Howard University

Howard University is a private, federally chartered black university in Washington, D. C, it is categorized among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity" and accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. From its outset Howard has been open to people of all sexes and races, it offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate and professional degrees. U. S. News & World Report ranked Howard tied for 104th among national universities, second among black colleges and universities for 2020. Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 40 on the Bloomberg Businessweek business school rankings; the Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students. The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms. Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of black clergymen.

Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Medicine; the new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard served as President of the University from 1869 to 1874; the U. S. Congress chartered Howard on March 10, 1867, much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, tuition.. After five years of being an institution, Howard University became the place of education for over 150,000 freed slaves. Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was made a dormitory for women. From 1926 to 1960, Howard University's first African-American president, Dr. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson, Sr. reigned. The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique of occupying stools at a local cafeteria which denied service to African Americans blocking other customers waiting for service; this tactic was to play a prominent role in the Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D. C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944. Stokely Carmichael known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist.

Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English; the first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People", highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War, his concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable." In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the voting rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives.

In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community. In 1975, Jeanne Sinkford became the first female dean of any American dental school when she was appointed as the dean of Howard University's school of dentistry. In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, occupied the university's Administration building. Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned. In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence and dysfunction at the highest level."

This came on the heels of several criticisms of its management. The

Antonio Fernandez Carvajal

Antonio Fernandez Carvajal —in Portuguese: António Fernandes Carvalhal—was a Portuguese-Jewish merchant, who became the first endenizened English Jew. He was born around 1590 at Fundão, Portugal, he appears to have left Fundão on account of the persecution of the Inquisition and, proceeding to the Canary Islands, acquired much property there, made many commercial connections, which led him to London, where he settled in Leadenhall Street. In 1649 the council of state appointed him one among the five persons who received the army contract for corn. In 1653 Carvajal was reported as owning a number of ships trading to the East and West Indies, to Brazil, to the Levant, he dealt in all kinds of merchandise, including gunpowder, hides, pictures and corn and silver, is reported to have brought to England, on average, £100,000 worth of silver per annum. In the early days of his residence in England, Carvajal used to attend mass at the Spanish ambassador's chapel, in 1645 was informed against for not attending church.

In 1650, when war broke out with Portugal, Carvajal's ships were exempted from seizure, though he was nominally a Portuguese subject. In 1655 he and his two sons were granted denizenship as English subjects. Oliver Cromwell made arrangements by which Carvajal's goods were transported from the Canaries in an English ship which passed under Dutch colors; when Menasseh Ben Israel came to England in 1655 to petition Parliament for the return of the Jews to England, though his own position was secured, associated himself with the petition. Carvajal, besides advancing money to Parliament on cochineal, had been of service to Cromwell in obtaining information as to the Royalists' doings in Holland. One of his servants, alias Butler, a relative, Alonzo di Fonseca Meza, acted as intelligencers for Cromwell in Holland, reported about Royalist levies and spies, the relations between Charles II and Spain, it was to Carvajal. Under the date of February 4, 1657, Burton, in his diary, states: The Jews, those able and general intelligencers whose intercourse with the Continent Cromwell had before turned to profitable account, he now conciliated by a seasonable benefaction to their principal agent resident in England.

According to Lucien Wolf, in 1658 a cargo of logwood belonging to Carvajal was seized by the customs officers. He assembled his servants and friends, broke open the government warehouses, carried off his merchandise; the litigation to which this gave rise was interrupted only by Carvajal's death, which occurred in London. Carvajal died after surgery for his gallstones on 10 November 1659. Samuel Pepys, operated on by the same surgeon, attended his funeral and noted it in his diary on 3 December. Epitaph given in Jew. Quart. Rev. i.92-93. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore. "Carvajal, Antonio Fernandez". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. L. Wolf, The First English Jew, in Transactions of the Historical Society of England, ii.14–16. "Carvajal, Antonio Fernandez". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. P. 437. Http://

Bashir Jehangiri

Justice Muhammad Bashir Jehangiri was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan from 7 January 2002 to 31 January 2002. He served as Chief Justice of the Peshawar High Court, he was born on 1 February 1937 in Mansehra. He matriculated from M. L. High School, Lahore in 1953, he stood third in F. A. in the University and B. A. from Abbottabad, in 1958 and 1960 respectively. He did his L. L. B from University Law College Peshawar in 1962 and joined the Bar in February 1963. After qualifying the West Pakistan P. C. S. Branch Exam, he was appointed as Civil Judge on 7 March 1966. After serving at various stations as Civil Judge and Senior Civil Judge, he was promoted as Additional District and Session Judge on 6 July 1974, he served as Judicial Commissioner, Northern Areas in Gilgit from 26 July 1979. On 23 December 1982 he took over charge as Special Judge, Customs and Anti-Smuggling North-West Frontier Province, Peshawar on 12 March 1983 and relinquished this charge on 15 September 1984, he took over charge as Joint Secretary, Ministry of Justice and Parliamentary Affairs, Islamabad, in December 1984.

He attended an advanced course in Public Administration and Development at the National Institute of Public Administration, Lahore, in 1977 and Shariah Course in the Shariah Academy, International Islamic University. Islamabad, from December 1983 to February 1984, he attended the United Nations Institute for Asia and Far East Course on "Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders" at Fuchu, Japan in 1986. He participated as a Legal Member of the Pakistan Delegation in the UN sponsored Geneva Accords on Afghanistan held on 14 April 1988, he was elevated to the Peshawar High Court on 1 October 1988. He attended the World Law Conference, held in Argentina in 1993, he was elevated as Adhoc Judge on 22 February 1995 and as Judge of Supreme Court on 30 March 1996. He represented Pakistan at the Chief Justices’ Conference and Law Asia Annual Meeting held in Manila, Philippines in August 1997. Jehangiri was appointed as Acting Wafaqi Mohtasib on 10 February 2000. In this capacity he chaired the meeting of the Asian Ombudsman Association held from 17–20 July 2000 in Manila, Philippines.

Wafaqi Mohtasib represented Asian Region as President of Asian Ombudsman Association and attended the 7th International Conference of the International Ombudsman Institute held in Durban, South Africa from 27 October to 3 November 2000. Jehangiri retired as the Chief Justice of Pakistan in January 2002. Chief Justices of Pakistan "Jehangiri sworn in chief justice". Dawn. 8 January 2002