Houston Chronicle

The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, United States. As of April 2016, it is the third-largest newspaper by Sunday circulation in the United States, behind only The New York Times and the Los Angeles Times. With its 1995 buy-out of long-time rival the Houston Post, the Chronicle became Houston's newspaper of record; the Houston Chronicle is the largest daily paper owned and operated by the Hearst Corporation, a held multinational corporate media conglomerate with $10 billion in revenues. The paper employs nearly 2,000 people, including 300 journalists and photographers; the Chronicle has bureaus in Washington, D. C. and Austin. It reports; the publication serves as the "newspaper of record" of the Houston area. Headquartered in the Houston Chronicle Building at 801 Texas Avenue, Downtown Houston, the Houston Chronicle is now located at 4747 Southwest Freeway, it has two websites: is free and has breaking news, traffic, pop culture, events listings, city guides., launched in 2012 and accessible after subscription purchase, contains analysis, reporting and everything found in the daily newspaper. From its inception, the practices and policies of the Houston Chronicle were shaped by strong-willed personalities who were the publishers; the history of the newspaper can be best understood. The Houston Chronicle was founded in 1901 by a former reporter for the now-defunct Houston Post, Marcellus E. Foster. Foster, covering the Spindletop oil boom for the Post, invested in Spindletop and took $30 of the return on that investment — at the time equivalent to a week's wages — and used it to fund the Chronicle; the Chronicle's first edition was published on October 14, 1901 and sold for two cents per copy, at a time when most papers sold for five cents each. At the end of its first month in operation, the Chronicle had a circulation of 4,378 — one tenth of the population of Houston at the time. Within the first year of operation, the paper consolidated the Daily Herald.

In 1908, Foster asked Jesse H. Jones, a local businessman and prominent builder, to construct a new office and plant for the paper, "and offered half-interest in the newspaper as a down payment, with twenty years to pay the remainder. Jones agreed, the resulting Chronicle Building was one of the finest in the South."Under Foster, the paper's circulation grew from about 7,000 in 1901 to 75,000 on weekdays and 85,000 on Sundays by 1926. Foster continued to write columns under the pen name Mefo, drew much attention in the 1920s for his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, he sold the rest of his interest to Jesse H. Jones on June 1926 and promptly retired. In 1911, City Editor George Kepple started Goodfellows. On a Christmas Eve in 1911, Kepple passed a hat among the Chronicle's reporters to collect money to buy toys for a shoe-shine boy. Goodfellows continues today through donations made by its readers, it has grown into a citywide program that provides needy children between the ages of two and ten with toys during the winter holidays.

In 2003, Goodfellows distributed 250,000 toys to more than 100,000 needy children in the Greater Houston area. In 1926, Jesse H. Jones became the sole owner of the paper, he had approached Foster about selling, Foster had answered, "What will you give me?". Jones described the buyout of Foster as follows: Wanting to be liberal with Foster if I bought him out, since he had created the paper and owned most of the stock, had made a success of it, I thought for a while before answering and asked him how much he owed, he replied,'On real estate and everything about 200,000 dollars.' I said to him that I would give him 300,000 dollars in cash, having in mind that this would pay his debts and give him 100,000 spending money. In addition, I would give him a note for 500,000 secured by a mortgage on the Chronicle Building, the note to be payable at the rate of 35,000 a year for thirty-five years, which I figured was about his expectancy. I would pay him 20,000 dollars a year as editor of the paper and 6,000 dollars a year to continue writing the daily front-page column,'MEFO,' on the condition that either of us could cancel the editorship and/or the MEFO-column contracts on six months notice, that, if I canceled both the column and the editorship, I would give him an additional 6,000 dollars a year for life.

I considered the offer more than the Chronicle was worth at the time. No sooner had I finished stating my proposition than he said,'I will take it,' and the transaction was completed accordingly. In 1937, Jesse H. Jones transferred ownership of the paper to the newly established Houston Endowment Inc. Jones retained the title of publisher until his death in 1956. According to The Handbook of Texas Online, the Chronicle represented conservative political views during the 1950s: "...the Chronicle represented the conservative political interests of the Houston business establishment. As such, it eschewed controversial political topics, such as integration or the impacts of rapid economic growth on life in the city, it did not perform investigative journalism. This resulted in a stodgy newspaper. By 1959, circulation of the rival Houston Post had pulled ahead of the Chronicle."Jones, a lifelong Democrat who organized the Democratic National Convention to be in Houston in 1928, who spent long years in public service first under the Wilson administration, helping to found the Red Cr

54th Corps (German Empire)

The 54th Corps was a corps formation of the German Army in World War I. It was still in existence at the end of the war; the 54th Corps was formed in September 1916. With the onset of trench warfare, the German Army recognised that it was no longer possible to maintain the traditional Corps unit, that is, one made up of two divisions. Whereas at some times a Corps of two divisions was sufficient, at other times 5 or 6 divisions were necessary. Therefore, under the Hindenburg regime, new Corps headquarters were created without organic divisions; these new Corps were designated General Commands for Special Use. By the end of the war, the Corps was serving on the Western Front as part of 2nd Army, Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht with the following composition: 21st Reserve Division 22nd Division 4th Division 113th Division 239th Division 12th Reserve Division Jäger Division 185th Division The 54th Corps had the following commanders during its existence: Armee-Abteilung or Army Detachment in the sense of "something detached from an Army".

It is not under the command of an Army so is in itself a small Army. Armee-Gruppe or Army Group in the sense of a group within an Army and under its command formed as a temporary measure for a specific task. Heeresgruppe or Army Group in the sense of a number of armies under a single commander. German Army German Army order of battle, Western Front Cron, Hermann. Imperial German Army 1914-18: Organisation, Orders-of-Battle. Helion & Co. ISBN 1-874622-70-1. Ellis, John; the World War I Databook. Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-766-6

Donna Ferrato

Donna Ferrato is a photojournalist and activist known for her coverage of domestic violence and her documentation of the New York City neighborhood of Tribeca. Ferrato has worked for Life, People, The New York Times, Mother Jones, her photographs have won various awards and have appeared in solo exhibitions in museums and galleries. She has been a member of the Executive Board of Directors for the W. Eugene Smith Memorial Fund and was president and founder of the non-profit Domestic Abuse Awareness. Ferrato was born on 5 June 1949 in Waltham and grew up in Lorain, Ohio, her father, Peter John Ferrato, was a vascular chest surgeon who met his wife, Ann O'Mally, while interning at Bellevue Hospital in New York City. The couple had three children: Donna Ferrato, Peter Ferrato, Louis T. Ferrato. Donna Ferrato graduated from the Laurel School in Shaker Heights, Ohio in 1968, she was recognized in 1992 as one of the Laurel School's Distinguished Alumna. Ferrato went on to attend Garland Junior College in Boston, where she met and married Harvard graduate Mark Webb.

In 1971, Ferrato and Webb moved to San Francisco. In 1975, Ferrato and Webb divorced, Ferrato began photographing and hitchhiking across the United States. In San Francisco, she worked odd jobs, including a stint as the camera girl at the Hilton Hotel, she studied photography at The Art Institute of California – San Francisco, where she took courses under sociologist Howard S. Becker. In 1977, Ferrato met artist Michael Bowen and travelled with him and his family on the QE2 to join an art colony in Portugal. Ferrato parted ways with Bowen and began hitchhiking around Belgium and France, where she photographed baguette culture in Paris. In Paris, she worked at Claude Nori's photography gallery Contrejour. In 1979, Ferrato moved to New York City, where she began photographing in sex clubs and nightclubs, documenting the heady nightclub culture of the late 1970s and early 1980s at legendary establishments like Studio 54, Mudd Club and Area. Ferrato began visiting the famous swingers club Plato's Retreat after landing an assignment with New York Magazine to photograph owner Larry Levenson, was commissioned by Japanese Playboy to photograph a prominent swinger couple known as Garth and Lisa.

Ferrato immersed herself in Garth and Lisa's life, moving in with the couple at their Saddle River mansion. "I was there for the orgies as well as the typical family moments," Ferrato writes in Lust. "As time passed, however, I began to realize that Garth was not the benign, devoted husband he had first appeared to be...and one night, I witnessed a horrific scene: Garth attacked Lisa and beat her mercilessly as she cowered in the master bathroom. That night changed me forever, altered the direction of my work for the next ten years... I was now driven to reveal the unspeakable things that were happening behind closed doors." "I took the picture because without it I knew no one would believe it happened," Ferrato told Time in 2012. For the next decade, Ferrato travelled across the country photographing domestic violence, riding in police cars, sleeping in shelters, staying in the homes of battered women, her work led to the publication of Living With the Enemy, an exposé of the hidden world of domestic violence.

The New York Times wrote, "Living with the Enemy is both moving. With their shocking immediacy, these photographs offer the kind of urgent call to action provided by all great documentary photographs." Living With the Enemy went into four printings, alongside exhibitions and lectures around the world, sparked a national discussion on sexual violence and women’s rights. In 2011, Ferrato launched the I Am Unbeatable campaign, which aims to expose and raise awareness of domestic violence by creating an archive of stories and video narratives. In 1991 Ferrato was the highest bidder at an auction to have tea with the new First Lady Hillary Clinton. Accompanied by Lisa. Alongside her work with domestic violence, Ferrato continued to photograph sex clubs, swingers' events, other forms of sexual experimentation and lovemaking. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Ferrato published stories with The Philadelphia Inquirer and Stern on the swingers' group Lifestyles, in 2008, she worked with journalist Claudia Glenn Dowling filming group marriages as part of the Oxygen series "Sex Lives on Videotape."

In 2004, she published a look at human intimacy. In 2008, she was featured in American Swing, a documentary chronicling the story of Plato's Retreat and Larry Levenson from the mid-1970s to late-1980s. Ferrato met Welsh photojournalist Philip Jones Griffiths at a party in Manhattan. Both photographers were among the hundred photographers chosen by Rick Smolan to travel to Australia and shoot from locations around the country for his photobook A Day in the Life of Australia. Griffith's died from cancer in 2008. After his death, Ferrato made the documentary Philip Jones Griffiths: The Magnificent One. Ferrato and Griffiths had one daughter February with her father. Ferrato's most recent work focuses on the spirit and evolution of Tribeca, where she has lived since the mid-1990s. In 2008, she began publishing the biannual 10013 portfolios, named for the iconic neighborhood's zip code; each portfolio is released in an edition of 13 boxes containing 13 prints. Photographer Ma