United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, tactics, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders.
In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress
United States Marine Corps
The U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the military officer in the U. S. Armed Forces, is a Marine Corps general, the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working closely with naval forces for training and logistics. The USMC operates posts on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world, two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting for independence both at sea and on shore. The role of the Corps has since grown and evolved, expanding to aerial warfare and earning popular titles such as, Americas third air force, second land army. By the mid-20th century, the U. S. Marine Corps had become a major theorist of and its ability to rapidly respond on short notice to expeditionary crises gives it a strong role in the implementation and execution of American foreign policy.
As of 2016, the USMC has around 182,000 active duty members and it is the smallest of the U. S. The USMC serves as an expeditionary force-in-readiness and this last clause, while seemingly redundant given the Presidents position as Commander-in-chief, is a codification of the expeditionary responsibilities of the Marine Corps. It derives from similar language in the Congressional acts For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps of 1834, in 1951, the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee called the clause one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps. In addition to its duties, the Marine Corps conducts Visit, Board and Seizure operations, as well as missions in direct support of the White House. The Marine Band, dubbed the Presidents Own by Thomas Jefferson, Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. The Executive Flight Detachment provides transport to Cabinet members. The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S.
Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself, for over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, in 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of War furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on December 15,1948, during the first year of the MSG program,36 detachments were deployed worldwide. Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore, the Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ships landing force, manning the ships weapons and providing shipboard security.
Marines would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II, during World War II, Marines continued to serve on capital ships
Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper
Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper, renamed Leslies Weekly, was an American illustrated literary and news magazine founded in 1852 and published until 1922. It was one of several magazines started by publisher and illustrator Frank Leslie, the Illustrated Newspaper was founded in 1852. John Y. Foster was the first editor of the weekly, there were 30 copies of the first edition printed. By 1897, its circulation had grown to an estimated 65,000 copies, after Leslies death in 1880, the magazine was continued by his widow, the womens suffrage campaigner Miriam Florence Leslie. The name, by a well-established trademark, remained after 1902 and it often took a strongly patriotic stance and frequently featured cover pictures of soldiers and heroic battle stories. It gave extensive coverage to less martial events such as the Klondike gold rush of 1897, among the writers publishing their stories in the weekly were Louisa May Alcott, H. Irving Hancock, Helen R. Martin, Eleanor Franklin Egan, and Ellis Parker Butler.
Several notable illustrators worked for the publication, including Albert Berghaus and Norman Rockwell, who created covers for the magazine in its latter years, and Fernando Mirando y Casellas. Surviving copies of the magazine at present fetch handsome prices as collectors items and are considered to give a picture of American life during the decades of its publication
Neysa Moran McMein was an American illustrator and portrait painter who studied at The School of The Art Institute of Chicago and Art Students League of New York. She began her career as an illustrator and during World War I, she traveled across France entertaining military troops with Dorothy Parker and she was made an honorary non-commissioned officer in the United States Marine Corps for her contributions to the war effort. McMein was an illustrator of magazine covers and magazine articles for national publications, like McClures, McCalls, The Saturday Evening Post. McMein created the portrait of a housewife, Betty Crocker for General Mills. She was a portrait painter who painted the portraits of presidents, actors. Algonquin Round Table members were entertained at her West 57th Street studio, Life magazine wrote an article about adult party games, which featured stories about McMeins parties. She had a marriage to John C. Baragwanath, during which she had affairs with Charlie Chaplin and George Abbott, Baragwanath described their marriage as a successful one based upon a deep friendship.
She was inducted into the Society of Illustrators Hall of Fame in 1984, McMein was one of 20 Society of Illustrators artists to have their work published on a United States Postal Service Collectible Stamp sheet in 2001. Marjorie Frances McMein was born in Quincy, Illinois on January 24,1888 and she was the daughter of Harry Moran and Isabelle Parker McMein. Harry McMein was a reporter before he worked for the McMein Publishing Company, due to his alcoholism, his relationship with his wife was strained. McMein had musical and artistic talent, after graduating with honors in 1907 from the Quincy High School, she attended The School of the Art Institute of Chicago. McMein worked at a large firm, where she became lead designer. In 1911 or 1913, she went to New York City and after a stint as an actress. On the advice of a numerologist, she adopted the name Neysa, John Baragwanath, her husband, stated that she chose the name Neysa after meeting one of Homer Davenports fillies at his stables. Whatever the original impetus for the change, McMein thought that the name Neysa had a value above that of her birth name.
McMein studied at the Art Students League of New York in 1914, McMein sold her first drawing to the Boston Star in 1914. Before he was executed for Herman Rosenthals murder, Harry Horowitzs portrait was created in 1915 by McMein and that year she sold an illustration for the cover of The Saturday Evening Post and her Misinformation illustration appeared on the May 8,1915 cover of Puck magazine
Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge was the wife of the 30th President of the United States, Calvin Coolidge. She was the First Lady from 1923 to 1929 and she met Calvin Coolidge in 1904, and the two were married the following year. As her husband advanced his career, Grace avoided politics. When Calvin Coolidge was elected Governor of Massachusetts in 1919, she remained at home in Northampton with their children, after her husbands election as vice president in 1920, the family moved to Washington, D. C. living at the Willard Hotel. Coolidge did not speak out on issues of the day. Instead, she dedicated herself to supporting popular causes and organizations, such as the Red Cross, after the death of her son Calvin in 1924, she won the sympathy of the country. Unlike previous first ladies, who had withdrawn almost entirely from the spotlight after personal tragedies. In 1929, Calvin Coolidges term as president ended, and the retired to Northampton. After her husbands death in 1933, she continued her work with the deaf and she served on the boards of Mercersburg Academy and the Clarke School.
After the start of World War II, Grace joined a local Northampton committee dedicated to helping Jewish refugees from Europe, in 1957, she died of heart disease, and was buried in Plymouth, beside her husband and her son. Grace Anna Goodhue was born on January 3,1879, in Burlington and her father, a deacon, and served as the steamboat inspector for the Lake Champlain Transportation Company, appointed to the position in 1887 by President Grover Cleveland. Her mother was a housewife, who taught her many skills, including knitting, cleaning. She began her education at age five at a public grade school in Burlington. It was during this time that she took an interest in music, in 1893, she entered Burlington High School. There she studied Latin and French, as well as geology and she took a private course on elocution. She would become the first First Lady to have earned an undergraduate degree. From 1902 to 1904, inspired by a friend who had pursued a career teaching deaf children, she studied lip reading at Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech.
The education of deaf children remained her lifelong passion, Grace dated several young men during college
Red Room (White House)
The Red Room is one of three state parlors on the State Floor in the White House, the home of the President of the United States in Washington, D. C. in the United States. The room has served as a parlor and music room, and it has been traditionally decorated in shades of red. The room is approximately 28 by 22.5 feet and it has six doors, which open into the Cross Hall, Blue Room, South Portico, and State Dining Room. During the administration of John Adams, it served as a breakfast room, jefferson kept a caged magpie in the room. During the James Madison administration, the became the Yellow Drawing Room. Dolley ordered a piano she particularly wanted, along with red velvet curtains for the room, the White House was gutted in 1814 when the British set fire to the structure during the Burning of Washington. It was largely reconstructed during the administration of President James Monroe, Monroe purchased furnishings for the Red Room in the Empire style, as he had for the Blue Room, to furnish the rebuilt White House.
Gilbert Stuarts portrait of George Washington originally hung in the Red Room, Stuarts 1804 portrait of Dolley Madison was hung here. The fireplace mantel was one of two purchased by President James Monroe in 1817. Carved of white marble in France in the Empire style, it, in 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt selected Charles Follen McKim of the New York architectural firm McKim, Mead & White to renovate the White House. McKim fashioned all new mantels for the State Dining Room, the walls were hung with burgundy silk velvet. A late nineteenth century suite of stuffed Turkish-style furniture was upholstered in the same shade, addition of a new attic story during the Coolidge administration placed great strain on the buildings structure. By 1951 the house had become unsound and President Truman directed a major reconstruction, the buildings interior was largely dismantled, with some of the architectural elements being numbered and stored. After a steel infrastructure was installed, those elements were restored in their original configuration, the Red Room was dismantled and reconstructed during this period.
Installation of air conditioning in 1953 and 1954 required the height be reduced by approximately 18. Having nearly no furniture original to the house, Truman hired the New York department store B, altmans design department to oversee the refurnishing of the house. In the Red Room, a red silk damask in the pattern as before the reconstruction was installed on the walls. The Louis XVI style mantel clock is French, c, 1780–85, and was a gift to the American nation in 1954 from President Vincent Auriol of France following completion of the Truman reconstruction of the house
Fiorello H. La Guardia
Fiorello Henry La Guardia was an American politician. He is best known for being the 99th Mayor of New York City for three terms from 1934 to 1945 as a Republican, previously he had been elected to Congress in 1916 and 1918, and again from 1922 through 1930. Irascible and charismatic, he craved publicity and is acclaimed as one of the greatest mayors in American history, only five feet, two inches tall, he was called the Little Flower. La Guardia, a Republican who appealed across party lines, was popular in New York during the 1930s. As a New Dealer, he supported President Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat, La Guardia revitalized New York City and restored public faith in City Hall. La Guardia was a leader who verged on authoritarianism but whose reform politics were carefully tailored to address the sentiments of his diverse constituency. He succeeded with the support of a sympathetic president and he secured his place in history as a tough-minded reform mayor who helped clean out corruption, bring in gifted experts, and fix upon the city a broad sense of responsibility for its own citizens.
His administration engaged new groups that had kept out of the political system, gave New York its modern infrastructure. La Guardia was born in Greenwich Village in New York City and it was in Trieste that Achille La Guardia met and married Irene. Fiorello La Guardia was raised an Episcopalian and practiced that religion all his life and his middle name Enrico was anglicized to Henry when he was a child. He moved to Arizona with his family, where his father had a position at Fort Whipple in the U. S. Army. La Guardia attended public schools and high school in Prescott, after his father was discharged from his bandmaster position in 1898, Fiorello lived in Trieste. He graduated from the Dwight School, a school on the Upper West Side of New York City. La Guardia joined the State Department and served in U. S. consulates in Budapest, Trieste and he returned to the United States to continue his education at New York University. From 1907 to 1910, he worked as an interpreter for the U. S. Bureau of Immigration at the Ellis Island immigration station.
He graduated from New York University School of Law in 1910, was admitted to the bar the same year and his first wife was Thea Almerigotti, an Istrian immigrant, whom he married on March 8,1919. In June 1920 they had a daughter, Fioretta Thea, who died May 9,1921 and his first wife died of tuberculosis on November 29,1921, at the age of 26. In 1929 he married Marie Fisher who had been his secretary while in Congress, La Guardia became Deputy Attorney General of New York in January 1915
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building or Capitol Hill, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the end of the National Mall in Washington. Though not at the center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the Districts street-numbering system. The original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded, like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors. In 2014, scaffolding was erected around the dome for a project scheduled to be completed by early 2017. All exterior scaffolding was removed by the end of summer 2016, prior to establishing the nations capital in Washington, D. C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, and a number of other locations.
In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21,1783, and met in Annapolis, the United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4,1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a capital for ten years, until the nations capital in Washington. Pierre Charles LEnfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city, in reviewing LEnfants plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the Capitol rather than Congress House.
The word Capitol comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the Presidents House. The prize for the competition was $500 and a lot in the Federal City, the most promising of the submissions was by Stephen Hallet, a trained French architect. However, Hallets designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, a late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31,1793, to much praise for its Grandeur and Beauty by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the portion of the design
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
The Rough Riders was a nickname given to the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish–American War and the only one of the three to see action. The United States Army was small and understaffed in comparison to its status during the American Civil War roughly thirty years prior, as a measure towards rectifying this situation President William McKinley called upon 1,250 volunteers to assist in the war efforts. The regiment was called Woods Weary Walkers in honor of its first commander and this nickname served to acknowledge that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up fighting on foot as infantry. Woods second in command was former Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, when Colonel Wood became commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, the Rough Riders became Roosevelts Rough Riders. That term was familiar in 1898, from Buffalo Bill who called his famous western show Buffalo Bills Wild West, the Rough Riders were mostly made of college athletes, ranchers and other outdoorsmen. A common trait shared by members of the regiment was a shared origin.
With these men being from southwestern ranch country, they were skilled in horsemanship. The volunteers were gathered in four areas, New Mexico and they were gathered mainly from the southwest because the hot climate region that the men were used to was similar to that of Cuba where they would be fighting. The difficulty in organizing was not in selecting, but in rejecting men, the allowed limit set for the volunteer cavalry men was promptly met. Among these men were police officers and military veterans who wished to see action again. Men who had served in the army during campaigns against Native Americans or served in the Civil War had been gathered to serve as higher ranking officers in the cavalry. In this regard they possessed the knowledge and experience to lead, as a whole, the unit would not be entirely inexperienced. One particularly famous spot where volunteers were gathered was in San Antonio, the bar is still open and serves as a tribute to the Rough Riders, containing much of their, and Theodore Roosevelts and memorabilia. S.
Officers of the regiment each received a new lever-action M1895 Winchester rifle, the Rough Riders used Bowie Hunter knives. A last-minute gift from a wealthy donor were a pair of modern tripod mounted, gas-operated M1895 Colt–Browning machine guns in 7mm Mauser caliber and they looked exactly as a body of cowboy cavalry should look. This rough and tumble appearance contributed to earning them the title of The Rough Riders, training was very standard, even for a cavalry unit. They worked on basic military drills and habits involving conduct, the men proved eager to learn what was necessary, and the training went smoothly. It was decided that the men would not be trained to use the saber as other cavalries often used, they chose to have the men stick to the use of their carbines and revolvers as primary and secondary weapons
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany