The Outlaw is a 1943 American Western film, directed by Howard Hughes and starring Jack Buetel, Jane Russell, Thomas Mitchell, Walter Huston. Hughes produced the film, while Howard Hawks served as an uncredited co-director; the film is notable as Russell's breakthrough role, turning the young actress into a sex symbol and a Hollywood icon. Advertising billed Russell as the sole star. Sheriff Pat Garrett welcomes his old friend Doc Holliday to New Mexico. Doc finds it in the possession of Billy the Kid. Despite this, the two gunfighters take a liking to each other, much to Pat's disgust; this does not prevent Doc from trying to steal the horse back late that night, but Billy is waiting for him outside the barn. After that, Billy decides to sleep in the barn, is shot at, he overpowers his ambusher, who turns out to be curvaceous young Rio McDonald, Doc's love-interest, out to avenge her dead brother. It is implied that he rapes her after ripping off her dress; the next day, a stranger offers to shoot Pat in the back.
However, he is only setting the Kid up. Billy, suspicious as always, guns him down just before being shot himself. There are no witnesses, Pat tries to arrest Billy. Pat does not understand; as the pair start to leave, Pat shoots Billy, forcing Doc to shoot the gun out of his hand and kill two of Pat's men. Doc flees with Billy to her aunt, Guadalupe. With a posse after them, Doc rides away. Instead of killing the unconscious Kid, Rio instead nurses him back to health, a process that takes a month. By the time Doc returns, Rio has fallen in love with her patient. Doc is furious. After Doc's anger subsides a bit, the Kid gives him a choice: Rio. To Billy's annoyance, Doc picks the horse. Angered that both men value the animal more than her, Rio fills their canteens with sand; the two ride off without noticing. On the trail, they find themselves being pursued by a posse; the pair surmise. Doc leaves Pat unharmed; when Doc wakes up one morning, he finds Billy gone and Pat waiting to handcuff him and take him back.
Stopping at Rio's, the two men find that Billy has left Rio tied up in sight of water out of revenge. Suspecting that Billy loves Rio and will return to free her, Pat waits. Sure enough, the Kid comes back and is captured. On the way back to town, they find hostile Mescaleros all around. Pat reluctantly frees his prisoners and returns their revolvers after extracting a promise from Doc that he will give them back and make Billy do the same, they manage to elude the Indians. As Doc tries to leave with his horse, Billy stops him; the two men decide to duel it out, with a pleased Pat expecting Billy to lose. However, as they await the signal, Billy realizes that Doc is a true friend, moves his hands away from his guns. Doc tries to provoke him, inflicting minor wounds in one hand and both ears, but the Kid still will not fire; the two reconcile. Furious, Pat calls Doc out, despite not having a chance. Doc is himself fatally wounded. Pat is aghast. After Doc is buried, Pat offers to give Billy their friend's revolvers.
He persuades Billy to give him his guns, saying that he can claim that it is Billy in the grave. The Kid can have a fresh start in life. However, it is all a trick. Pat had removed the firing pins from Doc's revolvers. However, while comparing the guns, he had inadvertently switched one of Doc's for his; as a result, neither his gun nor Pat's fires. Billy pulls out a working gun, he handcuffs Pat, judging that the lawman will still state that Billy is dead rather than admit the Kid left him helpless. As he is riding away, Billy looks back. Jack Buetel as Billy the Kid Jane Russell as Rio McDonald Thomas Mitchell as Pat Garrett Walter Huston as Doc Holliday Mimi Aguglia as Guadalupe Joe Sawyer as Charley Gene Rizzi as Stranger who tries to trick Billy Dickie Jones as Boy Edward Peil Sr. as Swanson Lee Shumway as Card Dealer In 1941, while filming The Outlaw, Hughes felt that the camera did not do justice to Jane Russell's bust. He employed his engineering skills to design a new cantilevered underwire bra to emphasize her figure.
Hughes added curved structural steel rods that were sewn into the brassiere under each breast cup and connected to the bra's shoulder straps. This arrangement allowed the breasts to be pulled upwards and made it possible to move the shoulder straps away from the neck; as a result, the design allowed for a larger amount of Russell's bosom to be exposed. Contrary to many media reports afterward, Russell did not wear the bra during filming, she wrote that the "ridiculous" contraption hurt so much that she wore it for only a few minutes, instead wore her own bra. To prevent Hughes from noticing, Russell padded the cups with tissue and tightened the shoulder straps before returning to the set, she said, "I never wore it in The Outlaw, he never knew. He wasn't going to take my clothes off to check. I just told him I did." The famed bra ended up in a Hollywood museum—a false witness to the push-up myth. Although the film was completed in February 1941, Hughes had trouble getting it approved by the Hollywood Production Code Administratio
The Front Page (1931 film)
The Front Page is a 1931 American pre-Code comedy film, directed by Lewis Milestone and starring Adolphe Menjou and Pat O'Brien. Based on a Broadway play of the same name, the film was produced by Howard Hughes, written by Bartlett Cormack and Charles Lederer, distributed by United Artists; the supporting cast includes Mary Brian, George E. Stone, Matt Moore, Edward Everett Horton and Walter Catlett. At the 4th Academy Awards, the film was nominated for Best Picture, Milestone for Best Director, Menjou for Best Actor. In 2010, this film was selected for the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant"; the film is in the public domain. The film, considered a screwball comedy, centers on a reporter, Hildebrand "Hildy" Johnson and his editor, who hope to cash in on a big story involving an escaped accused murderer, Earl Williams and hide him in a rolltop desk while everybody else tries to find him. Adolphe Menjou as Walter Burns Pat O'Brien as Hildebrand "Hildy" Johnson Mary Brian as Peggy Grant Edward Everett Horton as Roy V. Bensinger Walter Catlett as Jimmy Murphy George E. Stone as Earl Williams Mae Clarke as Molly Malloy Slim Summerville as Irving Pincus Matt Moore as Ernie Kruger Frank McHugh as "Mac" McCue Clarence Wilson as Sheriff Peter B.
"Pinky" Hartman Fred Howard as Schwartz Phil Tead as Wilson Eugene Strong as Endicott Spencer Charters as Woodenshoes Maurice Black as Diamond Louie Effie Ellsler as Mrs Grant Dorothea Wolbert as Jenny James Gordon as Fred, the Mayor Richard Alexander as Jacobi The film has been remade or adapted on several occasions. CBS radio turned it into a one-hour episode of Academy Award Theater with O'Brien and Menjou, a June 28, 1937 episode of Lux Radio Theater with Walter Winchell and James Gleason, a May 9, 1948 episode of the Ford Theatre starring Ed Begley and Everett Sloane; the story was adapted for Howard Hawks's comedy His Girl Friday, a 1974 remake of The Front Page starred Jack Lemmon and Walter Matthau and another version was made as Switching Channels with Burt Reynolds, Kathleen Turner and Christopher Reeve. List of films in the public domain in the United States The Front Page on IMDb The Front Page is available for free download at the Internet Archive The Front Page at the TCM Movie Database The Front Page at AllMovie The Front Page at the American Film Institute Catalog
Digital object identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization. An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use to identify academic and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, official publications though they have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable" to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers; this is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely; the DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata. The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change.
Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL, it is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless; the developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation, which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs; the DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations. A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a character string divided into two parts, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a slash.
Prefix/suffixThe prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier, the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal Unicode characters are allowed in these strings, which are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner; the prefix takes the form 10. NNNN, where NNNN is a series of at least 4 numbers greater than or equal to 1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants; the prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like 10. NNNN. N. For example, in the DOI name 10.1000/182, the prefix is 10.1000 and the suffix is 182. The "10." Part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace, the characters 1000 in the prefix identify the registrant. 182 is item ID, identifying a single object. DOI names can identify creative works in both electronic and physical forms and abstract works such as licenses, parties to a transaction, etc; the names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article.
The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata, associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the indecs Content Model. The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format doi:10.1000/182. Contrary to the DOI Handbook, CrossRef, a major DOI registration agency, recommends displaying a URL instead of the specified format This URL is persistent, so it is a PURL — providing the location of an HTTP proxy server which will redirect web accesses to the correct online location of the linked item; the CrossRef recommendation is based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyperlinked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their browser in order to go to the appropriate page for the document the DOI represents.
Major applications of the DOI system include: scholarly materials through CrossRef, a consortium of around 3,000 publishers. Research datasets through DataCite, a consortium of leading research libraries, technical information providers, scientific data centers. Permanent global identifiers for commercial video content through the Entertainment ID Registry known as EIDR. In the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's publication service OECD iLibrary, each table or graph
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
John William Wright Patman was a U. S. Congressman from Texas in Texas's 1st congressional district and chair of the United States House Committee on Banking and Currency. Patman was a fiscal watchdog who acted to protect American wage earners by identifying and preventing the excesses and unfair practices of the banks and the Federal Reserve, he sponsored the Robinson-Patman Act of 1935, designed to protect small retail shops against competition from chain stores by fixing a minimum price for retail products. Patman was the son of John N. and Emma Patman, was born near Hughes Springs in Cass County, Texas, on August 6, 1893. After graduating from Hughes Springs High School in 1912, he enrolled in Cumberland University Law School in Lebanon, Tennessee. Receiving his law degree in 1916 he was admitted to the Texas bar the same year. During World War I Patman enlisted in the United States Army as a private, he received a commission as a first lieutenant and machine gun officer in the Texas Army National Guard's 144th Infantry Regiment, a unit of the 36th Division.
He remained in the National Guard for several years after the war. Patman was elected to the Texas House of Representatives in 1920, he left the House in 1924 when he was appointed district attorney of the fifth judicial district of Texas. In 1928, Patman was elected to the House of Representatives in Texas's 1st congressional district. In 1932, Patman introduced a bill that would have mandated the immediate payment of the bonus to World War I veterans, it was during the consideration of this bill. Patman was a supporter of the New Deal. In January 1932, Patman spearheaded a movement to impeach Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon, which forced the latter's resignation the following month. Patman in the House and Joseph Taylor Robinson in the United States Senate were the sponsors of the 1936 Robinson-Patman Act, an effort to preserve independent wholesalers and retail outlets by preventing manufacturers or large retailers from becoming involved in wholesaling. Patman was one of four members of the Texas congressional delegation to sign the "Southern Manifesto," a resolution in protest of the United States Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education.
Wright Patman's eponymous committee played an important role in the early days of the Watergate scandal that brought down President Richard Nixon. The Patman Committee investigated the hundred dollar bills found on the Watergate "plumbers" upon their arrest, suspecting they could directly link them to CREEP, the president's re-election committee; the Patman Committee's 1972 investigation was stymied by pressure from the White House, in part aided by Congressman Gerald R. Ford. Despite these efforts to stop Patman, his investigative course proved to be Nixon's undoing in the sense that the money trail, as reported on in the Washington Post, helped lead to the establishment of the Ervin Senate Select Committee on Watergate in April 1973. In 1975, Patman was voted out of his position as Chairman of the Banking committee by younger Congressmen, in a revolt against the'Seniority system' which removed Felix Edward Hébert and William R. Poage from their positions as chairmen. Patman was replaced by Henry S. Reuss by a caucus vote of 152–117.
The main reason given for the caucus removing Patman was concern about his effectiveness. Patman died of pneumonia in Bethesda, Maryland on March 7, 1976, he was buried at Hillcrest Cemetery in Texarkana. In the U. S. House of Representatives in Washington, the Wright Patman Congressional Federal Credit Union is named after him; this credit union serves the banking needs of elected and former members of the House and their staff. In addition, Wright Patman Lake and Wright Patman Dam in Northeast Texas are named for him. In 2011 Rick Perry condemned the monetary policies of Ben Bernanke in populist-like language, earning him criticism from some mainstream Republicans, including Karl Rove. One observer, Alexander Cockburn, recalled that it used to be Texas Democrats like Patman who were regarded as the populists. According to Cockburn, sitting as chair of the House Banking Committee in the early 1970s, "snarl at Fed chairman Arthur Burns, before him to give testimony,'Can you give me any reason why you should not be in the penitentiary?'"
Tax Exempt Foundations and Charitable Trusts: Their Impact on Our Economy 87th Congress, 2nd Session Commercial Banks and Their Trust Activities: Emerging Influence on the American Economy 90th Congress, 2nd Session, volumes I and II List of United States Congress members who died in office Owens, John E. "Extreme Advocacy Committee Leadership in the Pre-Reform House: Wright Patman and the House Banking and Currency Committee", British Journal of Political Science, Cambridge University Press, 15: 149–168, doi:10.1017/s0007123400004154, ISSN 0007-1234, JSTOR 193800 Young, Nancy Beck. Wright Patman: Populism and the American Dream. United States Congress. "Wright Patman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Wright Patman from the Handbook of Texas Online Texas A&M University Press: Wright Patman: Populism and the American Dream by Nancy Beck Young A film clip "Longines Chronoscope with Wright Patman" is available at the Internet Archive
Howard Robard Hughes Jr. was an American business magnate, record-setting pilot, film director, philanthropist, known during his lifetime as one of the most financially successful individuals in the world. He first became prominent as a film producer, as an influential figure in the aviation industry. In life, he became known for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle—oddities that were caused in part by a worsening obsessive–compulsive disorder, chronic pain from a near-fatal plane crash, increasing deafness; as a maverick film tycoon, Hughes gained fame in Hollywood beginning in the late 1920s, when he produced big-budget and controversial films such as The Racket, Hell's Angels, Scarface. He controlled the RKO film studio. Hughes formed the Hughes Aircraft Company in 1932, hiring numerous designers, he spent the rest of the 1930s and much of the 1940s setting multiple world air speed records and building the Hughes H-1 Racer and H-4 Hercules. He acquired and expanded Trans World Airlines and acquired Air West, renaming it Hughes Airwest.
Hughes was included in Flying Magazine's list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation, ranked at No. 25. Today, his legacy is maintained through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Howard Hughes Corporation. Records locate the birthplace of Howard Hughes as Houston, Texas; the date remains uncertain due to conflicting dates from various sources. He claimed Christmas Eve as his birthday. A 1941 affidavit birth certificate of Hughes, signed by his aunt Annette Gano Lummis and by Estelle Boughton Sharp, states that he was born on December 24, 1905, in Harris County, Texas. However, his certificate of baptism, recorded on October 7, 1906 in the parish register of St. John's Episcopal Church in Keokuk, listed his date of birth as September 24, 1905, without any reference to the place of birth. Hughes was the son of Allene Stone Gano and of Howard R. Hughes Sr. a successful inventor and businessman from Missouri. He had English and some French Huguenot ancestry, was a descendant of John Gano, the minister who baptized George Washington.
His father patented the two-cone roller bit, which allowed rotary drilling for petroleum in inaccessible places. The senior Hughes made the shrewd and lucrative decision to commercialize the invention by leasing the bits instead of selling them, obtained several early patents, founded the Hughes Tool Company in 1909. Hughes' uncle was the famed novelist and film-director Rupert Hughes. At a young age, Hughes showed interest in technology. In particular, he had great engineering aptitude and built Houston's first "wireless" radio transmitter at age 11, he went on to be one of the first licensed ham-radio operators in Houston, having the assigned callsign W5CY. At 12, Hughes was photographed in the local newspaper, identified as the first boy in Houston to have a "motorized" bicycle, which he had built from parts from his father's steam engine, he was an indifferent student, with a liking for mathematics and mechanics. He took his first flying lesson at 14, attended Fessenden School in Massachusetts in 1921.
He attended math and aeronautical engineering courses at Caltech. The red-brick house where Hughes lived as a teenager at 3921 Yoakum St. Houston became the headquarters of the Theology Department of the University of St. Thomas, his mother Allene died in March 1922 from complications of an ectopic pregnancy. Howard Hughes Sr. died of a heart attack in 1924. Their deaths inspired Hughes to include the establishment of a medical research laboratory in the will that he signed in 1925 at age 19. Howard Sr.'s will had not been updated since Allene's death, Hughes inherited 75% of the family fortune. On his 19th birthday, Hughes was declared an emancipated minor, enabling him to take full control of his life. From a young age Hughes became a enthusiastic golfer, he scored near-par figures, played the game to a two-three handicap during his 20s, for a time aimed for a professional golf career. He golfed with top players, including Gene Sarazen. Hughes played competitively and gave up his passion for the sport to pursue other interests.
Hughes used to play golf every afternoon at LA courses including the Lakeside Golf Club, Wilshire Country Club, or the Bel-Air Country Club. Partners included Ozzie Carlton. After Hughes hurt himself in the late 1920s, his golfing tapered off, after his F-11 crash, Hughes was unable to play at all. Hughes withdrew from Rice University shortly after his father's death. On June 1, 1925 he married Ella Botts Rice, daughter of David Rice and Martha Lawson Botts of Houston, they moved to Los Angeles. They moved into the Ambassador Hotel, Hughes proceeded to learn to fly a Waco, while producing his first motion picture, Swell Hogan. Hughes enjoyed a successful business career beyond engineering and filmmaking, though many of his career endeavors involved varying entrepreneurial roles; the Summa Corporation was the name adopted for the business interests of Howard Hughes after he sold the tool division of Hughes Tool Company in 1972. The company serves as the principal holding company for Hughes' business investments.
It is involved in aerospace and defense, mass media and hospitality industries, but has maintained a strong presence in a wide variety of industries including real estate, petroleum drilling and oilfield services, entertainment