|Howard Normal and Theological School for the Education of Teachers and Preachers|
|Motto||Veritas et Utilitas|
Motto in English
|"Truth and Service"|
|Established||March 2, 1867|
|Endowment||$685.8 million (2016)|
|President||Wayne A.I. Frederick|
|Campus||Urban; 300 acres (1.2 km2)|
|Colors||Blue, White and Red|
|Nickname||Bison & Lady Bison|
|NCAA Division I – MEAC|
Howard University (HU or simply Howard) is a federally chartered, private, coeducational, nonsectarian, historically black university (HBCU) in Washington, D.C. It is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with higher research activity and is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education.
From its outset Howard has been nonsectarian and open to people of all sexes and races. Howard offers more than 120 areas leading to undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees.
Howard is classified as a Tier 1 national university (No. 89) and ranks second among HBCUs by U.S. News & World Report. Howard is the only HBCU ranked in the top 40 on the Bloomberg Businessweek college rankings. The Princeton Review ranked the school of business first in opportunities for minority students and in the top five for most competitive students. The National Law Journal ranked the law school among the top 25 in the nation for placing graduates at the most successful law firms. Howard has produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2009, Howard University produced a Marshall Scholar, two Truman Scholars, twenty-two Fulbright Scholars and ten Pickering Fellows. In 2011, the Huffington Post named Howard the second best-dressed college in the nation. Howard is the most comprehensive HBCU in the nation and produces the most black doctorate recipients of any university.
- 1 History
- 2 Campus
- 3 Organization
- 4 Academics
- 5 Student life
- 6 Notable alumni
- 7 In popular culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Shortly after the end of the American Civil War, members of The First Congregational Society of Washington considered establishing a theological seminary for the education of African-American clergymen. Within a few weeks, the project expanded to include a provision for establishing a university. Within two years, the University consisted of the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Medicine. The new institution was named for General Oliver Otis Howard, a Civil War hero, who was both the founder of the University and, at the time, Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. Howard later served as President of the University from 1869–74.
U.S. Congress chartered Howard on March 2, 1867, and much of its early funding came from endowment, private benefaction, and tuition. (In the 20th and 21st centuries an annual congressional appropriation, administered by the U.S. Department of Education, funds Howard University and Howard University Hospital.)
Many improvements were made on campus. Howard Hall was renovated and made a dormitory for women. J. Stanley Durkee, Howard's last white president, was appointed in 1918.
The Great Depression years of the 1930s brought hardship to campus. Despite appeals from Eleanor Roosevelt, Howard saw its budget cut below Hoover administration levels during the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Howard University has played an important role in American history and the Civil Rights Movement on a number of occasions. Alain Locke, Chair of the Department of Philosophy and first African American Rhodes Scholar, authored The New Negro, which helped to usher in the Harlem Renaissance. Ralph Bunche, the first Nobel Peace Prize winner of African descent, served as chair of the Department of Political Science. Beginning in 1942, Howard University students pioneered the "stool-sitting" technique of occupying stools at a local cafeteria which denied service to African Americans blocking other customers waiting for service. This tactic was to play a prominent role in the later Civil Rights Movement. By January 1943, students had begun to organize regular sit-ins and pickets at cigar stores and cafeterias around Washington, D.C. which refused to serve them because of their race. These protests continued until the fall of 1944. Stokely Carmichael, also known as Kwame Toure, a student in the Department of Philosophy and the Howard University School of Divinity, coined the term "Black Power" and worked in Lowndes County, Alabama as a voting rights activist. Historian Rayford Logan served as chair of the Department of History. E. Franklin Frazier served as chair of the Department of Sociology. Sterling Allen Brown served as chair of the Department of English.
|1867||Charles B. Boynton|
|1869–1874||Oliver Otis Howard|
|1875–1876||Edward P. Smith|
|1877–1889||William W. Patton|
|1906–1912||Wilbur P. Thirkield|
|1912–1918||Stephen M. Newman|
|1918–1926||J. Stanley Durkee|
|1926–1960||Mordecai Wyatt Johnson|
|1960–1969||James Nabrit Jr.|
|1969–1989||James E. Cheek|
|1995–2008||H. Patrick Swygert|
|2008–2013||Sidney A. Ribeau|
|2013–present||Wayne A.I. Frederick|
The first sitting president to speak at Howard was Calvin Coolidge in 1924. His graduation speech was entitled, "The Progress of a People," and highlighted the accomplishments to date of the blacks in America since the Civil War. His concluding thought was, "We can not go out from this place and occasion without refreshment of faith and renewal of confidence that in every exigency our Negro fellow citizens will render the best and fullest measure of service whereof they are capable."
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson delivered a speech to the graduating class at Howard, where he outlined his plans for civil rights legislation and endorsed aggressive affirmative action to combat the effects of years of segregation of blacks from the nation's economic opportunities. At the time, the Voting Rights bill was still pending in the House of Representatives.
In 1975 the historic Freedman's Hospital closed after 112 years of use as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital. Howard University Hospital opened that same year and continues to be used as Howard University College of Medicine's primary teaching hospital with service to the surrounding community.
In 1989, Howard gained national attention when students rose up in protest against the appointment of then-Republican National Committee Chairman Lee Atwater as a new member of the university's board of trustees. Student activists disrupted Howard's 122nd anniversary celebrations, and eventually occupied the university's Administration building. Within days, both Atwater and Howard's President, James E. Cheek, resigned.
In April 2007, the head of the faculty senate called for the ouster of Howard University President H. Patrick Swygert, saying the school was in a state of crisis and it was time to end "an intolerable condition of incompetence and dysfunction at the highest level." This came on the heels of several criticisms of Howard University and its management. The following month, Swygert announced he would retire in June 2008. The university announced in May 2008 that Sidney Ribeau of Bowling Green State University would succeed Swygert as president. Ribeau appointed a Presidential Commission on Academic Renewal to conduct a year-long self-evaluation that resulted in reducing or closing 20 out of 171 academic programs. For example, they proposed closing the undergraduate philosophy major and African studies major.
Six years later, in 2013, university insiders again alleged the university was in crisis. In April, the vice chairwoman of the university's board of trustees wrote a letter to her colleagues harshly criticizing the university's president and calling for a vote of no confidence; her letter was subsequently obtained by the media where it drew national headline. Two months later, the university's Council of Deans alleged "fiscal mismanagement is doing irreparable harm," blaming the university's senior vice president for administration, chief financial officer and treasurer and asking for his dismissal. In October, the faculty voted no confidence in the university's board of trustees executive committee, two weeks after university president Sidney A. Ribeau announced he would retire at the end of the year. On October 1, the Board of Trustees named Wayne A.I. Frederick Interim President. In July 2014 Howard's Board of Trustees named Frederick as the school's 17th president.
In 2018, nearly 1,000 students held a sit-in demanding injunction over the administration's use of funding. After the student protest ended, faculty voted "no confidence" in the university president, chief operating officer, provost, and board of trustees.
The 256-acre (1.04 km2; 0.400 sq mi) campus often referred to as "The Mecca" is in northwest Washington. Major improvements, additions, and changes occurred at the school in the aftermath of World War I. New buildings were built under the direction of architect Albert Cassell. Howard's buildings and plant have a value of $567.6 million.
Howard University has several historic landmarks on campus, such as Andrew Rankin Memorial Chapel, Fredrick Douglass Memorial Hall, and the Founders Founders Library.
The university's Board of Trustees established the Howard University Gallary of Art in 1928. The gallery's permanent collection has grown to over 4,000 works of art and continues to serve as an academic resource for the Howard community.
Howard University has nine residence halls in which students can live: Drew Hall (male freshmen), College Hall North (female freshmen), Tubman Quadrangle (female freshmen), Cook Hall (male undergraduates), Bethune Annex (co-ed, undergraduates), Plaza Towers West (co-ed, for juniors and seniors only), Slowe Hall (co-ed), College Hall South (co-ed), and Plaza Towers East (co-ed, undergraduate honors program students, graduate students).
Howard University Hospital, opened in 1975 on the eastern end of campus, was built on the site of Griffith Stadium, in use from the 1890s to 1965 as home of the first, second and third incarnations of the MLB Senators, as well as the NFL's Washington Redskins, several college football teams (including Georgetown, GWU and Maryland) and part-time home of the Homestead Grays of the Negro National League.
Howard's most prominent research building is the Interdisciplinary Research Building (IRB). Opened in 2016, the multi-story, 81,670 square foot, state-of-the-art research facility was completed for $70 million. The IRB was designed to promote more collaborative and innovative research on campus.
The university is led by a Board of Trustees that includes a faculty trustee from the undergraduate colleges, a faculty trustee from the graduate and professional colleges serving 3-year terms, two student trustees, each serving 1-year terms, and three alumni-elected trustees, each serving 3-year terms.
Schools and colleges
- College of Engineering and Architecture
- College of Nursing & Allied Health Sciences
- College of Pharmacy
- Howard University College of Arts and Sciences
- Howard University College of Dentistry
- Howard University School of Business
- Howard University School of Communications
- Howard University College of Medicine
- Howard University School of Law
- Middle School of Mathematics and Science
- School of Divinity
- School of Education
- School of Social Work
Howard offers three highly selective honors programs for its most high-achieving undergraduate students: the College of Arts & Sciences Honors Program, the Executive Leadership Honors Program in the School of Business, and the Annenberg Honors Program in the School of Communications.
Howard University West
In 2017, Google Inc. announced it established a residency program named "Howard University West" on its campus in Mountain View, California, to help increase black representation in the tech industry. In fall 2018, the program expanded from a three-month summer program to a full academic year program. Rising juniors majoring in computer science participating in the program will learn from senior Google engineers, practice the latest coding techniques, and experience tech culture in Mountain View for course credit towards their undergraduate degrees.
"The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center (MSRC) is recognized as one of the world's largest and most comprehensive repositories for the documentation of the history and culture of people of African descent in Africa, the Americas, and other parts of the world. The MSRC collects, preserves, and makes available for research a wide range of resources chronicling black experiences."
NASA University Research Center (BCCSO)
The Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation (BCCSO) is a NASA University Research Center at the Beltsville, Maryland campus of Howard University. BCCSO consists of a multidisciplinary group of Howard faculty in partnership with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Earth Sciences Division, other academic institutions, and government. This group is led by three Principal Investigators, Everette Joseph, also the director of BCCSO, Demetrius Venable and Belay Demoz. BCCSO trains science and academic leaders to understand atmospheric processes through atmospheric observing systems and analytical methods.
Howard University is home to The Hilltop, the award-winning (Princeton Review) student newspaper. Founded in 1924 by Zora Neale Hurston, The Hilltop enjoys a long legacy at the university, providing students with the ability to learn the newspaper industry.
Howard University is the publisher of The Journal of Negro Education, which began publication in 1932. The Howard University Bison Yearbook is created, edited and published during the school year to provide students a year-in-review. Howard University also publishes the Capstone, the official e-newsletter for the university; and the Howard Magazine, the official magazine for the university, which is published three times a year.
Howard University Libraries
- The Founders Library, the main library, founded in January 1939.
- The School of Business Library
- The School of Divinity Library
- The School of Social Work Library
- The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center
- The Channing Pollock Theatre Collection
- The Patent and Trademark Resource Center
- The Undergraduate Library (UGL).
- Afro-American Studies Center.
The U.S. students come from the following regions: New England 2%, Mid-West 8%, South 22%, Mid-Atlantic 55%, and West 12%. Nearly 4% of the student body are international students. Howard University is 86.1% African-American/Black.
Howard produced four Rhodes Scholars between 1986 and 2017. Between 1998 and 2009, Howard University produced a Marshall Scholar, two Truman Scholars, twenty-two Fulbright Scholars and ten Pickering Fellows.
There are over 200 student organizations and special interest groups established on campus.
In 2006, Howard's six-year graduation rate was 67.5%. In 2009, 1,270 of the 1,476 full-time freshmen enrolled were found to have financial need (86%). Of these, Howard could meet the full financial aid needs of 316 freshmen. Howard's average undergraduate student's indebtedness at graduation is $16,798.
Howard faculty include: member of Congress from Maryland Roscoe Bartlett, blood shipment pioneer Charles Drew, Emmy-winning actor Al Freeman Jr., suffragist Elizabeth Piper Ensley, civil rights lawyer Charles Hamilton Houston, media entrepreneur Cathy Hughes, marine biologist Ernest Everett Just, professor of surgery LaSalle D. Leffall Jr., political consultant Ron Walters, novelist and diplomat E. R. Braithwaite, filmmaker Haile Gerima, and psychiatrist Francis Cress Welsing.
Greek letter organizations
Howard University is the founding site of the National Pan-Hellenic Council (NPHC) and five of the nine NPHC organizations. The most prestigious chapters (Alpha Chapters) of Alpha Kappa Alpha (1908), Omega Psi Phi (1911), Delta Sigma Theta (1913), Phi Beta Sigma (1914), and Zeta Phi Beta (1920) were established on Howard's campus. However, the Beta Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha was the first to appear in 1907. Also in 1920, the Xi Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi appeared on campus, followed by the Alpha Phi Chapter of Sigma Gamma Rho in 1939, and the Alpha Tau Chapter of Iota Phi Theta in 1983.
Other notable Greek letter organizations registered at Howard include Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi, Delta Sigma Pi, Phi Sigma Pi, Alpha Phi Omega, Alpha Nu Omega, Alpha Kappa Psi, Phi Sigma Rho, Gamma Iota Sigma, Phi Mu Alpha, Sigma Alpha Iota, Gamma Sigma Sigma, Kappa Kappa Psi, Tau Beta Sigma and Phi Alpha Delta.
Howard Homecoming week is the most prominent and richest cultural tradition of the institution. Over 100,000 of alumni, students, special guests, and visitors are in attendance to patronize the many events and attractions affiliated with the festive week on and near campus. While the specific calendar of events changes from year to year, many of the traditional homecoming events include the Homecoming Football Game and Tailgate, Pep Rally, Coronation Ball, Greek Step-Show (Howard Greeks only), and Fashion Show. After a two-year hiatus, the Yardfest also returned in 2016 as one of the cherished traditions.
Springfest is an annual tradition that was created by the Undergraduate Student Association (UGSA) to celebrate the arrival of spring. Springfest is similar to Howard's homecoming week in the fall but on a smaller scale and more emphasis on the student body. Springfest events traditionally include the Fashion Show, Greek Step-Show (Howard Greeks only), Vendor Fair, Poetry Showcase, Beauty Conference, Charity Basketball Game, and a major community service event. The schedule of events changes slightly each year.
The Bison Ball and Excellence Awards is an annual black tie gala hosted by the Howard University Student Association (HUSA). A select number of students, faculty, organizations, and administrators from the Howard community are honored for their exceptional accomplishments. This event takes place near the end of every spring semester.
Resfest week is a Howard tradition that involves freshmen living in residence halls on campus competing in several organized competitions. This event takes place near the end of every spring semester on campus.
- Ben Ali, co-founder and owner of Ben's Chili Bowl restaurant in Washington, D.C.
- Debbie Allen, choreographer, actress and singer
- Anthony Anderson, Emmy Award-nominated actor and star of the TV show Black-ish
- Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria
- Ras J. Baraka, mayor of Newark, New Jersey
- Antoine Bethea, NFL player
- Chadwick Boseman, actor
- Vanessa Lowery Brown - Democratic member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives who was convicted of bribery
- Roland Burris, Illinois State Comptroller, Illinois Attorney General, United States Senator,
- Stokely Carmichael, an activist and leader in the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power movement
- Ta-Nehisi Coates, writer, MacArthur Fellow
- Sean Combs, Grammy Award-winning rapper
- Elijah Cummings, congressman from Maryland
- Ossie Davis, actor, member of American Theater Hall of Fame
- Cheick Modibo Diarra, former Malian prime minister and NASA engineer
- David Dinkins, the first African-American mayor of New York City
- Rachel Dolezal, activist
- Mike Espy, the first African-American U.S. Secretary of Agriculture
- Adrian Fenty, former mayor of the District of Columbia
- Ronald Sapa Tlau, Rajya Sabha Member of Parliament of India.
- E. Franklin Frazier, sociologist, namesake of Howard University E. Franklin Frazier Center for Social Work Research
- Ray Goodlett, soccer player and pastor
- Lance Gross, actor
- Kamala Harris, first African-American, and first Indian-American female Attorney General & US Senator from California
- Patricia Roberts Harris, former U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and first African-American woman United States Ambassador
- Taraji P. Henson, Oscar and Emmy-nominated and Golden Globe-winning actress
- Shauntay Hinton, beauty pageant winner
- Gus Johnson, sports broadcaster
- Vernon Jordan, attorney, former president of National Urban League
- Laraaji, new-age musician and performer
- Ron "Amen-Ra" Lawrence, Grammy Award-winning producer and writer
- Ananda Lewis, television personality
- Thurgood Marshall, first African-American U.S. Supreme Court Justice
- Toni Morrison, Nobel Prize and Pulitzer Prize–winning author
- Shauneille Perry, stage director and playwright
- Phylicia Rashad, actress and singer
- Charlotte E. Ray, first African-American woman lawyer
- Kasim Reed, 59th mayor of Atlanta, Georgia
- Wendy Raquel Robinson, actress
- Clarissa Sligh, book artist
- Richard Smallwood, award-winning gospel artist
- Lori Stokes, television journalist
- Stan Verrett, anchor on the ESPN and ESPNews networks in the United States
- Josephine Turpin Washington, educator and writer
- Walter Washington, former mayor of Washington, D.C.
- Crystal Waters, recording artist
- Susan Kelechi Watson, actress
- Marlon Wayans, actor
- Nikki Woods, Tom Joyner Morning Show producer
- Tanekeya Word, artist
- Andrew Young, United States Ambassador
Chadwick Boseman, actor
In popular culture
- Many episodes of A Different World were inspired by Debbie Allen's experiences as a Howard student. Debbie Allen served as a producer of the show following the first season.
- Howard University portal
- A Bridge Across and Beyond by artist Richard Hunt (a sculpture at the Blackburn Fountain)
- List of presidents of Howard University
- American Student Dental Association
- Russell L. Adams
- Howard Theatre
- As of June 30, 2016. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2015 to FY 2016" (PDF). National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2017. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "HU's Enrollment Fluctuation".
- Howard University Identity Guidelines (PDF). May 22, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- "Howard University | Best College | US News". Colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
- "Bloomberg Best Business Schools; Bloomber". .bloomberg.com. December 11, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
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- "Competitive Scholarships". Howard University. 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- "Best dressed colleges of 2011". Ibtimes.com. June 15, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
- "TECH-Levers: HBCUs Produce the Most Black Alums Who Receive Doctorates in Science and Engineering". Hbcu-levers.blogspot.com. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
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- "Biography of Alan Locke".
- "Biography of Ralph Johnson Bunche".
- "April 1943 Pauli Murray organizes Howard student sit-ins". SNCC Digital Gateway.
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- "Information on Edward Franklin Frazier". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.
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- Nick Anderson (June 7, 2013). "Howard trustee says university in 'trouble'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Nick Anderson (July 1, 2013). "Howard academic deans allege 'fiscal mismanagement'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
- Nick Anderson (October 16, 2013). "Howard faculty group votes no confidence in key Board of Trustees committee". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "Howard University Press Release". Howard University. October 1, 2013. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
- Emma Brown and Wesley Robinson (July 22, 2014). "Wayne A.I. Frederick named 17th president of Howard University". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2013.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- Larimer, Sarah (April 12, 2018). "No confidence: Howard faculty members say in vote they have lost faith in school's leaders". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2018.
- "Howard Facts 2009 (PDF)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
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- "Howard's Gallery of Art Among Top 50 in the United States - Howard University". Retrieved June 29, 2016.
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- "Google opens Howard University West to train black coders". Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- "Newsroom". Retrieved February 4, 2018.
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- "About". Howard University Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation. Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
- "Beltsville Center for Climate System Observation (BCCSO)". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
- "Howard University's Founders Library named a national treasure".
- Cornish, Stephanie (March 2, 2016). "Howard University Library Named National Treasure - Afro".
- Willis, Kiersten (April 1, 2016). "Howard University Library Named National Treasure, to Be Modernized with New Technology".
- Matthews, Lopez. "LibGuides V2: Welcome to the Howard University Libraries: Contact Us". Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
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- "Howard University Demographics".
- "Largest HBCU in the Nation: Top 10 Black Colleges by Enrollment". August 25, 2018.
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- "Admission Profile - Howard University". www2.howard.edu.
- "Howard University 2009 Performance Plan". US Dept. of Education. February 14, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
- "College Search – Howard University". College Board. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
- Starr, Douglas P. (2000). Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and Commerce. New York: Quill. pp. 111–117. ISBN 978-0-7515-3000-1.
- "Acting Legend Al Freeman Jr. Remembered at Howard University - Howard University News Room". Howard.edu. March 16, 2000. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- "Denver cemetery's data "very valuable" to state". The Denver Post. December 23, 2005. Retrieved October 24, 2015.
- "E. R. Braithwaite, Author of 'To Sir, With Love,' Dies at 104". The New York Times. December 13, 2016.
- "Campus Tours".
- Wesley, Charles H. (1981). The History of Alpha Phi Alpha, A Development in College Life (14th ed.). Chicago, IL: Foundation. p. 43. ASIN: B000ESQ14W.
- "Howard University Libraries".
- "Howard's homecoming: a brand and a business". Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- "Howard University Homecoming Event Lineup". Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
- "Hollywood Goes to Howard University Homecoming". November 3, 2010. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- "Howard Homecoming 2011: The People, History, And Events". Retrieved May 20, 2017.[permanent dead link]
- "Howard Homecoming Committee Introduces 2016 Theme: BLUEPRINT". Retrieved May 20, 2017.
- "The Hilltop, March 23, 2017, Volume 101, Issue 23". Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- "Rapper Fabolous Hosts Howard University High End Fashion Show "No Limits" For Springfest - The Rapfest Presents". April 3, 2017. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- "Upcoming Events - Bison Ball & Excellence 2016 Awards - WHUT Howard University Television". Archived from the original on June 5, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- "Bison Ball + Excellence Awards - The Concrete Rose". Archived from the original on June 1, 2016. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- "Campus Virtual Tour: Residence Life at Howard University". Howard.edu. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
- "Representative Vanessa Lowery Brown - PA House of Representatives". web.archive.org. 21 June 2017.
- "Mali's new prime minister via Microsoft and Nasa". The Telegraph. London. April 17, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
- "Taraji P. Henson". IMDb. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
- "Binge-Watching 'A Different World': 17 Things You Totally Forgot About This Guilt-Free 'Cosby Show' Spin-Off". Retrieved February 4, 2018.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Howard University.|