Andrew Jackson was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837 and was the founder of the Democratic Party. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson served in Congress, as president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the common man against what he saw as a corrupt aristocracy and to preserve the Union. Jackson was born in 1767 somewhere near the border between North and South Carolina, into a recently immigrated Scots-Irish farming family. During the American Revolutionary War, Jackson acted as a courier, at age 13, he was captured and mistreated by the British. He moved to Tennessee and practiced as a lawyer, in 1791, he married Rachel Donelson Robards. The couple learned that Rachels previous husband had failed to finalize their divorce, Jackson served briefly in the U. S. House of Representatives and the U. S. Senate. Upon returning to Tennessee, he was appointed a judge on the Tennessee Supreme Court, in 1801, Jackson was appointed colonel in the Tennessee militia, and was elected its commander the following year.
He built the Hermitage plantation in 1804, in 1806, he killed a man in a duel over a matter of honor regarding his wife. He led Tennessee militia and U. S. Army regulars during the Creek War of 1813-1814, Jackson won a decisive victory in the War of 1812 over the British army at the Battle of New Orleans, making him into a national hero. Because Spanish Florida was a refuge for blacks escaping slavery, who allied with the Seminole Indians, Jackson invaded the territory in 1816 to destroy the Negro Fort. He led an invasion in 1818, as part of the First Seminole War, resulting in the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819. Jackson briefly served as Floridas first Territorial Governor in 1821, Jackson was nominated by several state legislatures to be a candidate for president in 1824. Although he earned a plurality in both the electoral and popular vote against three major candidates, Jackson failed to get a majority and lost in the House of Representatives to John Quincy Adams, Jacksons supporters founded what became the Democratic Party.
He ran again for president in 1828 against Adams and expanding upon his base of support in the West and South, he won in a landslide. He blamed the death of his wife, which occurred after the election, on the Adams campaigners, as president, Jackson faced a threat of secession by South Carolina over the Tariff of Abominations, which Congress had enacted under Adams. In contrast to several of his successors, he denied the right of a state to secede from the union or to nullify federal law. The Nullification Crisis was defused when the tariff was amended and Jackson threatened the use of force if South Carolina attempted to secede. Jackson believed strongly in majority rule and he supported direct election of senators and abolition of the Electoral College, believing that these reforms would provide average citizens with greater power
Robert Augustus Toombs was an American politician who was a founding father of the Confederacy and its first Secretary of State. A lawyer by training, he proved an impressive speaker in the U. S. House of Representatives, believing strongly in states’ rights and the extension of slavery, he found common ground with fellow-Georgian Alexander H. Stephens. He had supported the Compromise of 1850, but came round to advocating secession and he became a Brigadier-General, and was wounded at the Battle of Antietam. In 1863, Toombs resigned his commission in the Confederate Army to join the Georgia militia and he was subsequently denied higher promotion and resigned, continuing to feud with Davis to the last. When the war ended, he fled to Cuba, returning to Georgia, but he refused to request a pardon, thus sacrificing his political future. Born near Washington, Wilkes County, Robert Augustus Toombs was the child of Catherine Huling. His father died when he was five, and he entered Franklin College at the University of Georgia in Athens when he was just fourteen.
During his time at Franklin College, Toombs was a member of the Demosthenian Literary Society, shortly after his admission to the Georgia bar, Toombs married his childhood sweetheart, Julia Ann DuBois, they had three children. Toombs was admitted to the practice of law in Georgia in 1830 and his genial character, proclivity for entertainment, and unqualified success on the legal circuit earned Toombs the growing attention and admiration of his fellow Georgians. Their friendship forged a personal and political bond that effectively defined and articulated Georgias position on national issues in the middle decades of the nineteenth century. Toombs stood with most Whigs regarding the status of Texas as the 28th state, historian William Y. Thompson writes that Toombs was prepared to vote all necessary supplies to repel invasion. But he did not agree that the territory between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande was a part of Texas, from 1853–61 Toombs served in the United States Senate, only reluctantly joining the Democratic Party when lack of interest among other states doomed the Constitutional Union Party.
Throughout the 1840s and 1850s, Toombs fought to reconcile national policies with sectional interests and he had opposed the Annexation of Texas but vowed to defend the new state once it was annexed late in 1845. He opposed the Mexican-American War, President Polks Oregon policy, the Walker Tariff of 1846 and he denounced the Nashville Convention, opposed the secessionists in Georgia, and helped to frame the famous Georgia platform. His position and that of Southern Unionists during the decade 1850–60 has often been misunderstood and they disapproved of secession, not because they considered it wrong in principle, but because they considered it inexpedient. He took the view that the territories were the property of all the people of the United States. If the rights of the South were violated, Toombs declared, Toombs favored the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution, and the English Bill. However, his faith in the resiliency and effectiveness of the government to resolve sectional conflicts waned as the 1850s drew to a close
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The Democrats dominant worldview was once socially conservative and fiscally classical liberalism, especially in the rural South, since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social-liberal platform, supporting social justice. Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of progressives and centrists, the partys philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy, the party has united with smaller left-wing regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business, the New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.
After Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South, after the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most southern whites and many northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s, white Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level in the 1990s. However, African Americans became a major Democratic element after 1964, after 2000, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Americans, the LGBT community, single women and professional women moved towards the party as well. The Northeast and the West Coast became Democratic strongholds by 1990 after the Republicans stopped appealing to socially liberal voters there, the Democratic Party has retained a membership lead over its major rival the Republican Party. The most recent was the 44th president Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017, in the 115th Congress, following the 2016 elections, Democrats are the opposition party, holding a minority of seats in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a minority of governorships, and state legislatures, though they do control the mayoralty of cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D. C. The Democratic Party traces its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and that party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s, since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy both parties changed position several times and that party, the Democratic-Republican Party, came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812 the Federalists virtually disappeared and the national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The Democratic-Republican party still had its own factions, however.
As Norton explains the transformation in 1828, Jacksonians believed the peoples will had finally prevailed, through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president
Robert Charles Winthrop
Robert Charles Winthrop was an American lawyer and philanthropist and one time Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. He was a descendant of John Winthrop, robert Charles Winthrop was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Thomas Lindall Winthrop and wife Elizabeth Bowdoin Temple. He attended the prestigious Boston Latin School, and graduated from Harvard University in 1828, on March 12,1832, he married Elizabeth Cabot Blanchard, daughter of Francis Blanchard and wife Mary Ann Cabot, with whom he had three children. After Elizabeths death, he married his wife, Adele Granger Thayer, daughter of Francis Granger and Cornelia Rutson Van Rensselaer. After studying law with Daniel Webster he was admitted to the bar in 1831 and he served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1835 to 1840, and served as Speaker of the House of that body from 1838 to 1840. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1838, to date he is the last Speaker who was neither a Republican nor a Democrat.
He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts, winthrops views proved no more palatable to abolitionists than did Websters, and he failed to win reelection by the state legislature to either of Massachusetts Senate seats in 1851. He resigned without completing his term immediately following his election loss, that year, Winthrop actually won a popular plurality in the race for Massachusetts Governor but as the state Constitution required a majority, the election was thrown into the legislature. The same coalition of Democrats and Free Soilers defeated him again and his final venture into elected political office was as a presidential elector on the Whig ticket in 1852. Afterwards, Winthrop became an independent, unsuccessfully supporting Millard Fillmore, John Bell, with his political career over at the young age of 41, Winthrop spent the remainder of his life in literary and philanthropic pursuits. He was an early patron of the Boston Public Library and president of the Massachusetts Historical Society from 1855 to 1885.
He served as the president of the Massachusetts Bible Society for several years where he advocated that Christian morality was the condition of a free society. His most notable contributions came as permanent Chairman and President of the Peabody Education Fund Trustees and he became a noted orator, delivering the eulogy for George Peabody in 1870, and speaking at the ceremony that opened the Washington Monument in 1848. He died in Boston in 1894, and is interred in Mount Auburn Cemetery, robert Jr. s daughter Margaret Tyndal Winthrop married at 10 Walnut St. on November 28,1906 James Grant Forbes. James and Margaret were the parents of Rosemary Isabel Forbes, Rosemary married Richard John Kerry on February 8,1941. Richard and Rosemary were the parents of Secretary of State, Senator and 2004 Presidential candidate John Forbes Kerry, biographical Directory of the United States Congress
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
It ensued after South Carolina declared that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state. The US suffered an economic downturn throughout the 1820s, and South Carolina was particularly affected, many South Carolina politicians blamed the change in fortunes on the national tariff policy that developed after the War of 1812 to promote American manufacturing over its European competition. The controversial and highly protective Tariff of 1828 was enacted into law during the presidency of John Quincy Adams, the tariff was opposed in the South and parts of New England. By 1828, South Carolina state politics increasingly organized around the tariff issue and its opponents expected that the election of Jackson as President would result in the tariff being significantly reduced. In Washington, a split on the issue occurred between Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun, a native South Carolinian and the most effective proponent of the theory of state nullification.
On July 14,1832, before Calhoun had resigned the Vice Presidency in order to run for the Senate where he could effectively defend nullification, Jackson signed into law the Tariff of 1832. This compromise tariff received the support of most northerners and half of the southerners in Congress, military preparations to resist anticipated federal enforcement were initiated by the state. The South Carolina convention reconvened and repealed its Nullification Ordinance on March 15,1833, the crisis was over, and both sides could find reasons to claim victory. The tariff rates were reduced and stayed low to the satisfaction of the South, by the 1850s the issues of the expansion of slavery into the western territories and the threat of the Slave Power became the central issues in the nation. Later in the decade the Alien and Sedition Acts led to the states rights position being articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. ”The key sentence, and the word nullification was used in supplementary Resolutions passed by Kentucky in 1799.
He was chairman of a committee of the Virginia Legislature which issued a book-length Report on the Resolutions of 1798 and this asserted that the state did not claim legal force. The declarations in such cases are expressions of opinion, unaccompanied by other effect than what they may produce upon opinion, the opinions of the judiciary, on the other hand, are carried into immediate effect by force. But, the four presidential terms spanning the period from 1800 to 1817 did little to advance the cause of states’ rights and much to weaken it. ”Over Jefferson’s opposition, the power of the federal judiciary, led by Federalist Chief Justice John Marshall, increased. Jefferson expanded federal powers with the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory, opposition to the War of 1812 was centered in New England. Delegates to a convention in Hartford, Connecticut met in December 1814 to consider a New England response to Madison’s war policy, the debate allowed many radicals to argue the cause of states’ rights and state sovereignty.
In the end, moderate voices dominated and the product was not secession or nullification. After the conclusion of the War of 1812 Sean Wilentz notes, This spirit of nationalism was linked to the tremendous growth and economic prosperity of this post war era
Herschel Vespasian Johnson
Herschel Vespasian Johnson was an American politician. He was the 41st Governor of Georgia from 1853 to 1857, Johnson was born near Farmers Bridge in Burke County, Georgia. In 1834, he graduated from the University of Georgia and he studied at the private law school of Judge William T. Gould in Augusta and was admitted to the bar. He moved to Jefferson County in 1839 and began to practice law in Louisville, in 1844, he moved to the state capitol and continued to practice law. He unsuccessfully ran for Congress in 1843, in 1844 he was a presidential elector, and cast his ballot for James K. Polk and George M. Dallas. Johnson served from February 4,1848 to March 3,1849 and he returned to Georgia and served as a circuit court judge from 1849 to 1853. In 1853, he was elected Governor of Georgia, re-elected in 1855, after he finished his term as governor in 1857, Johnson County, Georgia was named in his honor. In 1860, when the Democratic Party refused to add the support of extending slavery to the territories to its platform.
To try to recapture some southern votes, Johnson was chosen as the northern Democrats nominee as the mate of presidential candidate Stephen A. Douglas. He was a slave owner, in 1840, he owned 34 slaves in Jefferson County, Georgia. In 1850, he owned 7 slaves in Milledgeville, Georgia and he owned 60 additional slaves in Jefferson County, Georgia. In 1860, he owned 115 slaves in Jefferson County, Georgia, in 1861 he served as a delegate to the state secession convention, and opposed secession from the Union. When it became clear that Georgia would secede, however, he acquiesced out of loyalty to his state, in the Confederate Senate, he opposed conscription and the suspension of habeas corpus. After the Civil War, Johnson was a leader in the Reconstruction and was named head of the Georgia constitutional convention. Upon Georgias readmission to the Union in 1866, he was chosen as a U. S. Senator and he again became a circuit court judge in 1873 and served until his death in 1880 in Louisville, Georgia.
List of signers of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession List of American Civil War generals United States Congress, biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-04-24 Herschel Vespasian Johnson, biographical Sketch of Hon. Herschel V. Johnson Sunny South, June 26,1875
James Guthrie (Kentucky)
Senator from Kentucky and served as Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of President Franklin Pierce. James Guthrie was born to General Adam and Hannah Guthrie near Bardstown, Nelson County, though his immediate ancestors came from Ireland, Guthrie was of Scottish descent. He was lineally descended from a martyred Scottish clergyman of the same name, Guthries father was a pioneer and Indian fighter from Virginia who developed a large plantation in Kentucky and served in the states General Assembly from 1800 to 1805, and again in 1808. Guthrie received his education in a log schoolhouse. Due to his fathers service, he completed his studies at McAllisters Military Academy in Bardstown. In 1812, Guthrie found employment on a flatboat transporting goods down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to New Orleans, Louisiana. After three such trips, he decided this work was unfulfilling, along with Ben Hardin and Charles A. Wickliffe and he was admitted to the bar in 1817, and commenced practice in Bardstown.
In 1821, Guthrie married Eliza Churchill Prather, the couple had three daughters, Mary Elizabeth, Ann Augusta, and Sarah Julia, Eliza Prather Guthrie died in 1836. Sarah Julia Guthrie married chemist J. Lawrence Smith, after whom the J. Lawrence Smith Medal is named, in 1820, Governor John Adair appointed Guthrie as Commonwealths Attorney for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, whereupon Guthrie relocated to Louisville. In 1824, he served on a committee whose aim was to obtain city status for Louisville, the effort failed, but Guthrie was elected to the towns board of trustees, and became its chair. The following year, Guthrie was chosen as director of the newly formed Louisville and he was instrumental in securing federal funding for a bypass around the Falls of the Ohio, although newly elected president Andrew Jackson cut off these funds in 1829. Guthrie secured private funds and completed the canal in late 1830, within a few years, steamboats became too wide for the canal, and it became more of an impediment than an aid.
Guthrie was elected to represent Jefferson County as a Democrat to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1827, in his first year, he chaired the Internal Improvements Committee. In this capacity, he promoted construction of a number of roads and canals, for the balance of his career in the House, he chaired the Committee on the Courts of Justice. In 1828, Guthrie mustered enough support to secure city status for Louisville and he was elected to the new city council, and quickly became chair of its most powerful committee, the finance committee. Guthrie served in the House until 1831, when he was elected to the Kentucky Senate and he was twice chosen President Pro Tempore of that body. He served on the Finance and Education Committees, in 1834, he helped found the State Bank of Kentucky, and served as one of its directors. He unsuccessfully ran for a seat in the U. S. Senate in 1835, back in Louisville, Guthrie called for the construction of a new building to house both city and county government offices
Georgia's 6th congressional district
Georgias 6th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. It was represented by Republican Tom Price until he was sworn in as Secretary of Health, a special election will be held to fill the vacant seat. The districts boundaries have been following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia. The first election using the new boundaries was the 2012 congressional elections. The district consists of many of the suburbs of Atlanta and includes portions of eastern Cobb County, northern Fulton County. The district includes all or portions of the cities of Roswell, Johns Creek, Alpharetta, Sandy Springs, Chamblee, Cobb DeKalb Fulton Georgias 6th Congressional District has existed since the 29th Congress, the first Congress in which U. S. Representatives were elected from districts rather than at-large, representative for the first time in the 13th Congress. The district was represented by former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich from 1979 to 1999, the District has been represented by a Republican consistently since 1979, the longest in the state.
As of February 2017, there are three members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgias 6th congressional district who are currently living at this time. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, the Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. PDF map of Georgias 6th district at nationalatlas. gov Georgias 6th congressional district at GovTrack. us