Sigurd or Siegfried is a legendary hero of Germanic mythology, who killed a dragon and was murdered. It is possible he was inspired by one or more figures from the Frankish Merovingian dynasty, with Sigebert I being the most popular contender. Older scholarship sometimes connected him with Arminius, victor of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, he may have a purely mythological origin. Sigurd's story is first attested on a series of carvings, including runestones from Sweden and stone crosses from the British Isles, dating from the eleventh century. In both the Norse and continental Germanic tradition, Sigurd is portrayed as dying as the result of a quarrel between his wife and another woman, whom he has tricked into marrying the Burgundian king Gunnar/Gunther, his slaying of a dragon and possession of the hoard of the Nibelungen is common to both traditions. In other respects, the two traditions appear to diverge; the most important works to feature Sigurd are the Nibelungenlied, the Völsunga saga, the Poetic Edda.
He appears in numerous other works from both Germany and Scandinavia, including a series of medieval and early modern Scandinavian ballads. Richard Wagner used the legends about Sigurd/Siegfried in his operas Götterdämmerung. Wagner relied on the Norse tradition in creating his version of Siegfried, his depiction of the hero has influenced many subsequent depictions. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Siegfried became associated with German nationalism; the Thidrekssaga finishes its tale of Sigurd by saying veryone said that no man now living or after would be born who would be equal to him in strength, in all sorts of courtesy, as well as in boldness and generosity that he had above all men, that his name would never perish in the German tongue, the same was true with the Norsemen. The names Siegfried do not share the same etymology. Both have the same first element, Proto-Germanic * sigi -; the second elements of the two names are different, however: in Siegfried, it is Proto-Germanic *-frið, meaning peace.
Although they do not share the same second element, it is clear that surviving Scandinavian written sources held Siegfried to be the continental version of the name they called Sigurd. The normal form of Siegfried in Middle High German is Sîvrit or Sîfrit, with the *sigi- element contracted; this form of the name had been common outside of heroic poetry since the ninth century, though the form Sigevrit is attested, along with the Middle Dutch Zegevrijt. In Early Modern German, the name develops to Seufrid; the modern form Siegfried is not attested until the seventeenth century, after which it becomes more common. In modern scholarship, the form Sigfrid is sometimes used; the Old Norse name Sigurðr is contracted from an original *Sigvǫrðr, which in turn derives from an older *Sigi-warðuR. The Danish form Sivard derives from this form originally. Hermann Reichert notes that the form of the root -vǫrðr instead of -varðr is only found in the name Sigurd, with other personal names instead using the form -varðr.
There are competing theories as to. Names equivalent to Siegfried are first attested in Anglo-Saxon Kent in the seventh century and become frequent in Anglo-Saxon England in the ninth century. Jan-Dirk Müller argues that this late date of attestation means that it is possible that Sigurd more represents the original name. Wolfgang Haubrichs suggests that the form Siegfried arose in the bilingual Frankish kingdom as a result of romance-language influence on an original name *Sigi-ward. According to the normal phonetic principles, the Germanic name would have become Romance-language *Sigevert, a form which could represent a Romance-language form of Germanic Sigefred, he further notes that *Sigevert would be a plausible Romance-language form of the name Sigebert from which both names could have arisen. As a second possibility, Haubrichs considers the option the metathesis of the r in *Sigi-ward could have taken place in Anglo-Saxon England, where variation between -frith and -ferth is well documented.
Hermann Reichert, on the other hand, notes that Scandinavian figures who are attested in pre-twelfth-century German and Irish sources as having names equivalent to Siegfried are systematically changed to forms equivalent to Sigurd in Scandinavian sources. Forms equivalent to Sigurd, on the other hand, do not appear in pre-eleventh-century non-Scandinavian sources, older Scandinavian sources sometimes call persons Sigfroðr Sigfreðr or Sigfrǫðr who are called Sigurðr, he argues from this evidence that a form equivalent to Siegfried is the older form of Sigurd's name in Scandinavia as well. Unlike many figures of Germanic heroic tradition, Sigurd cannot be identified with a historical figure; the most popular theory is that Sigurd has his origins in one or several figures of the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks: the Merovingians had several kings whose name began with the element *sigi-. In particular, the murder of Sigebert I, married to Brunhilda of Austrasia, is cited as a inspiration for the figure, a theory, first proposed in 1613.
Sigibert was murdered by his brother Chilperic I at the instigation of Chilperic's wife queen Fredegunda. If this theory is correct in the legend and Brunhilda appear to have switched roles, while Chilperic has been replaced with Gunther; these parallels are, not exact and n
The Ynglings were the oldest known Scandinavian dynasty, originating from Sweden. It can refer to the clans of the Scylfings, the semi-legendary royal Swedish clan during the Age of Migrations, with kings such as Eadgils and Ohthere; when Beowulf and Ynglingatal were composed sometime in the eighth to tenth centuries, the respective scop and skald expected his audience to have a great deal of background information about these kings, shown in the allusiveness of the references. Ynglings refers to the Fairhair dynasty, descending from the kings of Oppland, Norway. According to surviving early sources, such as Ynglingatal and Íslendingabók, these kings were descended from the Swedish Scylfings of Uppland, Sweden; the House of Munsö, a Swedish dynasty falls under the definition of Yngling. The earliest kings of this dynasty that historians agree are historical are Eirik the Victorious and Olof Skötkonung; some early kings were mythical, whereas others may have been real. Egil, Ottar and Adils are mentioned in several sources and are likely to be real kings.
In the Scandinavian sources they are the descendants of Yngvi-Frey of Vanaheim. Yngling means descendant of Frey, in the Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus they are called the sons of Frey. Several of these kings appear in Beowulf: Eadgils and Ohthere, but here they are called Scylfings. Snorri Sturluson hints at a less divine origin in Skáldskaparmál for this dynasty: One war-king was named Skelfir. In the 13th century, the official Swedish/Scandinavian term for the modern-day Southern Finland was "Eastern Land", Österland, i.e. the eastern half of Sweden at the time. In Ynglinga Saga in 1220 AD, Snorri Sturluson discusses marriages between Swedish and Finnish royal families. In 1220 AD, in the Skáldskaparmál section of Edda, Sturluson discusses King Halfdan the Old, Nór's great-grandson, nine of his sons who are the forefathers of various royal lineages, including "Yngvi, from whom the Ynglings are descended". According to Orkneyinga Saga in 1230 AD, Nór founded Norway, he was a direct descendant of Fornjótr, the King of "Gotland and Finnland".
Many Scandinavian historians name Halfdan the Old as an ancestor to Rollo, the Viking conqueror who founded Normandy and took the name Robert I after converting to Christianity. He was William the Conqueror's great-great-great-grandfather. In 1387 AD, Hversu Noregr byggðist is an account of the origin of various legendary Norwegian lineages, it too traces the descendants of the primeval Finnish ruler Fornjotr back through Nór and his siblings, Góí and Gór. The Hversu account is paralleled by the opening of the Orkneyinga saga. The'genealogies' claim that many heroic families famed in Scandinavian tradition but not located in Norway were of a Finn-Kven stock sprung from Nór's great-grandson Halfdan the Old. All the lineages sprung from Halfdan are shown to reconvert in the person of Harald Fairhair, the first king of "all Norway"; this information can be confirmed in other sources. The'Ættartölur' account ends to a genealogy of Harald's royal descendants down to Olaf IV of Norway with the statement that the account was written in 1387, with a list of the kings of Norway from this Olaf back to Harald Fair-hair.
Another origin for the name skilfing is possible: Snorri described Erik and Alrik, the sons of Skjalf to be the de facto ancestors of this Norse-Finnish clan. The kings who resided at Upsal had been the supreme chiefs over the whole Swedish dominions until the death of Agne, when, as before related, the kingdom came to be divided between brothers. After that time the dominions and kingly powers were spread among the branches of the family as these increased. According to Snorri Sturluson, the dynasty led the settlement of the Swedish provinces and established themselves as the kings of its provinces, accepting the overlordship of the Swedish king at Uppsala, until the dynasty all but exterminated itself with Ingjald Ill-Ruler and his downfall. A survivor Olof Trätälja was the ancestor of the Norwegian branch. However, both Snorri and Saxo described the clan as remaining in Sweden after this date. Saxo on the Battle of Bråvalla: Now the bravest of the Swedes were these: Arwakki, Keklu-Karl, Krok the Peasant and Gummi from Gislamark.
These were kindred of the god Frey, most faithful witnesses to the gods. Ingi and Oly, Folki, all sons of Elrik, embraced the service of Sigurd Hring, they held the god Frey to be the founder of their race. Amongst these from the town of Sigtun came Sigmund, a champion advocate, versed in making contracts of sale and purchase. Moreover, both in Icelandic sources and in the Gesta Danorum, king Sigurd Hring would become the ancestor of the houses of Ragnar Lodbrok and would thus be the semi-legendary ancestor
Erik Weatherhat was a mythical king of Sweden. According to the Swedish Chronicle, the cognomen Weatherhat refers to the accommodating wind he enjoyed whilst pillaging in the Baltic Sea region, his place in the Swedish line of kings is mysterious and it varies by the source— He is considered to be Erik Emundsson or, according to Gesta Danorum, one of Ragnar Lodbrok's sons. Saxo's kings of Sweden
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks is a legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas. It is a valuable saga for several different reasons: it contains traditions of wars between the Goths and the Huns from the 4th century; the saga may be most appreciated for its memorable imagery, as seen in a quote from one of its translators, Nora Kershaw Chadwick, on the invasion of the Horde: Hervör standing at sunrise on the summit of the tower and looking southward towards the forest. The text contains several poetic sections: the Hervararkviða, on Hervor's visit to her father's grave and retrieval of the sword Tyrfing, it has inspired writers and derivative works, such as J. R. R. Tolkien when shaping his legends of Middle-earth, his son, Christopher Tolkien translated the work into English, as The Saga of King Heidrek the Wise. Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks is a legendary saga known from 13th- and 14th-century parchment sources, plus additional 17th-century paper manuscripts that complete the story.
There are two main manuscript sources for the text, dating to the 14th and 15th centuries referred to as H and R, respectively. H, the Hauksbók dates to c. 1325. H tells the story up to the end of Gestumblindi's second riddle, whereas R is truncated before the end of Ch. 12, within the poem on the battle of Goths and Huns. There is a third version referred to as U, from 17th-century paper manuscript held at the University Library in Uppsala; the version is garbled, includes corrections sourced from other sagas, including from the Rímur reworking of the same tale, the Hervarar Rímur. An additional 17th-century manuscript held at the Copenhagen University Library contains a copy of R, but continues with text from another unknown source, thought to share a common ancestor with U. There are copied versions written down in the late 17th century; these include AM 192, AM 193, AM 202 k, AM 354 4to, AM 355 4to, AM 359 a 4to. These the 17th century paper manuscripts are thought to add nothing to the texts known from H and R, though they continue the story where the two older versions end, fill in lacunas.
Two manuscripts, help complete the'H' version, being copies. Used the 1694 text in preparing his edition of the saga. There are significant differences between R and H: R misses the first chapter and some riddles, as well as having a different sequence from H. Scholarly opinion differs as to which presents the best form of the text; the least altered version is thought to be the'R' text. A different version of the stemma has been reconstructed by Alaric Hall, from that proposed by Helgason 1924 - both propose a version from which both parchment and the paper versions descend; the saga tells the history of the family of Heidrek over several generations. It begins with a mythic tale. Considers that the latter part of the tale, among the Huns and Goths, has a separate origin to the earlier parts, and, in actual chronological time, is taking place several centuries earlier. All the different manuscripts show a similar pattern, with seven sections. Identifies seven key events: 1. Introduction with the forging of the sword, Tyrfingr.
A holmganga between Örvar-Oddr and Hjálmarr, Angantýr and his brothers, with Angantýr killed and buried with the sword. Hervör reviving her dead father Angantýr and retrieving the sword Tyrgingr; the tale of Heiðrekr son of Hervör, new wielder of Tyrfingr. War between Heiðrekr’s sons Angantýr and Hlöðr. An epilogue listing the kingly descendents of Angantýr; the 6th and final parts are lost or absent in manuscripts'H' and'R', but are found in the 17th-century paper manuscripts. The common link through all the tales is the sword passed between generations - this magic sword shares a common trope with some other mythological weapons in that it cannot be sheathed once drawn until it has drawn blood. There are three poems in one heroic; the gnomic The Riddles of Gestumblindi, is a good example of riddling from early Norse literature. In addition to attempts to understand the relationship between the events in the saga and real world historical char
Eric the Victorious
Eric the Victorious was a Swedish monarch as of around 970. Since he is the first Swedish king in a consecutive regnal succession, attested in sources independent of each other, Sweden's list of rulers begins with him, his son Olof Skötkonung, however, is considered the first ruler documented to have been accepted both by the original Swedes around Lake Mälaren and by the Geats around Lake Vättern, which peoples were fundamental in forming the nation of Sweden. Some sources have referred to Eric the Victorious as either King Eric V or Eric VI, modern inventions by counting backwards from Eric XIV, who adopted his numeral according to a mythological history of Sweden. Whether or not there were any Swedish monarchs named Eric before Eric the Victorious is disputed, with some historians claiming that there were several earlier Erics, others questioning the reliability of the primary sources used and the existence of these earlier monarchs; the list of monarchs after him is complicated and sketchy in some early periods, which makes the assignment of any numeral problematic whether counting backward or forward.
His original territory was in Uppland and neighbouring provinces. He acquired the epithet of Segersäll - Victorious or blessed with victory - after defeating an invasion force from the south in the Battle of Fýrisvellir which took place near Uppsala. A brother of Eric's named Olof being the father of Styrbjörn the Strong, Eric's main opponent in that battle, is part of the myth about them; the extent of Eric's kingdom is unknown. In addition to the Swedish heartland round Mälaren it may have extended down along the Baltic Sea as far south as Blekinge. According to Adam of Bremen, he was King of Denmark after defeating King Sweyn Forkbeard. According to the Flateyjarbok, his success was due to an alliance with free farmers against an earl-class nobility, but archaeological findings suggest that the influence of that class diminished during the last part of the tenth century. Eric introduced a system of universal conscription known as ledung in the provinces around Mälaren. In all probability he founded the town of Sigtuna, which still exists and where the first Swedish coins were minted for his son and successor King Olof.
Eric the Victorious is named in a number of sagas, Nordic tales of history with a predominant element of fiction. In various stories, he is described as the son of a Björn Eriksson and as having ruled together with his brother Olof. One saga describes his marriage to an infamous fictional, Queen Sigrid the Haughty, daughter of a legendary Viking, Skagul Toste, how in their divorce he gave her all of Gothenland as a fief. According to Eymund's saga he took a new queen, daughter of Haakon Sigurdsson, ruler of Norway. Before that, Eric's brother Olof died, a new co-ruler was to be appointed, but the Swedes refused to accept Eric's rowdy nephew Styrbjörn as such. Eric granted Styrbjörn 60 longships, he became the ruler of Jomsborg and an ally of Danish King Harold Bluetooth, whose daughter Tyra he married. Styrbjörn returned to Sweden with an army, although Harold and the Danish troops seem to have turned back. Eric won the Battle of Fýrisvellir, according to Styrbjarnar þáttr Svíakappa, after making sacrifice to Odin and promising that, if victorious, he would give himself to Odin in ten years.
Two skaldic verses by Thorvaldr Hjaltason describe the alleged battle. The first expressly mentions how an Eric has utterly defeated an enemy host at a fortification at Fýrisvellir, while the second specifies that the Vikings - "the army of Hunding" - were superior in numbers but were handily captured when they attacked Svithiod, only those who fled survived; the runestones of Hällestad and Sjörup in Scania a part of Denmark, do mention a battle at Uppsala characterized by the defeat and flight of the attackers. These stones have traditionally been associated with the battle, but they present chronological problems and may be from the next century. German ecclesiastic chronicler Adam of Bremen provides by far the oldest narrative about King Eric, it differs from the sagas; as his source he refers to the current King Sweyn II of Denmark whom he interviewed for his chronicle. Adam places Eric's reign after that of a certain Emund Eriksson, without clarifying how they were related, he does not mention the Battle of Fýrisvellir but relates that Eric gathered a large army and invaded Denmark against King Sweyn Forkbeard.
The direct reason for the attack is not given, but somehow it concerned an alliance between Eric and "the powerful king of the Polans, Bolesław. He gave Eric his sister or daughter in marriage"; that princess has been identified as Gunhild of Wenden, in some Nordic sources the daughter of a king Burislev. According to other interpretations, she was identical with a woman known in sagas as Sigrid the Haughty, whose name is a misunderstanding of the Old Polish name Świętosława. Eric's invasion of Denmark was successful. Several battles were fought at sea, there the Danish forces, attacked from the east by Slavs, were annihilated. After his victory, Eric kept Denmark for a time, while Sweyn was forced to flee, first to Norway to England, to Scotland whose king received the refugee with kindness. According to Adam, Eric's rule in Denmark coincided with increased Viking activity in northern Germany. A fleet of Swedish and Danish ships landed at Stade in Saxony. A Saxon army was badly defeated. Several
In Germanic mythology, Odin is a revered Germanic god. In Norse mythology, from which stems most surviving information about the god, Odin is associated with wisdom, death, the gallows, war, victory, poetry and the runic alphabet, is the husband of the goddess Frigg. In wider Germanic mythology and paganism, the god was known in Old English as Wōden, in Old Saxon as Wōdan, in Old High German as Wuotan or Wōtan, all stemming from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz. Odin is a prominently mentioned god throughout the recorded history of the Germanic peoples, from the Roman occupation of regions of Germania through the tribal expansions of the Migration Period and the Viking Age. In the modern period, Odin continued to be acknowledged in the rural folklore of Germanic Europe. References to Odin appear in place names throughout regions inhabited by the ancient Germanic peoples, the day of the week Wednesday bears his name in many Germanic languages, including English. In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, he is referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards.
Forms of his name appear throughout the Germanic record, though narratives regarding Odin are found in Old Norse works recorded in Iceland around the 13th century. These texts make up the bulk of modern understanding of Norse mythology. In Old Norse texts, Odin is depicted as one-eyed and long-bearded wielding a spear named Gungnir, wearing a cloak and a broad hat, he is accompanied by his animal companions and familiars—the wolves Geri and Freki and the ravens Huginn and Muninn, who bring him information from all over Midgard—and rides the flying, eight-legged steed Sleipnir across the sky and into the underworld. Odin is the son of Bestla and Borr and has two brothers, Vili and Vé. Odin is attested as having many sons, most famously the gods Thor and Baldr, is known by hundreds of names. In these texts, he seeks greater knowledge, at times in disguise, makes wagers with his wife Frigg over the outcome of exploits, takes part in both the creation of the world by way of slaying the primordial being Ymir and giving the gift of life to the first two humans Ask and Embla.
Odin has a particular association with Yule, mankind's knowledge of both the runes and poetry is attributed to him, giving Odin aspects of the culture hero. In Old Norse texts, female beings associated with the battlefield—the valkyries—are associated with the god and Odin oversees Valhalla, where he receives half of those who die in battle, the einherjar; the other half are chosen by the goddess Freyja for Fólkvangr. Odin consults the disembodied, herb-embalmed head of the wise being Mímir for advice, during the foretold events of Ragnarök, Odin is told to lead the einherjar into battle before being consumed by the monstrous wolf Fenrir. In folklore, Odin appears as a leader of the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession of the dead through the winter sky, he is associated with charms and other forms of magic in Old English and Old Norse texts. Odin is a frequent subject of study in Germanic studies, numerous theories have been put forward regarding his development; some of these focus on Odin's particular relation to other figures.
Other approaches focus on Odin's place in the historical record, a frequent question being whether the figure of Odin derives from Proto-Indo-European religion, or whether he developed in Germanic society. In the modern period, Odin has inspired numerous works of poetry and other forms of media, he is venerated in most forms of the new religious movement Heathenry, together with other gods venerated by the ancient Germanic peoples. The Old Norse theonym Óðinn and its cognates, including Old English Wōden, Old Saxon Wōden, Old High German Wuotan, derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic theonym *wōđanaz; the masculine noun *wōđanaz developed from the Proto-Germanic adjective *wōđaz, related to Latin vātēs and Old Irish fáith, both meaning'seer, prophet'. Adjectives stemming from *wōđaz include Gothic woþs'possessed', Old Norse óðr,'mad, furious', Old English wōd'mad'; the adjective *wōđaz was further substantivised, leading to Old Norse óðr'mind, soul, sense', Old English ellen-wōd'zeal', Middle Dutch woet'madness', Old High German wuot'thrill, violent agitation'.
Additionally the Old Norse noun æði'rage, fury' and Old High German wuotī'madness' derive from the feminine noun *wōđīn, from *wōđaz. The weak verb *wōđjanan derived from *wōđaz, gave rise to Old Norse æða'to rage', Old English wēdan'to be mad, furious', Old Saxon wōdian'to rage', Old High German wuoten'to be insane, to rage'. Over 170 names are recorded for Odin; these names are variously descriptive of attributes of the god, refer to myths involving him, or refer to religious practices associated with the god. This multitude of names makes Odin the god with the most names known among the Germanic peoples; the modern English weekday name Wednesday derives from Old English wōdnesdæg. Cognate terms are found in other Germanic languages, such as Middle Low German wōdensdach, Old Norse Óðinsdagr (Danish, Nor