Gulf Islands National Seashore
Gulf Islands National Seashore offers recreation opportunities and preserves natural and historic resources along the Gulf of Mexico barrier islands of Florida and Mississippi. The protected regions include mainland parts of seven islands; some islands along the Alabama coast were considered for inclusion, but none is part of the National Seashore. The Florida District of the seashore features offshore barrier islands with sparkling white quartz sand beaches, historic fortifications, nature trails. Mainland features near Pensacola, include the Naval Live Oaks Reservation and military forts. All Florida areas are accessible by automobile; the Mississippi District of the seashore features natural beaches, historic sites, wildlife sanctuaries, islands accessible only by boat, nature trails, picnic areas, campgrounds. The Davis Bayou Area is the only portion of the National Seashore in Mississippi, accessible by automobile. Petit Bois, East Ship, West Ship, Cat islands are accessible only by boat.
The 4,080 acres Gulf Islands Wilderness offers special protection, within the seashore, to parts of Petit Bois Island and Horn Island, Mississippi. Considerable damage to public infrastructure occurred as a result of storms during the 2004 and 2005 Atlantic hurricane seasons. In subsequent years, infrastructure was repaired. All roadways, parking areas and visitor centers have been repaired and are operational. A few trails and associated boardwalks and dune crossovers were still under repair as of late 2010 near the Fort Pickens campground. Principal islands in the seashore: Santa Rosa Island - Florida Perdido Key - Florida Petit Bois Island - Mississippi West Petit Bois Island - Mississippi Horn Island - Mississippi East Ship Island - Mississippi West Ship Island - Mississippi Cat Island - Mississippi The national seashore was authorized on January 8, 1971, is administered by the National Park Service; the wilderness area was designated on November 10, 1978. Four visitor centers, staffed by National Park personnel, are located within Gulf Islands National Seashore.
Three are located in Florida, one is located in Mississippi. Florida Visitor Centers Naval Live Oaks Visitor Center and Park Headquarters Building, Gulf Breeze, Florida Fort Barrancas Visitor Center Fort Pickens Visitor Center, Pensacola Beach, FloridaMississippi Visitor Centers William M. Colmer Visitor Center, Ocean Springs, Mississippi Near Fort Massachusetts Two developed campgrounds are located in the National Seashore. Primitive camping is permitted in designated areas. Campground fees are posted at the "Fees and Reservations" website. In Florida, the Pickens Campground is a developed one and provides water and electrical hookups for recreational vehicles and tents. Roads are paved throughout the campground, as well as each campsite; the environment is characterized by sand scrub oaks, small brackish ponds, a remnant pine forest on a barrier island between Pensacola Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Central restrooms and showers are available. A campground store reopened in late 2010. There are no sewer hookups at the campsites.
Reservations can be made through the "ReserveAmerica" website from March through October. From November through February, sites are available on a first-served basis; the campground is located 1.5 miles from Fort Pickens itself. In Mississippi, the Davis Bayou Campground is developed, providing water and electrical hookups for recreational vehicles and tents. Roads are paved throughout the campground, as well as each campsite; the environment is characterized by an oak and pine forest adjacent to a brackish bayou connected to Mississippi Sound. Central restrooms and showers are available. There are no sewer hookups at the campsites. Reservations can be made through the "ReserveAmerica" website. Campsites not reserved for the day are available on a first-come, first-served basis; the campground is located at the end of roadway leading through the Davis Bayou Area. Primitive camping is permitted on several of the barrier islands. Boating or hiking in is required; such camping is allowed on Perdido Key, on government-owned properties on Petit Bois, East Ship, Cat islands in Mississippi.
With several islands in Mississippi designated as "wilderness areas", an unusual opportunity exists along the northern Gulf Coast for a wilderness experience. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill, beginning 20 April 2010, released masses of oil and tar which began washing ashore, in varying amounts, along the Gulf Islands National Seashore on 1 June 2010. On 23 June 2010, wave after wave of oil pools and globs began covering the beaches on Santa Rosa Island, resulting in a fishing and swimming ban; the oil-spill disaster affected every large island in the group. A variety of fees apply to various activities at the National Seashore. Current fees can be viewed at the National Seashore's "Fees and Reservations" website. Entrance fees are charged at the entrance to the Fort Pickens area at Pensacola Beach, as well as the Johnson Beach Area at Perdido Key in Florida; the typical automobile entrance fee is good for seven days. Annual passes can be purchased for US$30; the various forms of the "America the Beautiful - National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass" are accepted.
There are no entrance fees charged in any other areas
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
House of Refuge at Gilbert's Bar
The House of Refuge at Gilbert's Bar known as Gilbert's Bar House of Refuge, the House of Refuge Museum, or the House of Refuge, is an historic building located at 301 S. E. MacArthur Boulevard, on Hutchinson Island east of Stuart, Florida, it is the oldest surviving building in Martin County. This House of Refuge is the last remaining of the original dozen shipwreck life-saving stations on Florida's Atlantic Coast. Built in 1876 to help stranded sailors, its long colorful history spans nearly 70 years. Today it is owned by the Martin County government and leased to the Martin County Historical Society, which operates it as a museum exhibiting life-saving equipment used over the years and showcasing the keeper's quarters, c. 1904. On May 3, 1974, the House of Refuge was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. House of Refuge at Gilbert's Bar Also known as Gilbert's Bar House of Refuge North of Bathtub Beach on Hutchinson Island east of Stuart, Stuart Historic Significance: Event Area of Significance: Social History Period of Significance: 1875-1899 Owner: Local Gov't Historic Function: Domestic, Government Historic Sub-function: Hotel, Public Works Current Sub-function: Museum, Research Facility The House of Refuge is situated on the coastal rocks of the Anastasia Formation, one of the most prominent geologic outcroppings along the entire Eastern seaboard.
The house was one of ten houses of refuge commissioned by the U. S. Treasury Department for the United States Life-Saving Service as havens for shipwrecked sailors and travelers along the barren east coast of Florida, it is the only one. It offered shelter to the survivors of the Georges Valentine shipwreck in 1904. Captain William E. Rea was the Keeper of the House of Refuge at the time and aided the seven survivors. On October 17, during the same storm the Spanish ship Cosme Calzado wrecked three miles north of the Georges Valentine, but fifteen of the sixteen men survived; the surviving crew joined the survivors of the Georges Valentine at the House of Refuge. The men returned home via Jacksonville, Florida except for one: Edward Sarkenglov remained and became a local fisherman. Captain Rea and his wife lived in the House of Refuge until May 1907; the facility served as a lookout for enemy submarines in World War II. It was saved by the Historical Society of Martin County in 1955, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
With the permission of the Martin County Historical Society, Florida Ghost Team investigated this historic site in 2004. There were a couple of events during the investigation that rose suspicion of some paranormal activity; the House of Refuge provides a look at turn of the 20th century living along the coast. Areas available for public viewing are the boathouse, dining room, bedroom and a lookout tower constructed during World War II. New exhibit space includes a timeline of Hutchinson Island dating from 2000 BC to the hurricanes of 2004. National Register of Historic Places listings in Florida Elliott Museum House of Refuge - official site Martin County listings at National Register of Historic Places Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs Martin County listings Historic House of Refuge Elliott Museum / House of Refuge at Stuart / Martin County Chamber of Commerce Gilbert's Bar House of Refuge panoramic view from i-ota.net's Panoramas of the Treasure Coast, Kennedy Space Center, Vero Beach, Fort Pierce, Stuart Gilbert's Bar House of Refuge LSS at United States Coast Guard U.
S. Life-Saving Service Heritage Association
Stuart is a city in and the seat of Martin County, United States. Located on Florida's Treasure Coast, Stuart is the largest of four incorporated municipalities in Martin County; the estimated population is 16,543 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Stuart is the 126th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau, it is part of Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. Stuart is cited as one of the best small towns to visit in the U. S. in large part because of its proximity to the St. Lucie River and Indian River Lagoon. In the 18th century, several Spanish galleons were shipwrecked in the Martin County area of Florida's Treasure Coast; the multiple wrecks were the result of a hurricane, the ships were carrying unknown quantities of gold and silver. Some of this treasure has since been recovered, its presence resulted in the region's name. In 1832, pirate Pedro Gilbert, who used a sandbar off the coast as a lure to unsuspecting prey and caught the Mexican, a U.
S. merchant ship. Although he attempted to burn the ship and kill the crew, they survived to report the incident resulting in the capture and execution of Gilbert and his crew; the bar from which he lured his intended booty is named "Gilbert's Bar" on nautical charts. The Treasure Coast area that became Stuart was first settled by non-Native Americans in 1870. In 1875, a United States Lifesaving Station was established near Stuart. Today, the station is known as Gilbert's Bar House of Refuge and is on the National Register of Historic Places. From 1893-1895, the area was called Potsdam; this name was chosen by Otto Stypmann, a local landowner from Potsdam, Germany. Stypmann, with his brother Ernest, owned the land. Potsdam was renamed Stuart in 1895, after the establishment of the Florida East Coast Railway, in honor of Homer Hine Stuart, Jr. another local landowner. When Stuart was incorporated as a town in 1914, it was located in Palm Beach County. In 1925, Stuart was chartered as a city and named the county seat of the newly created Martin County.
The city of Stuart is known as the Sailfish Capital of the World, because of the many sailfish found in the ocean off Martin County. From 1871 to 2005, 19 hurricanes passed through Stuart, including Isbell, Frances and Wilma. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.5 square miles, of which 6.3 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. According to the Köppen climate classification, Stuart has a tropical climate, with hot, humid summers, with frequent rainfall, warm, dry winters. Stuart has a noticeably seasonal precipitation pattern, with June through September being the wettest months, the dry season from November through April. For the climate map of the University of Melbourne, the city is the southern boundary on the Florida's east coast of humid subtropical climate according to the data used; the southern tip of Stuart can be framed as a tropical monsoon climate in the vicinity of Seabranch Preserve State Park. Summers feature with hot temperatures, intense sun, frequent thundershowers that build in the daytime heat.
High temperatures are in the upper 80s to low 90s. The city's coastal location prevents temperatures from becoming hot, though heat indices are over 100 °F. There are 76 days of 90+ °F highs annually. On average, 96 °F is the highest temperature recorded each summer. Late summer brings an increased threat of tropical hurricanes, though landfalls are rare. Several major hurricanes have impacted Stuart since 1900, with Hurricane David in 1979 and hurricanes Frances and Jeanne caused moderate damage to the area in 2004. Winter or the dry season brings much cooler and drier air masses, humidity and dew points fall considerably. Winters can become quite dry, by late winter there is high fire danger and residential water use restriction. Average daytime highs in the winter/dry season are from 73 °F to 77 °F, though occasional strong cold fronts bring brief rainfall followed by cooler temperatures, with highs in the 50s °F for a few days each winter. Low temperatures fall fall below 40 °F, most winters are frost-free.
The first cold front of the season occurs in October or November, when the first low below 60 °F occurs. Though weather during this time is more mild, mid winter highs can still hit 80 °F or higher on occasion; as of the census of 2010, there were 15,593 people, 7,220 households, 3,422 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,320.5 per square mile. There were 8,777 housing units at an average density of 1,391.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.30% White, 12.33% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.97% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.29% of the population. There were 7,220 households out of which 15.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 52.6% were non-families. 46.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 26.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 1.88 and the average family size was 2.60. In the city, the population was spread out with 14.5% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 32.9% who were 65 years of age or older. T
Fort Pickens is a pentagonal historic United States military fort on Santa Rosa Island in the Pensacola, area. It is named after American Revolutionary War hero Andrew Pickens; the fort was completed in 1834 and remained in use until 1947. Fort Pickens is included within the Gulf Islands National Seashore, as such, is administered by the National Park Service. Fort Pickens was part of the Third System of Fortifications, meant to enhance the old earthworks and simple, obsolete designs of the First and Second System of Fortifications. Fort Pickens was of a Pentagonal design, with broader western walls to provide a wide range of fire over the bay; the fort had a counterscarp to the east side to create a defensive moat in the event that a land invasion came from the west. The westernmost Bastions were equipped with mine chambers, to be detonated in a last-ditch-effort to save the fort from invaders. After the War of 1812, the United States decided to fortify all of its major ports. French engineer Simon Bernard was appointed to design Fort Pickens.
Construction lasted with 21.5 million bricks being used to build it. Much of the construction was done by slaves, its construction was supervised by Colonel William H. Chase of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. During the American Civil War, he sided with the Confederacy and was appointed to command Florida's troops. Fort Pickens was the largest of a group of fortifications designed to defend Pensacola Harbor, it supplemented Fort Barrancas, Fort McRee, the Navy Yard. Located at the western tip of Santa Rosa Island, just offshore from the mainland, Fort Pickens guarded the island and the entrance to the harbor. On the night of 20 January 1858, the USCS Robert J. Walker was at Pensacola when a major fire broke out at Fort Pickens; the cutter's men and boats, joined by the hydrographic party of the U. S. Coast Survey steamboat USCS Varina, rallied to fight the fire; the next day, the captain of the Robert J. Walker received a communication from Captain John Newton of the Army Corps of Engineers, who commanded the harbor of Pensacola, acknowledging the important service rendered by the Robert J. Walker.
By the time of the American Civil War, Fort Pickens had not been occupied since shortly after the Mexican–American War. Despite its dilapidated condition, Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer, in charge of United States forces at Fort Barrancas, decided Fort Pickens was the most defensible post in the area, he decided to abandon Fort Barrancas when, around midnight of January 8, 1861, his guards repelled a group of local civilians who intended to occupy the fort. Some historians claim. On January 10, 1861, the day Florida declared its secession from the Union, Slemmer destroyed over 20,000 pounds of gunpowder at Fort McRee, he spiked the guns at Fort Barrancas, moved his small force of 51 soldiers and 30 sailors to Fort Pickens. On January 15, 1861 and January 18, 1861, Slemmer refused surrender demands from Colonel William Henry Chase of the Florida militia. Chase had designed and constructed the fort as a captain in the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Slemmer defended the fort against threat of attack until he was reinforced and relieved in April 11, 1861 by Colonel Harvey Brown and the USS Brooklyn.
The Confederates attacked the Fort on October 9, 1861 in the Battle of Santa Rosa Island, with a force of a thousand men. The attack came from the east; the attack was repelled by artillery and gunfire, the Confederates retreated with 90 casualties. After tensions in Pensacola grew, the Confederates secured posts at Fort McCree and Fort Barrancas, the Federal forces decided to shell the confederate forts. On November 22, two Union warships, the Niagara and the Richmond, sailed into the bay, the bombardment began; the attack lasted two days, the results were in the Union's favor. Fort McCree was nearly destroyed, the town of Warrington and the Navy Yard were destroyed. A second bombardment, meant to finish off the Confederates, was initiated on New Year's Day 1862. Fort McCree was destroyed, any buildings near fort Barrancas were burned. Running low on supplies, with dwindling morale, the Confederates began to doubt their chances of success in the Battle of Pensacola; the Battle of Mobile Bay drew the last of the southern forces westward to Alabama to defend against Admiral Farragut's invasion forces.
On May 10, 1862, the last Confederates at Pensacola surrendered to Fort Pickens. Despite repeated Confederate threats, Fort Pickens was one of only three Southern forts to remain in Union hands throughout the war, the others being Fort Taylor at Key West and Fort Jefferson at Garden Key, Florida in the Dry Tortugas. Captives from Indian Wars in the West were transported to the East Coast to be held as prisoners. From October 1886 to May 1887, Geronimo, a noted Apache war chief, was imprisoned in Fort Pickens, along with several of his warriors, their families were held at Fort Marion in St. Augustine. During the late 1890s and early 20th century, the Army had new gun batteries constructed at Fort Pickens; these batteries were part of a program initiated by the Endicott Board, a group headed by a mid-1880s Secretary of War, William C. Endicott. Instead of many guns concentrated in a traditional thick-walled masonry structure, the Endicott batteries are spread out over a wide area, concealed behind concrete parapets flush with the surrounding terrain.
The use of the accurate, long-range weapons eliminated the need for the concentration of guns, common in the Third System fortifications. Battery Pensacola was constructed within the walls of Fort Pickens, while other similar concrete batteries were constructed to the east and west as separate facilities
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, United States. It was incorporated on March 26, 1915; the municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami and the Port of Miami, collectively form the commercial center of South Florida. Miami Beach's estimated population is 92,307 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Miami Beach is the 26th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau, it has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century. In 1979, Miami Beach's Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels and other structures erected between 1923 and 1943.
Mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North; the movement to preserve the Art Deco District's architectural heritage was led by former interior designer Barbara Baer Capitman, who now has a street in the District named in her honor. Miami Beach is governed by six commissioners. Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election; the mayor serves for terms of two years with a term limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms. Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon. A city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations. An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city.
The City Clerk and the City Attorney are appointed officials. In 1870, a father and son and Charles Lum, purchased the land for 75 cents an acre; the first structure to be built on this uninhabited oceanfront was the Biscayne House of Refuge, constructed in 1876 by the United States Life-Saving Service at 72nd Street. Its purpose was to provide food, a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked; the next step in the development of the future Miami Beach was the planting of a coconut plantation along the shore in the 1880s by New Jersey entrepreneurs Ezra Osborn and Elnathan Field, but this was a failed venture. One of the investors in the project was agriculturist John S. Collins, who achieved success by buying out other partners and planting different crops, notably avocados, on the land that would become Miami Beach. Meanwhile, across Biscayne Bay, the City of Miami was established in 1896 with the arrival of the railroad, developed further as a port when the shipping channel of Government Cut was created in 1905, cutting off Fisher Island from the south end of the Miami Beach peninsula.
Collins' family members saw the potential in developing the beach as a resort. This effort got underway in the early years of the 20th century by the Collins/Pancoast family, the Lummus brothers, Indianapolis entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher; until the beach here was only the destination for day-trips by ferry from Miami, across the bay. By 1912, Collins and Pancoast were working together to clear the land, plant crops, supervise the construction of canals to get their avocado crop to market, set up the Miami Beach Improvement Company. There were bath houses and food stands, but no hotel until Brown's Hotel was built in 1915. Much of the interior land mass at that time was a tangled jungle of mangroves. Clearing it, deepening the channels and water bodies, eliminating native growth everywhere in favor of landfill for development, was expensive. Once a 1600-acre, jungle-matted sand bar three miles out in the Atlantic, it grew to 2,800 acres when dredging and filling operations were completed. With loans from the Lummus brothers, Collins had begun work on a 2½-mile-long wooden bridge, the world's longest wooden bridge at the time, to connect the island to the mainland.
When funds ran dry and construction work stalled, Indianapolis millionaire and recent Miami transplant Fisher intervened, providing the financing needed to complete the bridge the following year in return for a land swap deal. That transaction kicked off the island's first real estate boom. Fisher helped by organizing an annual speed boat regatta, by promoting Miami Beach as an Atlantic City-style playground and winter retreat for the wealthy. By 1915, Collins and Fisher were all living in mansions on the island, three hotels and two bath houses had been erected, an aquarium built, an 18-hole golf course landscaped; the Town of Miami Beach was chartered on March 26, 1915. After the town was incorporated in 1915 under the name of Miami Beach, many visitors thought of the beach strip as Alton Beach, indicating just how well Fisher had advertised his interests there; the Lummus property was called Ocean Beach, with only the Collins interests referred to as Miami Beach. Carl Fisher was the main promoter of Miami Beach's development in the 1920s as the site for wealthy industrialists from the north and Midwest to and build their winter homes here.
Many other Northerners were targeted to vacation on the island. To accommodate the wealthy tourists, several grand hotels were built, among them: The Flamingo Hotel, The Fleetwood Hotel, The Floridi