Professional wrestling is a form of performance art and entertainment that combines athletics with theatrical performance. It takes the form of events, held by touring companies; the unique form of sport portrayed is fundamentally based on classical and "catch" wrestling, with modern additions of striking attacks, strength-based holds and throws and acrobatic maneuvers. Much of these derive from the influence of various international martial arts. An additional aspect of combat with improvised weaponry is sometimes included to varying degrees; the matches have predetermined outcomes to heighten entertainment value and all combative maneuvers are executed with the full cooperation of those involved and performed in specific manners intended to lessen the chance of actual injury. These facts were once kept secret but are now a accepted open secret. To promote and sustain the willing suspension of disbelief by maintaining an aura of verisimilitude, the performing company avoids discussing the true nature of the performance in official media.
Fan communications by individual wrestlers and promotions through outside media directly acknowledge the dramatic and "fixed" nature of the spectacle. Originating as a popular form of entertainment in 19th-century Europe and as a sideshow exhibition in North American traveling carnivals and vaudeville halls, professional wrestling grew into a standalone genre of entertainment with many diverse variations in cultures around the globe, is now a billion dollar entertainment industry. Since the 1980s, local forms have declined in Europe, wrestling from North America has experienced several different periods of prominent cultural popularity during its century and a half of existence and has been exported back to Europe to fill the cultural gap left by the aforementioned decline of local versions; the advent of television gave professional wrestling a new outlet, wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Show wrestling has become prominent in Central/North America and Europe.
In Brazil, there was a popular wrestling television program from the 1960s to the early 1980s called Telecatch. High-profile figures in the sport have become celebrities or cultural icons in their native or adopted home countries. Although professional wrestling started out as small acts in sideshows, traveling circuses and carnivals, today it is a billion-dollar industry. Revenue is drawn from ticket sales, network television broadcasts, pay-per-view broadcasts, branded merchandise and home video. Pro wrestling was instrumental in making pay-per-view a viable method of content delivery. Annual shows such as WrestleMania, Bound for Glory, Wrestle Kingdom and Starrcade are among the highest-selling pay-per-view programming each year. In modern day, internet programming has been utilized by a number of companies to air web shows, internet pay per views or on-demand content, helping to generate internet-related revenue earnings from the evolving World Wide Web. Home video sales dominate the Billboard charts Recreational Sports DVD sales, with wrestling holding anywhere from 3 to 9 of the top 10 spots every week.
Due to its persistent cultural presence and to its novelty within the performing arts, wrestling constitutes a recurring topic in both academia and the media. Several documentaries have been produced looking at professional wrestling, most notably, Beyond the Mat directed by Barry W. Blaustein, Wrestling with Shadows featuring wrestler Bret Hart and directed by Paul Jay. There have been many fictional depictions of wrestling; the largest professional wrestling company worldwide is the United States-based WWE, which bought out many smaller regional companies in the late 20th century, as well as its primary US competitors World Championship Wrestling and Extreme Championship Wrestling in early 2001. Other prominent professional wrestling companies worldwide include the US-based Impact Wrestling known as Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, Ring of Honor; when talking about professional wrestling, there are two levels: the "in-show" happenings that are presented through the shows, happenings which are outside the scope of performance but have implications on the performance, such as performer contracts, legitimate injuries, etc.
Because actual events are co-opted by writers for incorporation into storylines for the performers, the lines are blurred and become confused. Special care must be taken; the actions of the character should be considered fictional events, wholly separate from the life of the performer. This is similar to other entertainers; some wrestlers would incorporate elements of their real-life personalities into their characters if they and their in-ring persona have different names. Historians are unsure at what point wrestling changed from competitive catch wrestling into worked entertainment; those who participated felt that maintenance of a constant and complete illusion for all who were not involved was necessary to keep audience interest. For decades, wrestlers lived their public lives; the pra
Michael Gregory Mizanin is an American professional wrestler and media personality. He is signed to WWE, where he performs on the SmackDown brand under the ring name The Miz. Mizanin first gained fame as a reality television participant, he was a cast member on MTV's The Real World: Back to New York in 2001 and subsequently appeared in its spinoff series, Real World/Road Rules Challenge from 2002 to 2005, where he reached the finals in The Gauntlet and The Inferno while winning Battle of the Seasons and The Inferno II. Furthermore, he reached the final in Battle of the Network Reality Stars and won a 3-part Reality Stars-themed episode of Fear Factor in 2006. After becoming the runner-up in the fourth season of Tough Enough and subsequently launching his WWE career, Mizanin appeared on Diva Search, Total Divas and Tough Enough, he and his wife Maryse starred in their own reality show titled Miz & Mrs. that premiered in 2018. He has come to star in several films produced by WWE Studios, portraying Jake Carter in The Marine 3: Homefront, The Marine 4: Moving Target and The Marine 5: Battleground as well as starring in Christmas Bounty and Santa's Little Helper.
After being trained at Deep South Wrestling and Ohio Valley Wrestling, he was promoted to the main roster in 2006. Within WWE, The Miz has won eighteen total championships: the WWE Championship once, the Intercontinental Championship eight times, the United States Championship twice, seven tag team championships, making him the 25th Triple Crown Champion and 14th Grand Slam Champion in company history; the Miz won the 2010 Money in the Bank ladder match, was ranked number one on Pro Wrestling Illustrated's annual PWI 500 list for 2011. He is one of the 10 most prolific pay-per-view performers in WWE history; the Miz has headlined several pay-per-view events for WWE, including the 2011 edition of WWE's flagship event WrestleMania. Michael Gregory Mizanin was born on October 8, 1980 in Parma, where he was raised, his parents are divorced. He was the captain of its basketball and cross country teams, he participated in swimming, was a member of the student government and edited the yearbook. He attended Miami University, where he was a member of the Theta Chi fraternity and studied business at the Richard T.
Farmer School of Business before he was cast as a member of The Real World. Mizanin dropped out of college, where he was pursuing a degree in business, in order to appear on the 10th season of MTV's reality television program The Real World in 2001, he went on to appear in multiple seasons of its spin-off series, Real World/Road Rules Challenge, along with contestants from both Road Rules and The Real World, including Battle of the Seasons, The Gauntlet, The Inferno, Battle of the Sexes 2 and The Inferno 2. Except for Battle of the Sexes 2, Mizanin made it to the end of all the Challenges on which he competed and won both Battle of the Seasons and The Inferno 2. After a seven-year-long absence from The Real World/Road Rules Challenge, Mizanin returned to the reality show on April 4, 2012 as the host of The Battle of the Exes season finale event and reunion special, it marked the first time. It was during an episode of The Real World that Mizanin first displayed an alter ego known as The Miz.
In contrast to Mizanin's placid demeanor, The Miz was angry and headstrong. Mizanin realized that The Miz would make an excellent professional wrestling gimmick. In 2004, he appeared on the Bravo reality show Battle of the Network Reality Stars, where his team finished second. Mizanin was a contestant in the "Reality Stars" episode of Fear Factor, his partner was his former girlfriend and castmate, Trishelle Cannatella, the two won the competition. In April 2007, he appeared on the game show Identity, where he appeared as a stranger, contestant John Kim identified his identity as a professional wrestler by the odd way he added "Miz-" before most words. In 2008, Mizanin appeared on the Sci Fi reality series Ghost Hunters Live as a guest investigator. In 2009, Mizanin appeared on two episodes of Are You Smarter than a 5th Grader?, which were both aired on September 29. He appeared on an episode of Destroy Build Destroy on March 3, 2010. On October 5, 2011, Miz starred in an episode of H8R, he appeared as a guest star in a March 2012 episode of Psych.
On March 31, Miz appeared in the first Slime Wrestling World Championship at the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards, losing to Big Show and therefore being thrown into a tub of slime. In 2012, Miz appeared on the Disney XD show Pair of Kings as a guest star. In 2013, Miz along with Francia Raisa were in a movie together called Christmas Bounty. Pursuing the goal of becoming a professional wrestler, Mizanin joined Ultimate Pro Wrestling, where he trained in the Ultimate University, he made his in-ring debut in 2003 as The Miz. During his time with UPW, The Miz competed in UPW's Mat War's tournament, making it to the finals before losing to Tony Stradlin. In October 2004, Mike Mizanin entered the fourth season of Tough Enough, a televised competition which awarded the winner a World Wrestling Entertainment contract and US$1,000,000. Despite coming last in an arm wrestling tournament on November 25, Mizanin outlasted six other wrestlers and reached the final round. At Armageddon, Mizanin faced the other remaining entrant, Daniel Puder, in a three-round "Dixie Dogfight".
Neither man achieved a knockout, the contest was awarded to Puder on the basis of crowd reaction. On the December 16 episode of
World Tag Team Championship (WWE)
The World Tag Team Championship was the first original professional wrestling world tag team championship in the World Wrestling Entertainment promotion, the promotion's third tag team championship overall. Established by the then-World Wide Wrestling Federation on June 3, 1971, it served as the only title for tag teams in the promotion until the then-World Wrestling Federation bought World Championship Wrestling in March 2001, which added their tag team championship. Both titles were unified in November 2001, continuing WWF's. In 2002, the company was renamed WWE. Following the introduction of the WWE brand extension, where wrestlers and championships became exclusive to a WWE brand, the World Tag Team Championship became exclusive to the Raw brand, while a second WWE Tag Team Championship was established for the SmackDown brand. Both titles were unified in 2009 into the "Unified WWE Tag Team Championship", but remained independently active until the World Tag Team Championship was decommissioned in 2010 in favor of continuing the newer championship.
The championship was contested in professional wrestling matches. Bouts for the title headlined WWF events including In Your House 3, Fully Loaded: In Your House, 2001's Backlash; the inaugural champions were the team of Luke Graham and Tarzan Tyler, the final champions were The Hart Dynasty. When the World Wide Wrestling Federation formed in 1963, their first tag team championship was the WWWF United States Tag Team Championship, an NWA championship established in 1958 and used by the WWWF's predecessor, Capitol Wrestling Corporation. After then-WWWF World Heavyweight Champion Bruno Sammartino and his tag team partner Spiros Arion won the titles in 1967, the U. S. Tag Team Championship was deactivated due to Sammartino being the world champion. Two years The Rising Suns arrived in the WWWF with the WWWF International Tag Team Championship, which they claimed to have won in a tournament in Tokyo in June of that year; this became the WWWF's tag team title until 1971 when The Rising Suns left the WWWF and took the titles with them.
The WWWF established their own original world tag team championship, the "WWWF World Tag Team Championship" in 1971. Following the title's introduction, Luke Graham and Tarzan Tyler became the inaugural champions on June 3. In 1979, the title became known as the "WWF Tag Team Championship" when the promotion was renamed to World Wrestling Federation, it was subsequently renamed to "WWF World Tag Team Championship" in 1983, but was referred to as the "WWF Tag Team Championship" for short. In March 2001, the WWF purchased World Championship Wrestling and its championships were now defended on WWF programming. Soon after, "The Invasion" took place in which the WCW/ECW Alliance was dismantled. At the 2001 Survivor Series pay-per-view, the title was unified with the WCW Tag Team Championship in a steel cage match. Then-WCW Tag Team Champions, the Dudley Boyz, defeated then-WWF Tag Team Champions, the Hardy Boyz, were named the last WCW Tag Team Champions, as that title was deactivated, while becoming the new WWF Tag Team Champions.
After the WWF/WWE name change in 2002, the championship was subsequently renamed to "WWE Tag Team Championship". During the initial WWE brand extension, the WWE Tag Team Championship was assigned to the SmackDown! brand, but after Raw's The Un-Americans defeated SmackDown!'s Billy and Chuck for the championship, the title moved to the Raw brand, leaving SmackDown! without a tag team title. As a result, then-SmackDown! General Manager Stephanie McMahon commissioned a new tag team title called the WWE Tag Team Championship, to be the exclusive tag team titles for the SmackDown! brand. With the introduction of the World Heavyweight Championship on the Raw brand after the WWE Championship became exclusive to SmackDown!, the WWE Tag Team Championship on Raw was renamed to "World Tag Team Championship". This was done so that the names of both tag team titles would mirror the names of the top championships on their respective brands; when the WWE Championship and World Heavyweight Championship switched brands during the 2005 WWE draft lottery, neither of the tag team titles were renamed.
In late 2008 through early 2009, then-WWE Tag Team Champions The Colóns engaged in rivalry with then-World Tag Team Champions John Morrison and The Miz, with the two teams exchanging victories in non-title matches and retaining their respective titles against each other. On the March 17 episode of ECW on Syfy, it was announced that at WrestleMania XXV, both teams would defend their titles against each other and the winning team would hold both titles; the Colóns defeated Morrison and Miz, thus unified the titles into the "Unified WWE Tag Team Championship", although both championships remained independently active. As the Unified WWE Tag Team Championship, the champions could appear and defend the titles on any WWE brand, regardless of the brand that the holders belonged to. On August 16, 2010, the World Tag Team Championship was decommissioned in favor of continuing the lineage of the WWE Tag Team Championship, following Bret Hart's presentation of new championship belts to and final World Tag Team Champions, The Hart Dynasty.
Following the events of the WWE brand extension, an annual WWE draft was established, in which select members of the WWE roster were reassigned to a different brand. After the World Tag Team Championship was unified with the WWE Tag Team Championship as the Unified WWE Tag Team Championship, the champions co
Resorts World Arena
The Resorts World Arena is a multipurpose indoor arena located at the National Exhibition Centre in Solihull, England. It has a capacity of 16,000 seats; the venue was built as the seventh hall of the NEC complex. After 18 months of construction, the arena opened as the "Birmingham International Arena" in December 1980 with a concert by Queen. Together, the NEC and the Resorts World Arena host over 3 million visitors each year; the Ticket Factory is the official box office for the Resorts World Arena. The venue was known as Birmingham International Arena until 1 September 1983 as NEC Arena from 5 September 1983 to 31 August 2008. From 1 September 2008, the NEC Arena was renamed as the LG Arena, following a naming-rights sponsorship deal with global electronics company LG; the arena underwent a £29 million overhaul of its facilities, paid for by loans from Birmingham City Council and regional development agency Advantage West Midlands. Work on the LG Arena was finished mid October 2009 and the arena hosted its first concert with Tom Jones.
Included in the installation were around 1,000 new seats, bringing the capacity to 16,000 to compete with venues such as The O2 Arena in London and the Manchester Arena in Manchester, which are amongst the busiest music venues in the world. Constructed were new hospitality areas and a forum containing new bars and other customer facilities. Prior to its first concert, the arena hosted the 2009 Horse of the Year show. In 2011 the venue became the tenth-busiest arena in the world and 13th-busiest in 2014, it was announced in November 2014 that as part of a sponsorship deal with the casino group, the arena would be renamed the Genting Arena from 6 January 2015. On 25 September 2018, the NEC Group announced that the Genting Arena will be renamed "Resorts World Arena" as of December 3rd of this year. Genting UK will continue to sponsor the hall; the reason for the new name is to more align the venue with Genting's Resorts World Birmingham, opposite the arena, which opened in October 2015. The Spice Girls performed 6 sold out shows on the Spiceworld Tour during April and May 1998.
Comedians such as Michael McIntyre, Ricky Gervais and Peter Kay have brought their shows to the venue. In 2010 and 2011, the arena hosted the Birmingham audition stages of the British reality television music competition, The X Factor. On 19 December 2010, it played host to the 2010 BBC Sports Personality of the Year Award, it hosted the 2016 and 2018 BBC Sports Personality of the Year Awards. On 5 November 2011, it played host to UFC 138. Beyonce performed at the arena during two of her world tours. Lady Gaga concluded her Joanne World Tour at the arena on 1 February 2018. South Korean rapper, G- Dragon played at the arena on 23 September 2017 as part of his ACT III MOTTE tour; the Vamps have played the arena multiple times on the 8 and 9 May 2015, 25 and 26 March 2016, 19 May 2017 and 4 May 2018 amongst multi artist events such as Hello World and Free Radio Live. Six time Grammy award winning artist Christina Aguilera will be performing during her European Tour on the 14th November 2019. Parent company The NEC Group owns and operates the Arena Birmingham and ICC Birmingham, both in central Birmingham, the National Exhibition Centre.
Media related to Genting Arena at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Stephen Farrelly is an Irish professional wrestler and actor signed to the American professional wrestling promotion WWE, where he performs on the SmackDown brand under the ring name Sheamus,Prior to joining WWE, Farrelly wrestled on the European circuit and was a two-time International Heavyweight Champion during his tenure in Irish Whip Wrestling. After becoming part of the WWE main roster in 2009, he would go on to be a four-time world champion, having held the WWE Championship three times and WWE's World Heavyweight Championship once, he is the first Irish world champion in WWE history and is a two-time United States Champion and a five-time tag team champion with his partner Cesaro. In addition to these championships, he has won the 2010 King of the Ring tournament, the 2012 Royal Rumble match and the 2015 Money in the Bank ladder match, making him only the second wrestler to achieve all three accomplishments. Farrelly was born in Cabra, Dublin and was raised in the city, he speaks fluent Irish, having attended Scoil Caoimhin Primary and Coláiste Mhuire Secondary School, a Gaelscoil.
During his school years, he sang in the Palestrina Choir until the age of 13. He played Gaelic football for the Erin's Isle team where once he was proclaimed sports star of the month, he played rugby for the National College of Ireland, where he gained a National Diploma. He has been a fan of Premier League football club Liverpool F. C. since childhood and supports both rugby union clubs London Irish and Leinster and rugby league club the New Zealand Warriors. He is a former IT technician, worked as security for a nightclub, which led to him to working as a bodyguard for Bono and Larry Mullen, Jr. of U2, as well as Denise van Outen. Farrelly's inspiration into a professional wrestling career came from watching both British wrestling from ITV's World of Sport and American wrestling from the World Wrestling Federation on Sky One. On the advice of Bret Hart, Farrelly began training in Larry Sharpe's Monster Factory wrestling school in April 2002, alongside Tank Toland, Cliff Compton, Cindy Rogers.
Six weeks he debuted as a fan favorite under the name Sheamus O'Shaunessy against Robert Pigeon. It was during this time that he developed the nickname the "Irish Curse" after low-blowing an opponent, he soon suffered a serious neck injury after botching a hip toss which sidetracked his career for two years. Farrelly soon developed his wrestling character by drawing on Celtic mythology. Wanting to move away from limiting Irish stereotypes of lucky charms and alcoholism, he instead wanted to portray an Irish warrior. Going to a Gaelscoil, Farelly grew up aware of the four cycles of Irish mythology and, inspired by the artwork of Jim Fitzpatrick, incorporated the sword and axe-wielding imagery into his gimmick; this included the design of his own pendant, the crossos, which combines the Celtic cross with a Celtic War sword to illustrate his character's "indigenous origins with a hybrid of warrior strength matched with a strong ethical centre". In May 2004, still using the ring name Sheamus O'Shaunessy, Farrelly returned to wrestling at the newly opened Irish Whip Wrestling school in Dublin.
He made his debut match for the promotion at their Mount Temple show on 9 July against Mark Burns, where he picked out an easy win. He went on to win a battle royal the following month. O'Shaunessy spent the rest of the year engaged in a rivalry with Vid Vain after losing to his tag team partner Joey Cabray the same night he won the battle royal. On 22 and 23 October they traded wins, leading to O'Shaunessy recruiting help from CJ Summers to help defeat the tag team on 24 October. O'Shaunessy was still unsuccessful to defeat Vain in singles action the following day. Despite these losses, his impressive showings earned him a place against Alex Shane in a guest match for the Frontier Wrestling Alliance British Heavyweight Championship. Although he put on a proficient exhibit and came close to win, his friend Red Vinny interfered in the match and cost him the championship. In March 2005, he avenged this loss by teaming with Raven to defeat Vinny; this victory was part of a winning streak over the end of March where O'Shaunessy wrestled twice a day on 24, 25, 26 – including an 11-man Rumble win – and 27 March with a standard tag match and a ten-man tag team match.
This series of victories, aside from one loss by disqualification to Vain, put him to a good form for the one-day tournament held in County Kildare to crown the inaugural IWW International Heavyweight Champion. On 28 March, O'Shaunessy put an end to his main rivalries when he defeated Vinny and Vain in the quarter and semi finals, respectively, he met Darren Burridge in the final match and won to become IWW's first champion, but had to compete again in an evening show in Dublin, defeating Burridge and Vinny once more in a tag match alongside Vain. O'Shaunessy's first successful title defence came against Burridge the following month but Burridge would not let his grudge rest, continuing to attack O'Shaunessy and costing him the title during a match against D'Lo Brown on 29 May. O'Shaunessy earned revenge in July by defeating Burridge in a grudge match, though lost to him in an arm wrestling contest the following day. Still, he continued on his quest to regain the title by winning a contendership three way match against Vinny and Red Viper in August setting him up to regain the International Heavyweight Championship in October from Brown in Newcastle upon Tyne in England.
After defending his title against Vampiro and Viper, O'Shaunessy found himself embroiled in a new feu
Face (professional wrestling)
In professional wrestling, a face is a heroic or a "good guy" wrestler, booked by the promotion with the aim of being cheered by fans. Traditionally, they wrestle within the rules and avoid cheating while behaving positively towards the referee and the audience; such characters are referred to as "blue-eyes" in British wrestling and técnicos in lucha libre. The face character is portrayed as a hero relative to the heel wrestlers, who are analogous to villains. Not everything a face wrestler does must be heroic: faces need only to be cheered by the audience to be effective characters; the vast majority of wrestling storylines involving faces place a face against a heel, although more elaborate set-ups happen as well. In the world of lucha libre wrestling, they are known for using moves requiring technical skill aerial maneuvers and wearing outfits using bright colors with positive associations; this is contrasted with the villainous rudos that are known for being brawlers, using physical moves that emphasize brute strength or size while having outfits akin to demons or other nasty characters.
Traditional faces are classic "good guy" characters who break the rules, follow instructions of those in authority such as the referee, are polite and well-mannered towards the fans and overcome the rule-breaking actions of their heel opponents to cleanly win matches. While many modern faces still fit this model, other versions of the face character are now common. A good example would be Stone Cold Steve Austin, who despite playing a heel early on in his career would start to be seen more of an antihero because of his popularity with the fans. While not championing rule following, nor submission to authority, Austin was still regarded as the face in many of his duels such as his rivalry with World Wrestling Federation owner Mr. McMahon; the portrayal of face wrestlers changed in the 1990s with the birth of Extreme Championship Wrestling, the start of World Championship Wrestling's New World Order storyline, the Attitude Era of the WWF. During this time, wrestlers like Stone Cold Steve Austin and Sting used tactics traditionally associated with heels, but remained popular with the fans.
Conversely, Kurt Angle was introduced to the then-WWF with an American hero gimmick based on his gold medal win at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Angle stressed the need to work hard to realize one's dreams. Although such a personality appears appropriate for a face wrestler, Angle's character was arrogant and reminded people of his Olympic glory, behaving as if he thought he was better than the fans. Angle's character served as a meta-reference to. Although his character was intended to be a heel and behaved accordingly, some commentators speculated that if Angle attempted to get over as a face using a more heroic version of the same character, he would have failed. Unusually, Angle did not use any of these heroic mannerisms when playing a face character, instead acting as somewhat of an antihero with a few elements of the "lovable loser" character archetype. Fans sometimes dislike face wrestlers despite the way; some reasons for this include repetitive in-ring antics, a limited moveset, a lengthy title reign, lack of selling their opponents' moves, or an uninteresting character.
This results in wrestlers who are supposed to be cheered receiving a negative or no reaction from the fans. The majority of the time, faces who are low-carders, or lesser known, are used as jobbers; these wrestlers lose matches against established wrestlers heels that would lose to the top faces. Some face wrestlers would give high fives or give out merchandise to fans while entering the ring before their match, such as T-shirts, sunglasses and masks. Bret Hart was one of the first superstars to make this popular, as he would drape his signature sunglasses on a child in the audience. Rey Mysterio, a face in WWE since his debut, would go to any fan wearing a replica of his mask and touch their head with his head for good luck before wrestling. Other examples include John Cena throwing his shirts and caps in the crowd before entering a match and Big Show giving his hat to a fan when he was a face; some faces, such as Bret Hart and Ricky Steamboat, promoted an image as a "family man" and supported their persona by appearing with their family members before and after matches.
Steamboat famously carried his 8 month old son Richard Jr. into the ring with him at WrestleMania IV before his match with Greg "The Hammer" Valentine handing him to his wife Bonnie before the match started. These actions relate to wrestlers promoting charity work or other actions outside the ring, blurring the lines between scripted wrestling and their personal lives. Glossary of professional wrestling terms Foley, Mick. Have A Nice Day: A Tale of Blood and Sweatsocks. HarperCollins. P. 511. ISBN 0-06-103101-1