Visa policy of Belize
Visitors to Belize require a visa unless they come from one of the visa-exempt countries. All visitors are required to have sufficient funds, US$75 per day, documents required for their next destination. Holders of passports and refugee travel documents issued by the following 101 jurisdictions do not require a visa to visit Belize. 1 - up to 30 days.2 - up to 90 days.3 - up to 180 days.4 - including all classes of British nationality. Holders of diplomatic or official passports of Cuba and India do not require a visa. In addition to a visa, citizens of the following countries require clearance: Citizens of the following countries must pay a repatriation fee of BZ$1,200 upon arrival: Bangladesh China – BZ$3,000 India Pakistan Sri Lanka Permanent residents and holders of multiple entry visa of the United States may obtain a visa on arrival for a fee of US$50. Passengers with a valid visa issued by a Schengen Member State are visa exempt for a maximum stay of 90 days. Most visitors arriving to Belize were from the following countries of nationality: Visa requirements for Belizean citizens
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power; the lower house is the larger of the two chambers, i.e. its members are more numerous. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral. In comparison with the upper house, lower houses display certain characteristics. Powers In a parliamentary system, the lower house: In the modern era, has much more power based on restrictions against the upper house. Able to override the upper house in some ways. Can vote a motion of no confidence against the government, as well as vote for or against any proposed candidate for head of government at the beginning of the parliamentary term. Exceptions are Australia, where the Senate has considerable power approximate to that of the House of Representatives, Italy, where the Senate has the same powers as the Chamber of Deputies.
In a presidential system, the lower house: Debatably somewhat less, the lower house has exclusive powers in some areas. Has the sole power to impeach the executive. Initiates appropriation/supply-related legislation. Status of lower house Always elected directly, while the upper house may be elected directly, indirectly, or not elected at all, its members may be elected with a different voting system to the upper house. Most populated administrative divisions are better represented than in the upper house. Elected more frequently. Elected all at once, not by staggered terms. In a parliamentary system, can be dissolved by the executive. More members. Has total or initial control over budget and monetary laws. Lower age of candidacy than the upper house. Many lower houses are named in the following manner: House/Chamber of Representatives/the People/Commons/Deputies. Chamber of Deputies Chamber of Representatives House of Assembly House of Representatives House of Commons House of Delegates Legislative Assembly National Assembly Representative democracy
Leader of the Opposition (Belize)
The Leader of the Opposition of Belize is an elected official who, according to the Constitution, "commands the support of those elected officials that do not support the Government." He or she speaks on behalf of the Opposition Members of Belize's House of Representatives. Theodore Aranda was removed as UDP leader in Dangriga Town on 21 November 1982 while still holding the office of Leader of the Opposition, which he had held since the UDP lost general elections three years earlier on 21 November 1979. Aranda resigned from the UDP shortly thereafter. Curl Thompson was subsequently elevated to Leader of the Opposition. Meanwhile, Manuel Esquivel defeated Phillip Goldson in elections for party leader in January 1983. Since Esquivel was a member of the Belize Senate at the time, Thompson remained as Leader of the Opposition in the House until the December 1984 election. Florencio Marin became Leader of the Opposition after PUP leader George Cadle Price lost his seat in the 1984 election, which the PUP lost by 21 seats to seven.
Price retained his position as PUP leader. Price resigned as leader of the PUP on 17 August 1996, during his only term as Leader of the Opposition, he was succeeded as party leader and Leader of the Opposition by Said Musa on 10 November 1996. Dean Barrow was named Leader of the Opposition after Esquivel lost his seat in the 27 August 1998 election, in which the UDP retained just three seats, of which Barrow's was one. On 30 August, Esquivel retired to make way for Barrow as the new party leader. Barrow retained the office after the UDP lost elections again on 5 March 2003. Musa was appointed Leader of the Opposition on 11 February 2008; however effective 30 March 2008, he stepped down as Leader of the Opposition. He was succeeded by Johnny Briceño of Orange Walk. Briceño resigned as PUP leader on 7 October 2011 and as Leader of the Opposition on 18 October 2011, citing health issues; the PUP elected Francis Fonseca as his successor on 3 November 2011. Politics of Belize Governor-General of Belize List of Prime Ministers of Belize
United Democratic Party (Belize)
The United Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in Belize. It is the ruling party, having won 2012 and 2015 general elections. A centre-right conservative party, the UDP is led by Prime Minister of Belize Dean Barrow. In 1973 political opposition in Belize was weak and the ruling People's United Party had never lost a legislative election since its foundation; the main opposition parties, the National Independence Party and the People's Development Movement met together with a new Liberal Party to consider forming an alliance to fight the PUP. The resulting merger formed the United Democratic Party on 27 September 1973. Controversially, a significant portion of the United Black Association for Development voted to join the UDP upon foundation; the UDP's first electoral test was the 1974 general election in which it fielded candidates nationwide except in Corozal District, where it supported candidates from the Corozal United Front. It won six seats, was within 18 votes of winning three more.
Former People's Development Movement head. The party had success in municipal elections during the 1970s, but failed to defeat the PUP in the 1979 general elections, its representation in the House of Representatives dropped to five seats and party leader Lindo lost his seat to Said Musa and was replaced as leader by Theodore Aranda. Despite internal divisions, the party retained control of three towns in the December 1981 municipal elections In late 1982 Aranda was removed as party leader and replaced by Curl Thompson, who in turn was replaced by former Liberal Party leader Manuel Esquivel following a convention. In December 1983 the UDP won Belize City Council elections and the following year they were victorious in the general elections, winning 21 of the 28 seats. However, they lost power in the 1989 elections, winning 13 seats to the PUP's 15. For the 1993 elections the party formed an alliance with the National Alliance for Belizean Rights; the alliance won 16 of the 29 seats, with the UDP taking fifteen.
However, they were soundly defeated in the 1998 elections as the PUP won 26 of the 29 seats, after which Esquivel was replaced by Barrow as party leader. The PUP remained in power following the 2003 elections. After ten years in opposition, the UDP won the 2008 general elections. Dean Lindo Theodore Aranda Curl Thompson Manuel Esquivel Dean Barrow Official website The Guardian Party newspaper
Wilfred Peter "Sedi" Elrington is a Belizean politician, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belize since 2008. Wilfred Elrington read law at the University of the West Indies, he is the only Belizean who has served in the executive, the legislative and the judicial arms of government, having served as a part-time judge of the Supreme Court of Belize. Wilfred Elrington was the Attorney-General of Belize and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade from February 12, 2008 to 2010. A reshuffle of the Cabinet in 2010 left him with just Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade. In 2012 he was again made the Attorney General of Belize, he remains the Minister of Foreign Affairs. In 2009, he managed to turn Guatemala's long-time ally Israel into a partner of Belize; as foreign minister under Dean Barrow, Wilfred Elrington is noted for his conciliatory tone regarding the Belizean–Guatemalan territorial dispute, a stance which has become controversial in Belize in light of 2015 Guatemalan presidential candidate Jimmy Morales' comments on the issue, which are decidedly pro-Belize annexation.
Sandra Jovel became Guatemala's minister of foreign affairs in August 2017, gained Wilfred Elrington's esteem and respect. In July 2017, as shareholder of the company Progresso Heights Limited, Wilfred Elrington was taken to court to clarify many transfers of lands where proof of initial ownership cannot be demonstrated. In August 217, he was ordered by the court to provide all documentation related to this affair; that same month, he was part of a delegation representing the Caribbean countries to meet with representatives of the US president Donald Trump. In January 2018, Wilfred Elrington expressed his surprise when the USA announced it was temporarily stopping to issue temporary work visa programme for Belizeans, on the basis that the country is not doing enough to do more in preventing human trafficking. Wilfred Elrington ran as the UDP candidate for the Belize City-based Pickstock constituency in 1993 and 1998, but was defeated both times by former PUP Prime Minister George Cadle Price.
Price retired from the Belize House in 2003. That year Elrington ran for the Pickstock seat as an independent, but finished second to the PUP's Godfrey Smith. Returning to the UDP, Wilfred Elrington contested the Pickstock seat a fourth consecutive time in 2008 and prevailed, defeating Smith by a 56-42 margin, he was re-elected in 2012. Wilfred Elrington has four children, his brother, former UDP Area Representative Hubert Elrington served as the attorney general for Belize. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers
Governor-General of Belize
The Governor-General of Belize is the representative of the monarch of Belize Queen Elizabeth II, in all matters pertaining to the country. The office of Governor-General is provided for by Sections 30 to 35 of the Constitution; these state: 30.- There shall be a Governor-General of Belize who shall be a citizen of Belize appointed by Her Majesty and shall hold office during Her Majesty's pleasure and who shall be Her Majesty's representative in Belize. 31.- 1. During any period when the office of Governor-General is vacant or the holder of the office of Governor-General is absent from Belize or is for any other reason unable to perform the functions of his office those functions shall be performed by such person as Her Majesty may appoint. 2. Any such person as aforesaid shall not continue to perform the functions of the office of Governor-General if the holder of the office of Governor-General or some other person having a prior right to perform the functions of that office has notified him that he is about to assume or resume those functions.
3. The holder of the office of Governor-General shall not, for the purposes of this section, be regarded as absent from Belize or as unable to perform the functions of his office- a. by reason that he is in passage from one part of Belize to another. 32.- A person appointed to hold the office of Governor-General shall, before entering upon the duties of that office and subscribe the oath of allegiance and office. 33.- 1. Whenever the Governor-General-, a. has occasion to be absent from the seat of government but not from Belize. Will be of short duration, he may, acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister. Appoint any person in Belize to be his deputy during such absence or illness and in that capacity to perform on his behalf such of the functions of the office of Governor-General as may be specified in the instrument by which he is appointed. 2. The power and authority of the Governor-General shall not be abridged, altered or in any way affected by the appointment of a deputy under this section, subject to the provisions of this Constitution.
A deputy shall conform to and observe all instructions that the Governor-General, acting in his own deliberate judgment, may from time to time address to him: Provided that the question whether or not a deputy has conformed to and observed any such instructions shall not be enquired into by any court of law 3. A person appointed as deputy under this section shall hold that appointment for such period as may be specified in the instrument by which he is appointed, his appointment may be revoked at any time by the Governor-General, acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister. 34. - 1. In the exercise of his functions the Governor-General shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet or a Minister acting under the general authority of the Cabinet except in cases where he is required by this Constitution or any other law to act in accordance with the advice of, or after consultation with, any person or authority other than the Cabinet or in his own deliberate judgment. 2.
Any reference in this Constitution to the functions of the Governor-General shall be construed as a reference to his powers and duties in the exercise of the executive authority of Belize and to any other powers and duties conferred or imposed on him as Governor-General by or under this Constitution or any other law. 3. Where by this Constitution the Governor-General is required to perform any function after consultation with any person or authority he shall not be obliged to exercise that function in accordance with the advice of that person or authority. 4. Where by this Constitution the Governor-General is required to perform any function in accordance with the advice of, or after consultation with, any person or authority, the question whether the Governor-General has so exercised that function shall not be enquired into by any court of law. 35. The Prime Minister shall keep the Governor-General informed concerning the general conduct of the government of Belize and shall furnish the Governor-General with such information as he may request with respect to any particular matter relating to the government of Belize.
The Governor General resided at Government House, Belize until 1984 after the capital had moved to Belmopan in 1970. In 1984, the Governor General moved to Belize House in Belmopan the residence of the British High Commission on North Ring Road and Melhado Parade. List of Prime Ministers of Belize Belize Constitution
Constituencies of Belize
Belize's 6 districts are politically divided into 31 constituencies. Each constituency sends one representative to Belize's House of Representatives for 5-year terms; this election is known as the General Election. Each person votes for the candidate they would want to represent their constituency in Central Government; each political party nominates Standard Bearer for each constituency. The winner becomes the Area Representative of the constituency, while the loser remains the Standard Bearer of that constituency for his/her political party. Belize's constituencies are divided in such a way that their voting population be as equal as possible to each other ensuring, that resources are shared among the country's citizens, as required by the constitution. After the 2003 General Elections two additional constituencies were created from territory of existing constituencies in order to further ensure the equality of the voting populations among the constituencies. Coming out of January 2008, the most populous constituency had a voting population of 7,085 while the least populous constituency had a voting population of 3,195.
In Belize's 2003 General Elections, 29 constituencies voted in their Area Representatives for Belize's House of Representatives. Since it was noted that the difference in voting populations between the most and least populous constituencies was rather large. In 2004 a Task Force was appointed by Boundaries Commission to study the matter, their Final Report was submitted in October 2004. It is noted that the Elections and Boundaries Department has the right to reassess constituencies after the latest census or population estimate. Among several things that their report suggested, the expansion of the Cayo District's number of constituencies to six had the most impact; the following year the law was passed to create two additional constituencies within the boundaries of Cayo. The newly created constituencies are Belmopan, containing the capital city of that name, Cayo North East, centered on Spanish Lookout; these new constituencies held their first-ever election during the General Election in 2008.
Below are the Districts and their respective constituencies: Belize District Albert Belize Rural Central Belize Rural North Belize Rural South Caribbean Shores Collet Fort George Freetown Lake Independence Mesopotamia Pickstock Port Loyola Queen's Square Cayo District Belmopan Cayo Central Cayo North Cayo North East Cayo South Cayo West Corozal District Corozal Bay Corozal North Corozal South East Corozal South West Orange Walk District Orange Walk Central Orange Walk East Orange Walk North Orange Walk South Stann Creek District Dangriga Stann Creek West Toledo District Toledo East Toledo West Below is a list of the voting population by constituency as of March 2015, sorted out by districts for ease of reference. Note that these populations are for Belizean citizens who are eligible to vote and does not represent actual population; as of March 2015 the voting population of Belize is estimated at 148,026 while the total population is estimated at 301,300. The Voter Age Population, i.e. all persons over the age of eighteen, is 161,677, or 53.66% of the total population.
Of these, more than 91 percent are registered. Males outnumber females in the population, though the gap is noticeable in the larger urban areas such as Belize City, home to 10 constituencies. Below is the chronological order for the creation of Belize's current constituencies. 1954 The following were the nine original constituencies created for the British Honduras Legislative Assembly: Belize District: Belize North, Belize Rural, Belize South, Belize West Cayo District: Cayo Corozal District: Corozal Orange Walk District: Orange Walk Stann Creek District: Stann Creek Toledo District: Toledo 1961 In a major nationwide redistricting, all of the previous constituencies were abolished and replaced with the following, doubling the total number of constituencies to 18: Belize District: Albert, Belize Rural North, Belize Rural South, Fort George, Mesopotamia, Pickstock Cayo District: Cayo North, Cayo South Corozal District: Corozal North, Corozal South Orange Walk District: Orange Walk North, Orange Walk South Stann Creek District: Stann Creek Town, Stann Creek Rural Toledo District: Toledo North, Toledo South 1973 British Honduras renamed Belize.
The British Honduras Legislative Assembly becomes the Belize House of Representatives. 1979 The following were renamed: Stann Creek District: Stann Creek Town renamed Dangriga, Stann Creek Rural renamed Stann Creek West. 1984 The following constituencies were created: Belize District: Caribbean Shores, Lake Independence, Queen's Square, Port Loyola Cayo District: Cayo Central, Cayo West Corozal District: Corozal Bay Orange Walk District: Orange Walk Central, Orange Walk East The following were altered: Corozal District: Corozal South was split into Corozal South East and Corozal South West Toledo District: Toledo North and Toledo South were abolished, replaced by Toledo East and Toledo West 1993 The following constituency was created: Belize District: Belize Rural Central 2008 The following constituencies were created: Cayo District: Belmopan, Cayo North East Politics of Belize Districts of Belize Belize Elections & Boundaries Department's Map of Belize's Constituencies Government of Belize's Official Website Boundary Re-districting