he is known for Hardin's First Law of Human Ecology: "We can never do one thing. Any intrusion into nature has numerous effects, many of which are unpredictable." He is listed by the Southern Poverty Law Center as a white nationalist, whose publications were "frank in their racism and quasi-fascist ethnonationalism". Hardin received a B. S. in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1936 and a PhD in microbiology from Stanford University in 1941 where his dissertation research addressed symbiosis among microorganisms. Moving to the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1946, he served there as Professor of Human Ecology from 1963 until his retirement in 1978, he was among the first members of the Society for General Systems Research.
A major focus of his career, one to which he returned was the issue of human overpopulation. This led to writings on controversial subjects such as advocating abortion rights, which earned him criticism from the political right, advocating eugenics by forced sterilization, strict limits to non-western immigration, which earned him criticism from the political left. In his essays, he tackled subjects such as conservation and creationism. In 1968, Hardin applied his conceptual model developed in his essay "The tragedy of the commons" to human population growth, the use of the Earth's natural resources, the welfare state, his essay cited an 1833 pamphlet by the English economist William Forster Lloyd which included an example of herders sharing a common parcel of land, which would lead to overgrazing. Hardin blamed the welfare state for allowing the tragedy of the commons. Hardin stated in his analysis of the tragedy of the commons that "Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all." Environmental historians Joachim Radkau, Alfred Thomas Grove and Oliver Rackham criticized Hardin "as an American with no notion at all how Commons work".
In addition, Hardin's pessimistic outlook was subsequently contradicted by Elinor Ostrom's work on success of co-operative structures like the management of common land, for which she shared the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Oliver E. Williamson. In contrast to Hardin, they stated neither commons or "Allmende" in the generic nor classical meaning are bound to fail. Hardin's work was criticized as inaccurate in failing to account for the demographic transition, for failing to distinguish between common property and open access resources. Despite the criticisms, the theory has nonetheless been influential. In 1993, Garrett Hardin published Living Within Limits: Ecology and Population Taboos, which he described at the time as a summation of all his previous works; the book won the 1993 Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science. In the book, he argues that the natural sciences are grounded in the concept of limits, while social sciences, such as economics, are grounded in concepts that have no limits.
He notes that most of the more notable scientific debates concerning ecological economics are between natural scientists, such as Paul R. Ehrlich, economists, such as Julian Simon, one of Ehrlich's most well known and vocal detractors. A strong theme throughout the book is that economics, as a discipline, can be as much about mythology and ideology as it is about real science. Hardin goes on to label those who reflexively argue for growth as "growthmaniacs", argues against the institutional faith in exponential growth on a finite planet. Typical of Hardin's writing style, he illustrates exponential growth by way of a Biblical metaphor. Using compound interest, or "usury", he starts from the infamous "thirty pieces of silver" and, using five percent compounded interest, finds that after around 2,000 years, "every man and child would be entitled to only 160,000 earth-masses of gold"; as a consequence, he argues that any economy based on long-term compound interest must fail due to the physical and mathematical impossibility of long-term exponential growth on a finite planet.
Hardin writes, "At this late date millions of people believe in the fertility of money with an ardor accorded to traditional religious doctrines". He argues that, contrary to some socially-motivated claims, population growth is exponential growth, therefore a little would be disastrous anywhere in the world, that the richest nations are not immune. Hardin, who suffered from a heart disorder and the aftermath of childhood poliomyelitis, his wife, who suffered from Lou Gehrig's disease, were members of End-of-Life Choices known as the Hemlock Society. Believing in individuals' choice of when to die, they committed suicide in their Santa Barbara home in September 2003, shortly after their 62nd wedding anniversary, he was 88 and she was 81. Hardin caused controversy for his support of anti-immigrant causes during his lifetime and possible connections to the white nationalist movement; the Southern Poverty Law Center noted that Hardin served on the board of the Federation for American Immigration Reform and Social Contract Press and co-founded the anti-immigration Californians for Populat
The Bhutan Archery Federation is an organization that occupies itself with the conservation and further development of traditional archery in Bhutan. The sporting body governs Olympic archery in Bhutan; the federation was founded in 1971 in the country's capital Thimphu. The federation organizes international matches. For the population, archery signifies more than sport alone, since it is surrounded by various traditions and spirituality. According to legend, these traditions go back to the times of Siddhartha Gautama; the organization relies on volunteers. The Bhutan Archery Federation was honored with a Prince Claus Award in 2004 for "its members role in sustaining and developing archery as a dynamic expression of local cultural values." Archery in Bhutan Official website