Kyburg was a noble family of grafen in the Duchy of Swabia, a cadet line of the counts of Dillingen, who in the late 12th and early 13th century ruled much of what is now Northeastern Switzerland. The family was one of the four most powerful families in the Swiss plateau beside the House of Habsburg, House of Zähringen. The first line of counts of Kyburg were influential in politics during the 1020s. Kyburg castle, southeast of Winterthur, passed on to the Swabian counts of Dillingen, through the marriage of Hartmann von Dillingen with a certain Adelheid, the House of Dillingen acquired the old Kyburg possessions as well as territorial claims in the Thurgau. The exact origin of Adelheid is unclear and she is either the granddaughter of the Count of Grüningen-Winterthur or from a cadet branch of the Winterthur family, the Counts of Nellenburg. She might be the daughter of Adalbert II von Winterthur, the last knight from Winterthur, the Kyburg land continued to be part of the possessions of the House of Dillingen until the grandson of Hartmann von Dillingen, Hartmann III, split the Dillingen lands.
Adalbert received the Swabian territories, while Hartmann III von Dillingen got the Swiss lands, the House of Kyburg were vassals of the Duke of Swabia, who was of the House of Hohenstaufen and would become the Kings of Germany from 1138-1254. When the House of Lenzburg died out in 1172/73, the Kyburgs together with the Hohenstaufen and Zähringen split the Lenzburg possessions between them, the Kyburg family acquired the allodial title to the Vogtei of Windegg or Gaster and land around Baden. Later additional Lenzburg territories, the Schänis Abbey and Beromünster, were acquired by the House of Kyburg. In 1180 the family began to consolidate their power and they founded the cities of Diessenhofen and Winterthur to help spread their power. They appointed many of the Lenzburg, and Zähringen, when the Zähringen family died out in 1218, the Kyburgs grabbed another chance to expand. Anna von Zähringen, the sister of the last Duke of Zähringen, from the Zähringen line the Kyburgs acquired land west of the Rhine and in Burgundy including the cities of Fribourg and Burgdorf as well as estates in the canton of Zurich.
However, the House of Hohenstaufen, the family of the Holy Roman Emperors, refused to support the Kyburg claims on the city of Zurich and in 1226 on the Abbey of St. Gall. As a result, they turned away from the Hohenstaufens and in 1243 and were one of the mainstays of the pro-Pope. Around 1220 they started to make claims on property and rights that had unclear ownership and was property that they already owned. Both sites were endowed with property that they had taken from the Weisslingen and these two properties served to define the borders between the Kyburg and Rapperswil families. At the same time the Kyburg family attempted to strengthen themselves through marriage, Hartmann V, a grandson of Ulrich III was engaged to Anna of Rapperswil in 1227. In 1230 they founded Zug and Baden, Aarau, Lenzburg, in 1250 they founded Sursee and the fortified towns of Kyburg and Laupen
Breisgau is an area in southwest Germany between the Rhine River and the foothills of the Black Forest. Part of the state of Baden-Württemberg, it centers on the city of Freiburg im Breisgau, the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, which partly consists of the Breisgau, is named after the Black Forest area. Parts of the Breisgau are situated in the districts of Freiburg im Breisgau. In earlier times the Breisgau was known as Breisachgau, meaning the county around the town of Breisach on the east bank of the Rhine, the earliest historically attested inhabitants were Celts. In Roman times, the area was part of the province of Germania Superior, but after the rupture of the limes Germanicus in 260, the area was settled by the Alemanni. It remained a part of Alemannia throughout the Early Middle Ages and was a zone between the central Alemannic lands and Alsace, which was less strongly colonized by the Alemanni. In the mid-9th century it was a march-like county guarding the frontier with southern Lotharingia, in 859, it was bestowed on Charles the Fat, the son of King Louis I, a sign of its importance.
In the 10th century, Breisgau was a county within the Duchy of Swabia, ruled by the Zähringer family, the dukes founded Freiburg in it, which became their chief city. In 1805, by the Treaty of Pressburg, the area was ceded to the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Breisgau includes the flat area around river Rhine, the foothills of the Black Forest and the western faces of the southern Black Forest mountains and the Kaiserstuhl hills. In the south the Breisgau borders onto the Markgräflerland, in the west onto the Sundgau, in the east onto the Black Forest, the climate of the Breisgau is warm, in fact, it is the warmest region in Germany. The average annual temperature is 11 degrees Celsius, the rainfall is 900 mm. The Breisgau is known for its wine and used for fruit tree orchards, the by far biggest city in the Breisgau region is Freiburg. Other notable cities and towns are Bad Krozingen, Emmendingen, Kenzingen, Staufen, a prominent mountain is the Schauinsland
House of Welf
The House of Welf was a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century. The House of Welf is the branch of the House of Este. The first member was Welf IV, he inherited the property of the Elder House of Welf when his maternal uncle Welf III, Duke of Carinthia and Verona, the last male Welf of the Elder House, died in 1055. Welf IV was the son of Welf IIIs sister Kunigunde of Altdorf and her husband Albert Azzo II of Este, in 1070, Welf IV became duke of Bavaria. Since the Welf dynasty sided with the Pope in this controversy, Henry the Black, duke of Bavaria from 1120–1126, was the first of the three dukes of the Welf dynasty called Henry. His wife Wulfhild was the heiress of the house of Billung, possessing the territory around Lüneburg in Lower Saxony and their son, Henry the Proud was the son-in-law and heir of Emperor Lothair of Supplinburg and became duke of Saxony on Lothairs death. Lothair left his territory around Brunswick, inherited from his mother of the Brunonen family and her husband Henry the Proud became the favoured candidate in the imperial election against Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen.
But Henry lost the election, as the other princes feared his power and temperament, Henry the Lion recovered his fathers two duchies, Saxony in 1142, Bavaria in 1156 and thus ruled vast parts of Germany. In 1168 he married Matilda, the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and sister of Richard Lionheart, gaining ever more influence. His first cousin, Emperor Frederick I of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, tried to get along with him, Henry made his peace with the Hohenstaufen Emperor in 1185, and returned to his much diminished lands around Brunswick without recovering his two duchies. Bavaria had been given to Otto I Wittelsbach, Duke of Bavaria, Henry died at Brunswick in 1195. Henrys son Otto of Brunswick was elected King of the Romans and he incurred the wrath of Pope Innocent III and was excommunicated in 1215. Otto was forced to abdicate the throne by the Hohenstaufen Frederick II. He was the only Welf to become emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, Henry the Lions grandson Otto the Child became duke of a part of Saxony in 1235, the new Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and died there in 1252.
The subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterized by divisions and reunifications. The subordinate states that were created, and which had the legal status of principalities within the duchy were generally named after the residences of their rulers. The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a line when a family died out. The individual subordinate principalities continued to exist until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, following the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the territories became part of the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick
The city of Bern or Berne is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their Bundesstadt, or federal city. With a population of 141,762, Bern is the fourth-most populous city in Switzerland, the Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000, Bern is the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerlands cantons. The official language in Bern is German, but the language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect. In 1983, the old town in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Bern is ranked among the top ten cities for the best quality of life. The etymology of the name Bern is uncertain and it has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of Verona, which at the time was known as Bern in Middle High German. As a result of the find of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin.
The bear was the animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of bears in the Bärengraben dates to the 1440s. No archaeological evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a Celtic oppidum stood on the Engehalbinsel north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC, during the Roman era, a Gallo-Roman vicus was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name Brenodor, in the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some 4 km from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, according to 14th-century historiography, Bern was founded in 1191 by Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made an imperial city by the Goldene Handfeste of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In 1353, Bern joined the Swiss Confederacy, becoming one of the eight cantons of the period of 1353 to 1481.
The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river Aare, the Zytglogge tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the Käfigturm took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the Christoffelturm until 1622, during the time of the Thirty Years War, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small Schanze – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was a conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies, at issue was who, the pope or monarchs, had the authority to appoint local church officials such as bishops of cities and abbots of monasteries. The conflict ended in 1122, when Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II agreed on the Concordat of Worms and it differentiated between the royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops. The outcome seemed mostly a victory for the Pope and his claim that he was Gods chief representative in the world, the Emperor did retain considerable power over the Church. The investiture controversy began as a struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. By undercutting the Imperial power established by the Salian emperors, the led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany. Imperial power was finally re-established under the Hohenstaufen dynasty, historian Norman Cantor, The age of the investiture controversy may rightly be regarded as the turning-point in medieval civilization.
After the decline of the Roman Empire, and prior to the Investiture Controversy, while theoretically a task of the church, many bishops and abbots were themselves usually part of the ruling nobility. Since the eldest son would inherit the title, siblings often found careers in the church and this was particularly true where the family may have established a proprietary church or abbey on their estate. Since Otto the Great the bishops had been princes of the empire, had secured many privileges, the control of these great units of economic and military power was for the king a question of primary importance, affecting as it did imperial authority. It was essential for a ruler or nobleman to appoint someone who would remain loyal. e, the Holy Roman Emperor and placing that power wholly within control of the church. An opportunity came in 1056 when Henry IV became German king at six years of age, the reformers seized the opportunity to take the papacy by force while he was still a child and could not react.
Once Rome regained control of the election of the pope, it was ready to attack the practice of investiture, in 1075, Pope Gregory VII composed the Dictatus Papae. One clause asserted that the deposal of an emperor was under the power of the pope. By this time, Henry IV was no longer a child and it called for the election of a new pope. His letter ends, I, king by the grace of God, with all of my Bishops, say to you, come down, and is often quoted with and to be damned throughout the ages. In 1076 Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry, and deposed him as German king, releasing all Christians from their oath of allegiance, enforcing these declarations was a different matter, but the advantage gradually came to be on the side of Gregory VII. German princes and the aristocracy were happy to hear of the kings deposition and they used religious reasons to continue the rebellion started at the First Battle of Langensalza in 1075, and for seizure of royal holdings
As confirmed by the Peace of Westphalia, the possession of imperial immediacy came with a particular form of territorial authority known as territorial superiority. In todays terms, it would be understood as a form of sovereignty. They formed the Imperial Estates, together with roughly 100 immediate counts,40 Imperial prelates and 50 Imperial Cities who only enjoyed a collective vote. Additional advantages might include the rights to collect taxes and tolls, to hold a market, to mint coins, to bear arms, the last of these might include the so-called Blutgericht through which capital punishment could be administered. These rights varied according to the patents granted by the emperor. Immediate rights might be lost if the Emperor and/or the Imperial Diet could not defend them against external aggression, as occurred in the French Revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The Treaty of Lunéville in 1801 required the emperor to renounce all claims to the portions of the Holy Roman Empire west of the Rhine.
The practical application of the rights of immediacy was complex, this makes the history of the Holy Roman Empire particularly difficult to understand, even such contemporaries as Goethe and Fichte called the Empire a monstrosity. Prussian historian Heinrich von Treitschke described it in the 19th century as having become a mess of rotted imperial forms. Pointing out that people like Goethe meant monster as a compliment in modern understanding, free Imperial City German mediatization Imperial Abbey Imperial Estate Imperial Village List of states of the Holy Roman Empire Braun, B. Reichsunmittelbarkeit in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2005-05-03
The Carolingians had dissolved the original tribal duchies of the Frankish Empire in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Empire declined in the late 9th century, the old tribal areas assumed new identities as the subdivisions of the realm and these are the five stem duchies, Franconia, Lotharingia and Swabia. The term Stammesherzogtum as used in German historiography dates to the mid-19th century, the terms applicability, and the nature of the stem duchies in medieval Germany consequently have a long history of controversy. The overly literal or etymologizing English translation stem duchy was coined in the early 20th century, while authors tend to clarify the term by using the alternative translation tribal, use of the term stem duchies has become conventional. The derivation of the German people from a number of German tribes developed in 18th to 19th century German historiography and ethnography and this concept of German stems relates to the early and high medieval period and is to be distinguished from the more generic Germanic tribes of Late Antiquity. A distinction was made between the ancient stems, which were in existence in the 10th century, and recent stems.
The delineation of the two concepts is necessarily vague, and as a result the concept has a history of political, the terms Stamm, Nation or Volk variously used in modern German historiography reflect the Middle Latin gens, natio or populus of the medieval source material. Traditional German historiography counts six Altstämme or ancient stems, viz. Bavarians, Franks, all of these were incorporated in the Carolingian Empire by the late 8th century. The customary or tribal laws of these groups were recorded in the medieval period. Franconian and Swabian law remained in force and competed with imperial law well into the 13th century, the use of Stämme, rather than Völker nations, emerged in the early 19th century in the context of the project of German unification. Karl Friedrich Eichhorn in 1808 still used Deutsche Völker German nations, Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann in 1815 asked for unity of the German nation in its tribes. This terminology became standard and is reflected in the preamble of the Weimar constitution of 1919, reading Das deutsche Volk, einig in seinen Stämmen The German nation, united in its tribes.
The division remains in current use in the classification of German dialects into Franconian, Thuringian, Bavarian. In the Free State of Bavaria, the division into Bavarian stems remains current for the populations of Altbayern, within East Francia were large duchies, sometimes called kingdoms after their former status, which had a certain level of internal solidarity. Early among these were Saxony and Bavaria, which had been conquered by Charlemagne, in German historiography they are called the jüngere Stammesherzogtümer, or more recent tribal duchies, although the term stem duchies is common in English. The duchies are often called younger in order to them from the older duchies which were vassal-states of the Merovingian monarchs. Certainly, their names had already appeared during the Migrations, their political institutional, and biological structures had more often than not thoroughly changed. The kingdom was divided in 864–865 among the sons of Louis the German, after the death of the last Carolingian, Louis the Child, in 911, the stem duchies acknowledged the unity of the kingdom
Freiburg Castle is a vanished castle. When it existed it was called the Burghaldenschloss. It stood on the Schlossberg above the city of Freiburg in Baden-Württemberg, the location was at 376.3 m above sea level around an elevation which today is called Ludwigshöhe. Beneath the Ludwigshöhe Roman stone mosaics were found in 1819, the remains of a Roman villa or fortress suggest that the mountain must already have been of strategic importance during the time of the Roman settlement of the Rhine Valley. Already in 1091 the duke Berthold II of Zähringen ordered the construction of the Castrum de Friburch on the Schlossberg of Freiburg in beautiful Romanesque style and this castle was praised by the poet Hartmann von Aue. The existence of the castle is proved at least since 1146 when Bernhard of Clairvaux described in his diaries how he healed a blind boy apud castrum Frieburg. To distinguish it from Zähringen castle above the village of the same name north of Freiburg this castle was called the Burghaldenschloss, the relationship between the citizen and their lords was often disturbed by disputes regarding the financial obligations of the city.
Twice the citizens of Freiburg occupied the castle,1366 tried to enter with his legions in the city at night it came to the war in which the citizens of Freiburg devastated with canons the most beautiful castle in the German lands. Thereupon the relationship between the counts of Freiburg and the city was completely shattered. Generously the new ruler, Leopold III, Duke of Austria, the city repaired the fortifications just provisionally so that the castle could be taken easily by the enemy in the German Peasants War in 1525 as well as in the Thirty Years War. Nevertheless, already in 1677 during the Dutch War, the French conquered city, when in 1679 following the treaties of Nijmegen the Habsburgers had to cede Freiburg to the crown of France the Schlossberg experienced its greatest changes. In 1681, the king came to Freiburg with a large entourage to inspect the construction works. After the war of the Palatine Succession, in the treaty of Ryswick in 1697 and this negative result for the crown of France was glossed over in a French memorandum as follows, The King has given up some places which were not useful for him.
Freiburg was not useful enough for the king to perceive its return as a loss, it has returned to be in the bosom of the empire and the care of the emperor, who is its prince. In the War of the Spanish Succession, the fortress occupied with a strong Austrian garrison was beleaguered, in Rastatt the return of the fortress to Germany was agreed upon, which happened in 1715. Afterwards again war broke out, that time the war of the Austrian Succession, in autumn 1744, the French again occupied Freiburg as allies of Frederick the Great, king of Prussia. Louis XV of France observed personally from the Lorettoberg the progress made in the siege of the city and was hit by a stray cannonball of the defenders. One year later, in the treaty of Dresden, Freiburg was returned to the Habsburgers, before the French left the city they destroyed Vaubans fortifications practically completely so that of the former castle only a debris cone and the neck ditch remained
Margraviate of Baden
The Margraviate of Baden was a historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire. Spread along the east side of the Upper Rhine River in southwestern Germany, it was named a margraviate in 1112 and existed until 1803, in 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden. The rulers of Baden belonged to the Swabian House of Zähringen, emperor Henry III had promised the ducal throne to the Zähringen scion Berthold, upon Henrys death in 1056 his widow Agnes of Poitou appointed Rudolf of Rheinfelden Duke of Swabia. Berthold renounced his rights and was compensated with the Duchy of Carinthia, not able to establish himself, he finally lost both territories, when he was deposed by King Henry IV of Germany during the Investiture Controversy in 1077. Berthold retired to his Swabian home territory, where he died the next year, like his father, Herman II insisted on his margravial title. He chose to establish his residence in Germany, as he had been born and his lordship of choice was Baden, where his father had gained the right to rule by marrying the heiress, Judit von Backnang-Sulichgau, Countess of Eberstein-Calw.
In Baden, Herman II had Hohenbaden Castle built, construction began about 1100, and when completed in 1112, he marked the occasion by adopting the title of a Margrave of Baden. Because Baden was the capital, the new Margraviate was known as Baden, Herman II would continue to be Margrave until his death in 1130. His son and grandson, Hermann III and Herman IV, added to their territories, around 1200, these lands were divided for the first time. Two lines, Baden-Baden and Baden-Hochberg, were founded, the latter was divided about a hundred years to create the third line – Baden-Sausenberg. In the 12th and 13th centuries Baden was a loyal and steadfast supporter of the House of Hohenstaufen, even against its own relatives from Zähringen-Swabia, in 1219 he moved his seat of power to Pforzheim. He had to abandon his claims to Zähringen and Braunschweig, but he gained the title of Graf von Ortenau and Breisgau and his son and grandson, Herman VI, Margrave of Baden and Frederick I, Margrave of Baden, claimed the titles of Dukes of Austria and Styria.
The Austrians rejected them as they did not want to be ruled by outsiders, Margrave Bernard I, Margrave of Baden-Baden united all of the acquisitions in 1391. A soldier of renown, Bernard continued the mission of his predecessors. Since 1291, Baden-Pforzheim had its own Margraviate, but in 1361 it ran out of heirs, founded in 1190, it lasted until 1418, when it too died with no male heirs. Bernard, being the closest heir, claimed Baden-Hochberg, Baden-Sausenberg, continued its own Margraviate until 1503, when the lack of its own heirs sent it back to the House of Baden-Baden. The consolidation of the Margraviate came in 1442, in that year, one-half of the dominions of Lahr and Mahlberg was brought into the fold, creating the link between the two main areas, the Breisgau in the south and Baden-Baden in the north. In 1462 the dispute over the election of the new Archbishop of Mainz sent Charles I to fight the war against Frederick I, the Count Palatine of the Rhine