Howrah

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Howrah

Haora
Howrah Bridge
Howrah Bridge
Nickname(s): 
Sheffield of India[1]
Howrah is located in West Bengal
Howrah
Howrah
Location of Howrah
Howrah is located in India
Howrah
Howrah
Howrah (India)
Howrah is located in Asia
Howrah
Howrah
Howrah (Asia)
Coordinates: 22°35′45″N 88°15′49″E / 22.595770°N 88.263641°E / 22.595770; 88.263641Coordinates: 22°35′45″N 88°15′49″E / 22.595770°N 88.263641°E / 22.595770; 88.263641
Country India
StateWest Bengal
DivisionPresidency
DistrictHowrah
RegionGreater Kolkata
Government
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyHowrah Municipal Corporation
 • MayorRathin Chakraborty[2]
 • Police commissionerShri Devendra Prakash Singh
Area
 • Total63.55 km2 (24.54 sq mi)
Elevation
12 m (39 ft)
Population
 (2011)[5][6]
 • Total1,370,448
 • Density22,000/km2 (56,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialBengali[7][8]
 • Additional officialEnglish[8]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
711101 to 711114 and 711201 to 711204
Telephone code+91 33
ISO 3166 codeIN-WB
Vehicle registrationWB-11 to WB-14
Sex ratio904 /
Lok Sabha constituencyHowrah
Vidhan Sabha constituencyHowrah Uttar, Bally, Howrah Madhya, Howrah Dakshin, Shibpur
Websitewww.howrah.gov.in

Howrah (alternatively spelled Haora) is a metropolitan city and a municipal corporation of Howrah district in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the headquarter of the Howrah Sadar subdivision. Howrah is located on the western bank of the Hooghly River, it is a part of the area covered by Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA). Howrah is an important transportation hub of West Bengal and a major gateway for its twin city of Kolkata.

Etymology[edit]

The name came from the word HaorBengali word for a fluvial swampy lake, which is sedimentologically a depression where water, mud and organic debris accumulate.[citation needed] The word itself was rather used in eastern part of Bengal (now Bangladesh), as compared to the western part (now West Bengal).[9]

History[edit]

The history of the city of Howrah dates back over 500 years, but the district is situated in an area historically occupied by the ancient Bengali kingdom of Bhurshut. Venetian explorer Cesare Federici, who travelled in India during 1565–79, mentioned a place called Buttor in his journal circa 1578;[10] as per his description, this was a location into which large ships could travel (presumably the Hoogli River) and perhaps a commercial port.[10] This place is identifiable with the modern day neighbourhood of Bator.[10] Bator was also mentioned in the Bengali poetry Manasamangal written by Bipradas Pipilai in 1495.[11]

In 1713, the Bengal Council of the British East India Company, on the accession of the Emperor Farrukhsiyar, grandson of Aurangzeb, to the throne of Delhi, sent a deputation to him with a petition for a settlement of five villages on west bank of Hooghly river along with thirty-three villages on the east bank;[12] the list of villages appeared in the Consultation Book of the Council dated 4 May 1714. The five villages on the west bank on Hooghly river were: 'Salica' (Salkia), 'Harirah' (Howrah), 'Cassundeah' (Kasundia), 'Ramkrishnopoor' (Ramkrishnapur), and 'Battar' (Bator): all identifiable with localities of modern-day Howrah city;[13] the deputation was successful except for these five villages.[13] By 1728, most of the present-day Howrah district was part of either of the two zamindaris: Burdwan or Muhammand Aminpur.[13]

On 11 October 1760, as a result of the Battle of Plassey, the East India Company signed a treaty with Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal, to take over the control of Howrah district.[14] In 1787 the Hooghly district was formed, and in 1819 the whole of the present day Howrah district was added to it;[15] the Howrah district was separated from the Hooghly district in 1843.[16]

Map of Municipal Corporations and Municipalities.

Demographics[edit]

Dependent on definitions and geographical boundaries Howrah is measured as either the 2nd or 3rd largest city in West Bengal (behind Kolkata, and perhaps Asansol); as of 2011 Indian census, Howrah (not including the now re-incorporated Bally Municipality) had a population of 1,077,075 with 244,135 households.[5] [note 1] In 2011 Bally had a population of 293,373.[17]

In the 1896 census of British India, Howrah had a population of 84,069, which grew up to 157,594 in the 1901 census;[18][19] this rapid growth was due to abundance of job opportunities, which effected in a 100% increase in male population during this period, whereas the female population grew up only by 60%.[18]

Howrah town population by year[19][note 2]
Year Population % increase Males Females
1896 84,069
1901 157,594 99,904 57,690
1911 179,006 13.59 114,566 64,440
1921 195,301 9.10 128,472 66,829
1931 224,873 15.14 145,120 79,753
1941 379,292 68.67 246,959 132,333
1951 433,630 14.33 268,412 165,218
1961 532,692 22.84 325,493 207,199
1971 737,877 38.52 439,457 298,420
1981 744,429 0.89 421,636 322,793
1991 950,435 27.67 528,396 422,039
2001 1,007,532 6.01 547,068 460,464
2011[5] 1,077,075 561,220 515,855

Weather and climate[edit]

Howrah has a Tropical wet-and-dry climate (Köppen climate classification Aw); the summers here have a good deal of rainfall, while the winters have very little. The temperature averages 26.3 °C. Precipitation averages 1744 mm.[20]

Howrah
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
19
 
 
26
12
 
 
39
 
 
29
16
 
 
38
 
 
33
21
 
 
50
 
 
36
24
 
 
133
 
 
36
25
 
 
246
 
 
34
26
 
 
348
 
 
33
26
 
 
322
 
 
33
26
 
 
291
 
 
33
26
 
 
164
 
 
32
24
 
 
28
 
 
30
19
 
 
5.7
 
 
27
14
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Online[21]

Civic administration[edit]

Howrah Municipal Corporation is responsible for the administration of Howrah; as of August 2015, the Trinamool Congress is controlling the municipal board.[citation needed] The Howrah Police Commissionerate is responsible for law enforcement in the city.

History[edit]

Howrah Municipality was established in 1862.[22] From 1896, it started supplying filter water across the city.[23] During 1882–83, Bally Municipality was formed separating it out from Howrah;[18] as per the Howrah Municipal Corporation Act of 1980, Howrah became a municipal corporation in 1984.[24] The corporation area was divided into fifty wards, each of which elects a councillor;[25] the Mayor-in-council, which is led by Mayor and supported by Commissioner and officers, is responsible for administration of the corporation area.[25] In 2015, the Bally Municipality was re-amalgamated into Howrah Municipal Corporation which increased the total number of wards to 66.[26]

Other administrative offices[edit]

Howrah also hosts the temporary administrative office of the state of West Bengal; the office of the Chief Minister of state had been traditionally posted at the Writers' Building, however owing to renovation of the building, the administration has been occupying the Nabanna building.[27]

Development & growth[edit]

Even though it is the second largest city in the state, Howrah did not undertake appropriate infrastructure development in the last century.[citation needed] As a result, Howrah is continuing to face its perennial problems like traffic congestion, population explosion and pollution.[citation needed] The ratio of roadspace to the population is too low in this city, even comparatively smaller towns like Baharampur enjoy a better ratio.[citation needed] The emigrant labour force from the rest of the state's rural areas and neighbouring states take refuge in the cheaper quarters in Howrah, bringing the already poor infrastructure to the brink of collapse.[citation needed] Many times such migrations reduce a locality to a poor-infrastructure slum.[citation needed] The name of the novel City of Joy, which has been often the name the Kolkata metropolis been called, is actually based on one such slum of Howrah.[28]

However, recently, work has been done on broadening the national highways and several towns roads.[citation needed] These activities are expected to help in improvement of traffic conditions. Of late, Howrah has seen a lot of new industrial proposals like the Kona Truck Terminus, Kolkata West International City and relocation of the old smoky foundry plants.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

Often termed as Sheffield of the East[1], Howrah is known as an engineering hub, mainly in the area of light engineering industry.[1] In 1823, Bishop Reginald Heber described Howrah as the place "chiefly inhabited by shipbuilders".[29] There are small engineering firms all over Howrah, particularly around Belilios Road area near Howrah station[30] However these businesses are declining in the 21st century.[1] There are many foundries in Liluah area.[citation needed]

Burn Standard Company, a major company in heavy engineering industry, has its oldest manufacturing unit located in Howrah;[31] the Howrah plant of Shalimar Paints (established in 1902) was the first large-scale paint manufacturing plant to be set up not only in India but in entire South East Asia.[32] The jute industry suffered during the Partition of Bengal (1947), when the larger jute production area became part of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh); the foundry industry saw a decline in demand due to growth in steel industry.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Howrah can be accessed from its many rail links, road links to National Highways, as well as its transport connections to Kolkata. Apart from the bridges connecting the cities, there are also ferry services between various jetties.

Rail[edit]

Howrah Station

Howrah Junction railway station (more commonly referred to as Howrah Station) is the major railway station serving Howrah, Kolkata and the neighbouring districts, it was established in 1854 when a railway line was constructed connecting the city to the coalfields of the Bardhaman. Howrah Station serves as a terminal for two railway zones of India: the Eastern Railway and the South Eastern Railway, and it is connected to most of the major cities of India. From Howrah both Eastern Railway and South Eastern Railway operates connecting various stations of the districts of Howrah, Hooghly, Bardhaman, East Midnapore and West Midnapore. Within Howrah itself there are ten more stations, the most prominent being Shalimar.

Metro rail[edit]

Howrah is planned to be served by the Kolkata Metro Line 2. Stations are being built at Howrah Station and Howrah Maidan in Howrah; as of September 2019 these stations are yet under construction.

Roads[edit]

The total road length in Howrah is approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi).[33] Howrah hosts a branch of the Grand Trunk Road – this was built, starting 1804, by the Public Works Department of the British administration;[34] the road starts at the Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden[35] and connects to the main road near Chandannagar.[34] Howrah also connects the metropolitan region to the national highways – NH 2 and NH 6, which are connected to Vidyasagar Setu via the Kona Expressway.

Bridges[edit]

Howrah Bridge

Howrah and Kolkata are separated by the Hooghli River, and connected by four bridges on the river Ganges; these are the:

The cantilever style Howrah Bridge and the cable-stayed Vidyasagar Setu are counted among the longest bridges in the world within their types.[36]

Other transport[edit]

There are ferry services available, between various jetties in Howrah and Kolkata, which was introduced in the 1970s;[37] the jetties on Howrah side are at Howrah Station, Ramkrishnapur, Shibpur, Shalimar, Bandhaghat, Belur Math, Bally and Nazirganj. Howrah is also served by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport, located in Dum Dum.

Neighbourhoods[edit]

Neighbourhoods of Howrah
Neighbourhoods of Howrah

Howrah has many various neighbourhoods, the most notable being Shibpur, Santragachi, Belur, Ramrajatala, Liluah and Bally.[citation needed] Shibpur hosts the Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden, containing the Great Banyan tree, and the Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur.[38]Santragachi has a large railway station as well as the Santragachhi Jheel, a large lake that attracts migratory birds during winter.[citation needed] Belur hosts Belur Math, the headquarters of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission. Ramrajatala hosts a famous Rama Temple.[citation needed] Near Howrah Station is the slum of Pilkhana which was the basis of the famous book and film "City of Joy".[28] Liluah host some of India's oldest railway factories and is also the educational Hub of Howrah.[citation needed]

Education[edit]

The Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur is a public engineering and research institution, it is the second oldest engineering institution in India, and is an Indian institute of national importance.[39] Howrah's first vernacular Bengali medium school was established in 1857, and is currently known as Santragachi Kedarnath Institution, Howrah.[40]

Howrah's schools are either run by the state government or by private institutions; the medium of instruction is Bengali, English or Hindi. Schools are affiliated to the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE), West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education (WBCHSE), the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE).[citation needed]

Sports[edit]

The Sailen Manna Stadium also known as the Howrah Municpal Corporation Stadium is a multi-use stadium that hosts sporting events for Football and Rugby.

Notable people[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Census data of Howrah can be difficult to compare as the city is sometimes grouped together with the Kolkata and other settlements as the Kolkata metropolitan area. Further care needs to taken to distinguish Howrah town from Howrah district, it is also worth noting that Bally Municipality was re-incoporated into Howrah in 2015
  2. ^ Note that Howrah town census area was not stable until 1981

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Sheffield of India dying an untimely death - Times of India". The Times of India; the Times of India. 20 September 2001. Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  2. ^ "HMC Members of the Mayor in council". Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  3. ^ "HMC" (PDF).
  4. ^ "Bally Municipality".
  5. ^ a b c "Primary Census Abstract Data Tables – West Bengal – DDW_PCA1915_2011_MDDS with UI". Census of India. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  6. ^ "Bally 2011 census".
  7. ^ "52nd REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA" (PDF). Nclm.nic.in. Ministry of Minority Affairs. p. 85. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Fact and Figures". Wb.gov.in. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  9. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 169
  10. ^ a b c Donald Frederick Lach, p.473
  11. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 19
  12. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 22
  13. ^ a b c O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 23
  14. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 25
  15. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 26
  16. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 27
  17. ^ "Bally 2011 census".
  18. ^ a b c O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 31
  19. ^ a b "A −4 : Towns and Urban Agglomerations Classified by Population Size Class in 2001 With Variation Since 1901". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India; the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ "Howrah Weather". World Weather Online. Archived from the original on 13 December 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  22. ^ "Howrah Municipal Corporation". Official website of Department of Municipal Affairs, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  23. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 28
  24. ^ "Other Municipal Corporation Acts". Official website of Department of Municipal Affairs, Government of West Bengal. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  25. ^ a b "About us page". Howrah Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  26. ^ "Milleniumpost.in".
  27. ^ "Kolkata's iconic Writer's Building gets ready for a facelift". The Weekend Leader. 4 October 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2019.
  28. ^ a b "Review of the book 'City of Joy', authored by Dominique Lapierre". Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  29. ^ O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 165
  30. ^ Mark Holmström, p.137
  31. ^ "Group Companies: Burn Standard Co. Ltd". Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Limited. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  32. ^ "Shalimar Paints:About us – Manufacturing Facilities". Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  33. ^ "Engineering Department". Official website of the Howrah Municipality. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  34. ^ a b O'Malley & Chakravarti 1909, p. 119
  35. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ Durkee, Jackson (24 May 1999). "National Steel Bridge Alliance: World's Longest Bridge Spans" (PDF). American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2002. Retrieved 4 January 2009. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  37. ^ "East-West Kolkata Metro Corridor: EIA and SIA (Chapter 2)" (PDF). Government of West Bengal. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
  38. ^ "IIEST official website". Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  39. ^ "E-Gazette published by the Ministry of Law and Justice of the Government of India regarding the National Institutes of Technology, science education and research amendment of 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  40. ^ Alok Kumar Mukherjee (1991). Howrah, a Study in Urbanization. p. 99.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]