Huế is a city in central Vietnam, the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls, it encompasses the Imperial City, with shrines. The city was the battleground for the Battle of Huế, one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War; the oldest ruins in Hue belong to the Kingdom of Lam Ap, dating back to the 4th century AD. The ruins of its capital, the ancient city of Kandapurpura is now located in Long Tho Hill, 3 kilometers to the west of the city. Another Champa ruin in the vicinity, the ancient city of Hoa Chau is dated back to the 9th century. In 1306, the King of Champa Che Man offered Vietnam two Cham prefectures, O and Ly, in exchange for marriage with a Vietnamese princess named Huyen Tran; the Vietnamese King Tran Anh Tong accepted this offer. He took and renamed O and Ly prefectures to Thuan prefecture and Hóa prefecture with both of them referred to as Thuan Hoa region.
In 1592, the Mac dynasty was forced to flee to Cao Bang province and the Le emperors were enthroned as de jure Vietnamese rulers under the leadership of Nguyen Kim, the leader of Le Dynasty loyalists. Kim was poisoned by a Mạc Dynasty general which paved the way for his son-in-law, Trinh Kiem, to take over the leadership. Kim's eldest son, Nguyen Uông, was assassinated in order to secure Trinh Kiem's authority. Nguyen Hoang, another son of Nguyen Kim, feared a fate like Nguyen Uong's so he pretended to have mental illness, he asked his sister Ngoc Bao, a wife of Trinh Kiem, to entreat Trinh Kiem to let Nguyen Hoang govern Thuan Hoa, the furthest south region of Vietnam at that time. Because Mac dynasty loyalists were revolting in Thuan Hoa and Trinh Kiem was busy fighting the Mac dynasty forces in northern Vietnam during this time, Ngoc Bao's request was approved and Nguyen Hoang went south. After Hoàng pacified Thuan Hoa, he and his heir Nguyen Phuc Nguyen serectly made this region loyal to the Nguyen family.
Vietnam erupted into a new civil war between two de facto ruling families: the clan of the Nguyen lords and the clan of the Trinh lords. The Nguyen lords chose a northern territory of Thuan Hoa, as their family seat. In 1687 during the reign of Nguyen lord- Nguyen Phuc Tran, the construction of a citadel was started in Phu Xuan, a village in Thua Thien Province; the citadel was a power symbol of Nguyen family rather than a defensive building because the Trịnh lords' army could not breach Nguyen lords' defense in the north regions of Phú Xuân. In 1744, Phu Xuan became the capital of central and southern Vietnam after Nguyen lord- Nguyen Phuc Khoat proclaimed himseft Vo Vương. Among westerners living in the capital at this period was the Portuguese Jesuit João de Loureiro from 1752 onwards. However, Tay Son rebellions broke out in 1771 and occupied a large area from Quy Nhon to Binh Thuan Province, thereby weakening the authority and power of the Nguyen lords. While the war between Tây Sơn rebellion and Nguyễn lord was being fought, the Trịnh lords sent south a massive army and captured Phú Xuân in 1775.
After the capture of Phú Xuân, the Trịnh lords' general Hoang Ngu Phuc made a tactical alliance with Tay Son and withdrew all troops to Tonkin and left some troops in Phu Xuan. In 1786, Tây Sơn rebellion occupied Phú Xuân. Under the reign of emperor Quang Trung, Phú Xuân became Tây Sơn dynasty capital. In 1802, Nguyen Anh, a successor of the Nguyen lords, recaptured unified the country. Nguyen Anh rebuilt the citadel and made it the Imperial City capital of all of Vietnam; the city's current name is a non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of the Chinese 化, as in the historical name Thuan Hoa. In 1802, Nguyen Phuc Anh succeeded in establishing his control over the whole of Vietnam, thereby making Hue the national capital. Minh Mang was the second emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841, he was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Canh, had died in 1801. Minh Mang was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam, for his rigid Confucian orthodoxy.
During the French colonial period, Hue was in the protectorate of Annam. It remained the seat of the Imperial Palace until 1945, when Emperor Bao Dai abdicated and the DRV government was established with its capital at Ha Noi, in the north. While Bao Dai was proclaimed "Head of the State of Vietnam" with the help of the returning French colonialists in 1949, his new capital was Sai Gon, in the south. During the Republic of Vietnam period, being near the border between the North and South, was vulnerable in the Vietnam War. In the Tet Offensive of 1968, during the Battle of Hue, the city suffered considerable damage not only to its physical features, but its reputation as well, due to a combination of the American military bombing of historic buildings held by the North Vietnamese, the massacre at Hue committed by the communist forces. After the war's conclusion in 1975, many of the historic features of Hue were neglected because they were seen by the victorious communist regime and some other Vietnamese as "relics from the feudal regime".
Modern pseudepigrapha, or modern apocrypha, refer to pseudepigrapha of recent origin – any book written in the style of the books of the Bible or other religious scriptures, claiming to be of similar age, but written in a much period. They differ from apocrypha, which are books from or shortly after the scriptural period but not accepted into the religion's canon. Exposing modern pseudepigrapha is part of the fields of palaeography and papyrology, amongst others. British biblical scholar Philip R. Davies defined "modern pseudepigrapha" in 2002 as "writings in the name of biblical personages composed by contemporary scholars."The term "modern apocrypha" is related to and is treated as synonymous with "modern pseudepigrapha". But while a pseudepigraphon is by definition a forgery, an apocryphon is not a forgery. In the minority view held by scholars such as Eric Vanden Eykel admittedly fictitious 21st-century Christian texts involving ancient biblical figures written by authors using their real names may be considered "modern apocrypha".
Some writings canonical ones, were anonymous, only copyists and compilers – either accidentally or intentionally – attributed the wrong authors to them. According to Tony Burke, "scholarly forgery" is "the contemporary creation of a text with the attendant claim of its discovery in an ancient manuscript", a practice which he claims began in the Renaissance; the rise of the field of modern biblical textual criticism has led to a hunt for ancient manuscripts containing textual variants in the New Testament and Old Testament, as well as related Jewish and early Christian writings. Discovery and study of these fragments have been instrumental to – as far as possible – reconstructing the original texts of the Bible and other religious scriptures of high interest, how they evolved over the centuries; the importance of these fragments has raised their market value, finding an acquiring them became a multimillion-dollar trade after 1945, when the Nag Hammadi library and the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered.
Many forgers and fraudsters have sought to exploit this scholarly desire by fabricating manuscripts to sell them for profit. Therefore, inquiring after their provenance and testing both linguistically as well as materially whether any newly emerging fragments are authentic has become relevant; the systematic study of modern apocrypha is understood to have begun with the publication of Edgar J. Goodspeed's book Strange New Gospels, which he expanded with new chapters, updated with the 1956 book Modern Apocrypha. Per Beskow is considered the second-most famous scholar of modern apocrypha after Goodspeed, starting with his 1985 essay collection Strange Tales about Jesus. According to a researcher quoted in The Guardian in November 2017, up to 90% of the 75 Dead Sea Scrolls fragments sold since 2002 could be fakes. Most of these fragments are directly or indirectly connected to William Kando, son of antiques dealer Khalil Eskander Shahin, who bought the Scrolls from the bedouins who found them in 1945.
William Kando opened his family's vault in Zürich in 2000, since has been selling fragments he claims to be authentic remnants of the Scrolls to rich American evangelical Christians who are willing to spend huge amounts of money to find out more about the Bible's origins. After the Museum of the Bible opened in Washington, D. C. in November 2017, academics were skeptical about the authenticity of the 16 Dead Sea Scrolls fragments displayed there. Researchers at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing in Germany took several months to test 5 of the MOTB's 16 artefacts, concluded all five were forgeries that could not have been produced in antiquity. Embarrassed by the finding, the MOTB stated that'Though we had hoped the testing would render different results, this is an opportunity to educate the public on the importance of verifying the authenticity of rare biblical artifacts, the elaborate testing process undertaken and our commitment to transparency.' Examination of the remaining fragments was still ongoing, with researcher Kipp Davis claiming that at least seven of the total were most forged.
In March 2020, after lengthy investigations, MOTB confirmed that all the 16 fragments were forgeries. First presented by Karen Leigh King at a 2012 scholarly conference in Rome, the unprovenanced Gospel of Jesus' Wife was shown to be a modern fabrication plagiarised from the Gospel of Thomas. In order to attempt to conceal their deception, fraudsters may buy ancient papyrus, for example online or in an Egyptian souk; this saves them time and effort on producing fake papyrus, it results in a credible carbon-14 dating when tested in a laboratory. There are ways of counterfeiting ink and writing to make the text appear ancient. Therefore, papyrologists do not rely on testing the material of questionable fragments, but only consider papyri from documented archaeological excavations and papyri with a verifiable provenance to be authentic. There are ethical codes to discourage the usage of any unprovenanced finds, because these can be the result of fabrication or looting. Whenever undocumented papyri appear, the burden of proof is on those.
The Montague Airport known as Yreka Rohrer Field, is located on the west side of Montague, California. It is owned by the City of Montague; the municipal airport at Montague was created at its present location in 1928. The maintenance hangar and a small weather observatory building were built in 1928. Civilian Conservation Corps funds helped to bring in large quantities of gravel to stabilize the landing area in the early 1930s; the airport was only a north-south dirt strip. A crosswind runway was added in the 1930s. A small amount of paving was added to the south end of the original strip in the 1950s to accommodate drag racing by automobiles, not aircraft. During World War II, the airport was designated as Montague Air Force Auxiliary Field, was an auxiliary training airfield for Hamilton Field, California; the airport returned to civil control in 1945 after the war. The last major improvement consisted of lengthening the runway by six hundred feet to its present 3360 feet in 1982. Siskiyou County Airport - located in Montague California World War II Army Airfields This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.
Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for 1O5 AirNav airport information for 1O5 ASN accident history for RKC FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for 1O5
Shaw High School is a public high school located in East Cleveland, United States. The current Shaw facility was constructed around 2007. Home football games and performances by the world-famous marching band, who traveled to China after being selected to perform at ceremonies for the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, are held at Shaw Stadium. Baseball - 1944, 1968 Track and Field – 1915, 1916, 1919 All students are required to wear school uniforms. Male students are required to wear neckties. Tom Matte, NFL Baltimore Colts RB Buddy Schultz, MLB player Eric Moten, NFL OL Darryl Talley, NFL LB Wayne Dawson, television news anchor Jim Backus, actor Buzzy Linhart, songwriter, actor John Henton, actor/comedian Eleanor Parker, actress Joe Little III, singer-songwriter Clare Grundman, composer for bands Bob Kelly, MLB Pitcher Denayne Davidson-Dixon, former Arena Football League player Erwin Griswold, served as dean of Harvard Law School for 21 years. Official website
Charles Zentai, was a Hungarian-born resident of Australia accused of a Holocaust-related war crime. He resided in Perth, Australia for many years after living in the American- and French-occupied zones of post-World War II Germany, he was on the Simon Wiesenthal Center's list of most wanted Nazi war criminals until 2013. Zentai, who denied the charges against him, was serving in the Hungarian Army as warrant officer at the time he was accused of having murdered Péter Balázs, an 18-year-old Jewish man, in November 1944. According to witnesses, Balázs was not wearing his yellow star on the train, a crime punishable by death in German occupied Hungary at the time. Zentai took him to an army barracks, beat him to death, threw his body into the Danube. Zentai was tracked down by The Simon Wiesenthal Center, which headed the effort to extradite him to Hungary to stand trial before a military tribunal. Efraim Zuroff, director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, presented the allegations against Zentai to Hungarian prosecutors.
Zentai was arrested on 8 July 2005 by the Australian Federal Police to await an extradition hearing. Zentai's family said at the time that the 86-year-old widower had heart disease and peripheral neuropathy, would not survive the trip to Hungary. In early 2007, a magistrate found. Zentai appealed against the extradition to the Federal Court of Australia, which on 16 April 2007 dismissed the appeal. An appeal to the High Court in 2008 was dismissed. Simon Wiesenthal Center director Efraim Zuroff said he was pleased that Zentai's appeals had been rejected and that "the extradition process can proceed."On 1 October 2007 new evidence came to light: a testimony by Zentai's military commander, used at a trial in the Budapest People's Court in February 1948. This commander blamed a fellow soldier, convicted. On 2 March 2009, Zentai passed a polygraph test conducted by Gavin Willson from National Lie Detectors. In interviews, Willson expressed "no doubt". Zentai's lawyers continued to argue against extradition, saying that the offence of "war crimes" did not exist in Hungary in 1944, when the alleged crime took place.
Zentai remained free on bail while his case was again appealed to the full bench of the Federal Court. The Australian government approved Zentai's extradition to Hungary on 12 November 2009,</ref> making Zentai's case the first in which an Australian government approved the extradition of a Nazi suspect. Upon further appeal, the Federal Court overturned the extradition order on 2 July 2010. During the appeal Zentai's defence lawyers argued that Zentai could not be extradited, as the Hungarian authorities had not charged him with an offence, instead he was only being ordered to return to face questioning; the court found. In early January 2011 the Australian Home Affairs Minister, Brendan O'Connor, lodged an appeal in the Federal Court against the decision. On 15 August 2012, the High Court of Australia ruled that 90-year-old Zentai could not be extradited because the offence of a "war crime" did not exist in Hungarian law in 1944, a requirement under Australia's extradition treaty with Hungary.
Zentai died in Perth on 13 December 2017, aged 96. Extradition law in Australia John Demjanjuk Sándor Képíró Ivan Polyukhovich Vámos, György. "Murder on Arena Avenue: Is Charles Zentai Guilty?". The Monthly. 43: 36–41
Larry Pearson is a former NASCAR driver and the son of three-time Winston Cup champion David Pearson. He won the Busch Series championship in 1986 and 1987, but struggled during his brief tenure in Winston Cup, his last ride in NASCAR came in the Busch Series in 1999, in the No. 00 Pontiac owned by Buckshot Racing. His Winston Cup statistics include 3 top-tens, his Busch statistics include 259 starts, 15 wins, 78 top-fives, 129 top-tens, 12 poles, 6 top-ten point finishes. Pearson was involved in a violent turn two crash with Charlie Glotzbach on March 20, 2010, during a legends race at Bristol Motor Speedway, knocking him unconscious. Pearson regained consciousness before he was lifted out of the car on a backboard and transported by ambulance to a waiting helicopter that flew him to Bristol Regional Medical Center. Pearson suffered a fractured pelvis, fractured right hand, compound fracture to his left ankle, underwent surgery the night of March 20 to repair the ankle injury. Two days after the accident, he was released from the Bristol hospital and transported to Charlotte, North Carolina He was admitted into Carolinas Medical Center in fair condition.
Larry Pearson driver statistics at Racing-Reference