Howick is an eastern suburb of Auckland, New Zealand, forming part of what is sometimes called East Auckland. Due to the numerous remaining heritage buildings and other historical remnants from its early European settlement past, it has been called "perhaps Auckland's most conscious place"; the local iwi was the Ngai Tai people of Tainui descent. They had lived there for around 300 years with pa at Te Waiarohia and Tuwakamana; the Howick and Whitford areas were part of the Fairburn claim. William Thomas Fairburn, with his wife and family, established a Church Missionary Society Mission Station at Maraetai in 1836; the local Māori insisted they buy the 40,000 acres between the Tamaki and Wairoa Rivers to prevent attack by the Ngapuhi and Waikato tribes. Fairburn bought the land with his life savings. In 1840, following the Treaty of Waitangi, the Government took 36,000 acres which it used for the Fencible settlements of Otahuhu and Howick and sold most of the remaining land to settlers. Howick itself is named after Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl Grey as Viscount Howick, Secretary for the Colonies in the British Parliament and was responsible for the Royal New Zealand Fencible Corps immigration scheme.
The suburb was therefore established in 1847 as a fencible settlement, where soldiers were given land with the implied understanding that in wartime, they would be raised as units to defend it. A large amount of the early features from this time have been retained; the Māori recognised the advantages of co-operation and trade. Māori labourers built the Fencibles cottages under Royal Engineers supervision, although it was noted that the Europeans had to live in raupo huts, having been falsely promised that houses would be available for them and their families. There were about 250 Fencibles in Howick. Local Māori had been taught to write by the Fairburn LMS missionaries at Maraetai; the Fencibles and their families were poor with no capital apart from a small number of officers. About half were half Protestant. Quite a few of the adults were illiterate. 101 Howick fencibles served with their sons in the 1860s New Zealand Wars. Howick's links to Auckland's pioneering and Fencible past has influenced its development and is evident in the names of many streets.
Others are named for British military heroes or battles. Bleakhouse was the name given to a Fencible officer's house built in Bleakhouse Rd for Surgeon-Captain John Bacot who became a magistrate in Howick. Other roads such as Bacot, Fencible Drive, Montressor Place and Sale Street, plus many others have Fencible connexions, e.g. Sir Robert Sale was one of the ships. Montressor Place was named for Captain Charles Henry Montressor-Smith who arrived in Howick with the First Battalion of Fencibles in 1847, he moved to a property in neighbouring Pakuranga, where his house, known as Bell House, still stands at the end of Bell Rd next to the Howick Historical Village. Moore St was named after General Sir John Moore, a British military hero, who lived from 1761–1809. General Moore fought against Napoleon alongside Sir David Baird for whom Baird St was named and he died at Corunna during the Peninsular War whilst serving under the Duke of Wellington. At Corunna he was attended by Dr J. Bacot, father of the Howick Fencible doctor, who lived in Bleakhouse.
Moore St was part of the original Fencible village and was sub-divided into one acre allotments down to Rodney St. People will, no doubt, recognise that Wellington and Nelson Sts spring from the most famous of British war heroes, Lord Nelson and the Duke of Wellington and that Selwyn Rd takes its name from the first Bishop of New Zealand, George Augustus Selwyn. There are streets such as Granger Road named for John Granger, manager of the brickworks, which once stood at Little Bucklands Beach near the rock outcrop where the Bucklands Beach Centre board clubrooms now stand, before moving to Whitford. Litten Rd and John Gill Rd are named after landowner families. An Irishman, John Gill, settled in Howick in the 1850s, his family farmed the land, now Cockle Bay and Shelly Park. Litten Road is the boundary of one of the old Gill-Litten farms. To the north of Picton Street, the main street of Howick is Stockade Hill. In 1863 a field work was constructed on what is now called Stockade Hill, for the purpose of defending Auckland from Māori who might advance overland from the south, or by canoes from the Firth of Thames.
The ditches of the stockade can still be seen today. In the centre is a war memorial where services are held each ANZAC Day. Settlement in Howick centred around the domain, the village developed as a service centre for the prosperous farming community; the centre of Howick shifted to Picton Street, now the centre. It became popular as a retirement and seaside holiday location. In 1865 Howick became a road board district; the 1930s saw the construction of a concrete all-weather road running all the way from Howick through Pakuranga to Panmure. This allowed the rapid passage of goods to and from Auckland; this concrete road can still be seen, on the highway between Howick and Pakuranga. From the late 1940s to the 1970s the Howick area experienced rapid growth, when in 1947, at its centena
Cicero's oration Pro Archia Poeta is the published literary form of his defense of Aulus Licinius Archias, a poet accused of not being a Roman citizen. The accusation is believed to have been a political move against Lucullus through Archias; the poet was Greek but had been living in Rome for an extended period of time. A letter from Cicero to Titus Pomponius Atticus in the year following the trial makes mention of Archias, but there is no conclusive evidence about the outcome of the trial; the oration was rediscovered in Liège by Petrarch in 1333. Licinius Archias was born in Antioch around 120 BC and arrived in Rome in 102 BC, it was here that he earned a living as a poet and gained the patronage of the Roman general and politician L. Lucullus. Archias wrote poems of the general's military exploits, in 93 BC, Lucullus helped him gain citizenship of the municipium of Heraclea. Thereafter, Archias was set up with a permanent residence in Rome in preparation for achieving full Roman citizenship.
It was in Rome where Archias became a mentor and teacher of Cicero in his early education in rhetoric. Archias had become eligible for Roman citizenship under the Lex Iulia de Civitate Latinis Danda, passed in 90 BC, the Lex Plautia Papiria de Civitate Sociis Danda, passed in 89 BC; the Lex Iulia granted Roman citizenship to all citizens of municipia on the Italic peninsula, provided they had not fought against Rome in the Social War. In 65 BC, the Roman Senate passed the Lex Papia de Peregrinis, which challenged false claims of citizenship and expelled foreigners from Rome, it is most under this law that Archias was prosecuted. Cicero came to his former teacher's defense at his trial in 62 BC, only months after delivering the famous Catiline Orations; the prosecution laid out four accusations in its case against Archias: There was no official enrollment record for Archias as a citizen of Heraclea Archias did not maintain a permanent residence in Rome The records of the praetors of 89 BC, which list Archias’ name, are unreliable Archias does not appear on the Roman census rolls taken during the period in which he claimed to have lived there.
Cicero argued in defense: There was no official enrollment record for Archias in Heraclea because the records office had notoriously been destroyed during the Social War, representatives of Heraclea testified that Archias was in fact a citizen. He did have a residence in Rome, he appeared in the records of the praetor Metellus, which were reliable. Archias did not appear on the Roman census because he was away on campaign with Lucullus at each time they were taken; because of Archias' close association with Lucullus, the case was a political attack directed at the politician by one of his many enemies. Chief among his enemies, one who would stand to gain much by disgracing Lucullus was Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, better known as Pompey the Great. Cicero divided the speech by following the formal structure of the dispositio: Exordium, lines 1–41 Narratio, lines 42–89 Refutatio, lines 90–143 Confirmatio, lines 144–375 Peroratio, lines 376–397 Cicero begins his speech by gaining the goodwill or benevolentia of the judges.
He starts with his trademark periodic sentence by depicting his strengths of natural talent and strategy while appearing humble and inferior to the qualities of his client. He asks the court to indulge him with a novum genus dicendi "new manner of speaking", similar to the style of a poet; the greater part of the speech contains finely crafted rhetoric and an increased frequency of such poetical devices as hendiadys and the golden line. His aim is to draw attention to Archias' profession and appeal to his value in Roman culture, he reveals this thesis in lines 20–22: Etenim omnes artes quae ad humanitatem pertinent habent quoddam commune vinculum et quasi cognatione quadam inter se continentur."To be sure, all arts which are relevant to human culture have a certain common bond, are connected, one to another, by a sort of, as it were, kindred relationship."He continues with this approach in the final lines of this section where he proposes that if Archias were not enrolled as a citizen, his virtuous qualities should compel us to enroll him.
Cicero begins his account of Archias' life and travels through Asia and Greece during the poet's early career before his first arrival in Rome. He says that he was yet only sixteen or seventeen years old, wearing the striped toga or praetextatus, when he began his studies in the arts and gained the attention of some of Rome's most influential citizens. Cicero emphasizes the stature of those who gave patronage to Archias by altering the usual word order. Lucullos vero et Drusum et Octavios et Catonem et totam Hortensiorum domum devinctam consuetudine cum teneret, adficiebatur summo honore, quod eum non solum colebant qui aliquid percipere atque audire studebant, verum etiam si qui forte simulabant. "Lucullus and Drusus and Octavius, Cato and the whole house of Hortensii, since he held them bound by close social ties, he was treated by them with the highest of honors. While naming the law under which Archias was granted citizenship at Heraclea, Cicero begins with the verb to emphasize that citizenship was indeed granted.
In this section, Cicero discredits the four points raised against his client. He uses dramatic rhetoric to discredit the case of his opponent, whom he here names, he starts with two chiastic structures identifying his witnesses, Lucius Lucullus and the embassy, ridicules
Alexander Heid is an American computer security consultant, white hat hacker, business executive. Heid is a co-founder of the South Florida hacker conference and hacker group known as HackMiami, serves as the chief research officer of the New York City information security firm SecurityScorecard. Alexander Heid grew up in Miami and attended Barbara Goleman Senior High School. Alexander Heid serves as chief research officer of the New York City information security firm SecurityScorecard. Heid joined the company in 2014, working directly with Aleksandr Yampolskiy and Sam Kassoumeh to develop the signal collection methodologies that powers the cyber threat intelligence and third party management aspects of the platform. Heid is documented as being one of the first researchers to attribute the Equifax data breach to a vulnerability in Apache Struts 2 within the first hours of the breach announcement. Prior to SecurityScorecard, Heid was the head of threat intelligence at Prolexic. Heid developed counterattack and neutralization methodologies against DDoS campaigns by discovering vulnerabilities in the attacker's botnet command and control servers.
During the time at Prolexic, Heid was involved in the defense and mitigation of the Operation Ababil campaigns that were targeting the financial sector. Additionally, Heid has held senior security roles within the banking industry, specializing in web application vulnerability analysis and botnet cyber threat intelligence. Heid has given multiple presentations at hacker conferences demonstrating exploitable vulnerabilities within crimeware applications that can be leveraged by white hat researchers for the purposes of attribution and threat neutralization. Heid is the author of the 2013 cryptocurrency threat intelligence report, "Analysis of the Cryptocurrency Marketplace,", the first forensic report about malware threats relating to blockchain technologies; the report is ranked as one of the Top 1000'Most Cited Blockchain Publications' by BlockchainLibrary
The Association of German Transport Companies is the umbrella organization of organizations of transit authorities and other public transport companies. The membership fluctuates in the range of about 600 transport companies, it is a member of the International Association of Public Transport. The current organization Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen was founded in 1991 with main office in Cologne; the predecessor is the Verband öffentlicher Verkehrsbetriebe, founded in 1949 in Stuttgart with main office in Essen until 1959 when it moved to Cologne. There is a predecessor for the VöV as well deriving from umbrella railway organizations in the early 19th century that were forming a subsidiary of Verein Deutscher Straßen- und Kleinbahnverwaltungen in 1895 in Munich. With a broadened scope of non-railway transportation it changed its name to Verband Deutscher Verkehrsverwaltungen in 1928 with the main office in Berlin. With the Nazi Gleichschaltung its functions were integrated into the Reich Ministry of Transport requiring a new start after the war.
The association is not only an interest group but it serves as a standards organization within Germany. Its first project in post-war times was to settle on a tramway model that could replace the demolished vehicle fleet throughout; the DÜWAG was contracted to refurbish various tram chassis with a standard body in the range of 355 motor cars and 248 trailer cars from 1948 to 1950. The next generation tram type was named Verbandswagen with 206 motor cars and 326 trailer cars produced from 1951 to 1958. During the 1960s bus transport seemed to be more feasible than tram transport so that the association mandated the design of a new standard city bus with multiple generations produced by various manufacturers from 1968 to the mid of the 1980s. Starting in the mid-1980s a new series of buses is recommended. A modern field of standardization is the e-ticketing with a VDV-Kernapplikation that partner companies can use to provide new ticketing solutions. Https://www.vdv.de/english.aspx - English landing page of the association
Andrew P. Carter is a British structural biologist who works at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, he is known for his work on the microtubule motor dynein. Carter studied Biochemistry at the University of Oxford, graduating in 1999, he obtained a PhD in 2003 from the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology where he worked with Venki Ramakrishnan on the ribosome. He was a member of the team in Ramakrishnan's lab that solved the first X-ray crystal structure of the small ribosomal subunit. Carter determined structures of 30S bound to antibiotics and bound to the initiation factor IF1. Ramakrishnan shared the Nobel prize in Chemistry for the team's work on the 30S. Carter was a post-doc in Ron Vale's lab at University of California, San Francisco from 2003 to 2010. During his post-doc, he studied the molecular motor protein, dynein using X-ray crystallography and single molecule fluorescence microscopy, he became a group leader at MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge in 2010 where he uses X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, single molecule microscopy assays to understand how dynein transports cargo.
His group solved X-ray crystal structures of the dynein motor domain showing how it generates force to pull cargos along microtubules and reconstituted a recombinant dynein, showing how its processive movement is activated by cofactors/cargo adaptors. His group used cryoEM to solve the structure of dynein's cofactor dynactin and the full length dynein complex, they showed how dynein and dynactin come together in the presence of cargos and how this activates transport. 2001 Clare College Junior Research Fellowship 2002 Max Perutz PhD Student Prize 2003 Agouron Institute / Jane Coffin Childs Memorial Fund Fellowship 2006 Leukemia & Lymphoma Society Special Fellow Award 2010 Fellow of Clare College and Director of Studies for Biological Sciences 2012 EMBO Young Investigator Program 2012 Wellcome Trust New Investigator Award 2016 Member, European Molecular Biology Organisation 2018 Wellcome Trust Investigator Award
Croydon Health Services NHS Trust runs Croydon University Hospital. It provides services at Purley War Memorial Hospital, in Purley, as well as multiple clinics in the local area. Croydon University Hospital is on the London Road in northern Croydon, Purley War Memorial Hospital is located on the A235; the Trust was formed in 2010 by a merger of Croydon Community Health Services and Mayday Healthcare NHS Trust. It opened a new child development centre for children with special educational needs and disabilities in January 2017; the trust announced plans to appoint a joint chief executive with Croydon Clinical commissioning group in May 2019, the first such appointment in England. The two organisations share a chief nurse and a chief pharmacist; the Trust provides all levels of secondary care, including district general care to the Croydon area. The trust provides emergency medical and non-elective surgical care, not including major trauma care, at Croydon University Hospital. There are walk-in and book ahead GUM clinic services in the adjoining Croydon Sexual Health Centre, which serve a wide area due to the closing down of neighbouring sexual health services (such as the Courtyard Clinic at St. George's Hospital in Tooting.
In October 2013 as a result of the Keogh Review the Trust was put into the highest risk category by the Care Quality Commission The Trust predicts a deficit of £12.2m in 2013-14. It spent 7.8% of its total turnover on agency staff in 2014/5. It was put into special measures in July 2016 because of concerns over its financial position, when it had a deficit of £36 million, it was taken out of financial special measures in February 2017, after it reduced its expected deficit to £25 million. In 2019 it got the lowest score in England from the hospital inpatient survey down to patients' experience of being discharged, despite its supposed integration with mental health services and social care, it had the second lowest score on whether there were enough nurses. In December 2019 it was the fifth worst performing trust in England on the 4 hour A&E target, with only 48.2% of patients seen within 4 hours. List of NHS trusts Croydon Health Services NHS Trust