Hu Jintao is a Chinese politician, the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012. He held the offices of General Secretary of the Communist Party from 2002 to 2012, President of the People's Republic from 2003 to 2013 and Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2004 to 2012, he was a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body, from 1992 to 2012. Hu participated in the Communist Party for most of his career, notably as Party Committee Secretary for Guizhou province and the Tibet Autonomous Region and later First Secretary of the Central Secretariat and Vice-President under former leader Jiang Zemin. Hu was the first leader of the Communist Party from a generation younger than those who participated in the civil war and the founding of the republic. During his term in office, Hu reintroduced state control in some sectors of the economy that were relaxed by the previous administration, was conservative with political reforms. Along with his colleague Premier Wen Jiabao, Hu presided over nearly a decade of consistent economic growth and development that cemented China as a major world power.
He sought to improve socio-economic equality domestically through the Scientific Outlook on Development, which aimed to build a "Harmonious Socialist Society", prosperous and free of social conflict. Under his leadership, the authorities cracked down on social disturbances, ethnic minority protests, dissident figures. In foreign policy, Hu advocated for "China's peaceful development", pursuing soft power in international relations and a corporate approach to diplomacy. Throughout Hu's tenure, China's influence in Africa, Latin America, other developing regions increased. Hu possessed a reserved leadership style, his tenure was characterized by consensus-based rule. These traits made Hu a rather enigmatic figure in the public eye, his administration was known for its focus more on technocratic competence than persona. At the end of his tenure, Hu won praise for retiring voluntarily from all positions, he was succeeded by Xi Jinping. Hu Jintao was born on 21 December 1942 in Jiangsu province, he is a direct descendent of the Ming dynasty general Hu Zongxian, known for fighting Japanese pirates.
His branch of the family migrated from Jixi County, Anhui to Taizhou during his grandfather's generation. Though his father owned a small tea trading business in Taizhou, the family was poor, his mother was a teacher and died when he was 7, he was raised by an aunt. Hu's father was denounced during the Cultural Revolution, an event that had a deep effect upon Hu, who diligently tried to clear his father's name, he joined the Communist Party of China in April 1964 and began to work as an engineer in July 1965 after he graduated from the Water Conservancy Engineering Department at Tsinghua University, where he majored in the study of hub hydropower stations. During his time at Tsinghua, he met his wife Liu Yongqing. In 1968, Hu volunteered for his service in Gansu and worked on the construction of Liujiaxia Hydroelectric Station while managing CPC affairs for the local branch of the Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power. From 1969 to 1974, he worked for Sinohydro Engineering Bureau as an engineer.
In 1973, Hu was transferred to the Construction Department of Gansu as a secretary. The next year he was promoted to vice senior chief. In 1980, Deng Xiaoping implemented the "Four Transformations" program which aimed to produce communist leaders who were "more revolutionary, more knowledgeable, more specialized." In response to this nationwide search for young party members, Song Ping, the first secretary of CPC Gansu Committee discovered Hu Jintao and promoted him several ranks to the position of deputy head of the commission. Another protégé of Song, Wen Jiabao became prominent at the same time. In 1982, Hu was promoted to the position of Communist Youth League Gansu Branch Secretary and was appointed as the director of the All-China Youth Federation, his mentor Song Ping was transferred to Beijing as Minister of Organization of the Communist Party of China, was in charge of senior cadres' recommendation and promotion. With the support of Hu Yaobang and Deng Xiaoping, Hu was assured of a bright future in the party.
At Song Ping's suggestion, in 1982 central CPC authorities invited Hu to Beijing to study at the Central Party School. Soon after, he was transferred to Beijing and appointed as secretariat of the Communist Youth League Central Committee. Two years Hu was promoted to First Secretary of CY Central, thus its actual leader. During his term in the Youth League, Hu escorted Hu Yaobang, CPC General Secretary in visits around the country. Hu Yaobang, himself a veteran coming from the Youth League, could reminiscence his youth through Hu's company. In 1985, Communist Party General Secretary Hu Yaobang pushed for Hu Jintao to be transferred to Guizhou as the provincial Committee Secretary of Communist Party of China. Hu attempted to improve the economy of the backwater province, reputedly visited all of its eighty-six counties. While in Guizhou, Hu was careful to follow Beijing's directives and had a reputation of being "airtight". While Hu was seen as an official with integrity and honesty, some locals preferred his predecessor Zhu Houze.
In 1987, Hu Jintao handled the local students protest parallel to the Democracy Wall whereas in Beijing similar protests resulted in Hu Yaobang's forced resignation. Hu Yaobang was purged in th
The South Alberta Light Horse, or SALH, is a Reserve armoured reconnaissance regiment of the Canadian Army based in Medicine Hat and Lethbridge, Alberta. The SALH is part of 3rd Canadian Division's 41 Canadian Brigade Group; the "Light Horse" designation mounted infantry origins. Major David Vivian Currie VC The South Alberta Light Horse traces its beginnings to the period of the Riel Rebellion of 1885. During this conflict The Rocky Mountain Rangers of Fort Macleod with 150 officers and men were tasked with the protection of the area ranging from the U. S. border from the Rockies to Medicine Hat. The RMR saw no action during their three months of existence during the rebellion, the SALH carries the battle honour "North West Canada, 1885" on their colours; this irregular light cavalry unit is seen as the true genesis of the regiment. The 15th Light Horse, the official direct ancestor of the SALH, was raised in Calgary on July 3, 1905, it consisted of four newly organized cavalry squadrons: Calgary, Fort MacLeod, High River, Cochrane.
From this point until the mid-1950s the regiment's history can be described as a series of complicated amalgamations and redesignations of Alberta army reserve units of all arms until the regiment as it is now was formed in Calgary in 1954. At the beginning of the First World War, the Alberta militia units destined to become part of SALH were four cavalry regiments – 15th Light Horse in Calgary, 19th Alberta Dragoons in Edmonton, 21st Alberta Hussars in Medicine Hat and 23rd Alberta Rangers in Fort Macleod – and two infantry regiments – 101st Regiment "Edmonton Fusiliers" and 103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles"; the Early Years 1. A Trooper of the Rocky Mountain Rangers, 1885. 2. Lieutenant Lionel F. Page and members of his troop of the Red Deer Independent Squadron of the 15th Canadian Light Horse on manoeuvres at Sarcee Camp near Calgary, Alberta, 1910. 3. Officers of the 15th Alberta Light Horse, Sarcee Camp, July 1925. In the First World War, the Canadian militia units were not mobilized, but instead new units were formed from volunteers from the militia and new recruits.
The militia units became organizations for recruiting and preliminary training. The 19th Alberta Dragoons recruited the 1st Divisional Cavalry Squadron, CEF, which landed in France in February 1915. After other divisions joined the 1st Canadian Division in France and the Canadian Corps was formed, the squadron was attached to the corps and became A Squadron, Canadian Light Horse, CEF; the troopers of this squadron wore 19th Alberta Dragoon badges throughout the war. Recruited by SALH's predecessors were three regiments of Canadian Mounted Rifles: the 3rd, 12th and 13th; the 3rd Regiment, Canadian Mounted Rifles, CEF, was mobilized at Medicine Hat and landed in France in September 1915 as part of the 1st CMR Brigade. At the end of 1915, the CMR units in France were converted from two cavalry brigades into one infantry brigade; the troopers of the 3rd Regiment were split up, half going to the 1st CMR Battalion and half to the 2nd CMR Battalion. The 12th and 13th Regiments CMR were broken up for reinforcements in England.
The SALH counts a First World War artillery unit as an ancestor: 22nd Battery, CFA, CEF. The battery landed in France on 19 January 1916, where it served as part of the 6th Brigade, 2nd Canadian Divisional Artillery until the end of the war; the battery was demobilized at Hamilton, 25 May 1919, was disbanded on 1 November 1920. The battery is perpetuated by the 22nd Field RCA, Gleichen Alberta. Of the eight infantry battalions recruited by the SALH's predecessors, only one entered combat as a unit; the 31st Battalion, CEF, landed in France in September 1915 with the 2nd Canadian Division. It was awarded 22 battle honours, including such notable actions as Passchendaele; the other seven battalions – 9th, 66th, 113th Battalion, CEF, 138th, 175th, 187th and 202nd – were broken up for reinforcements in England. The 31st Battalion participated in the first tank attack in history at the Battle of Flers-Courcelette on 15 September 1916, while A Squadron, Canadian Light Horse, made the last cavalry charge in Canadian history at the battle of Iwuy on 10 October 1918.
This means that among the predecessor units of the SALH, one participated in the first military operation involving the tank and another mounted the last cavalry charge in Canadian history. The period between the world wars saw two major reorganizations of the Canadian Militia, the first from 1920 to 1924 and the second from 1935 to 1936. By the outbreak of the Second World War, the ancestors of the SALH were two cavalry regiments an independent artillery battery and two infantry battalions. Cap Badges of the South Alberta Light Horse and Lineage Regiments The 15th Alberta Light Horse contributed to several active service units, including the 31st Reconnaissance Regiment, remaining in the Calgary area until the end of the war; the South Alberta Regiment, recruited an active service battalion in the Medicine Hat area in the summer of 1940. This infantry unit trained in Canada until 1942 when it was reorganized as the 29th Armoured Regiment and moved to England in August; the SAR was granted 15 battle honours for its service overseas
Christiani & Nielsen is a construction contractor with major operations in Thailand and Southeast Asia. A Danish company, it is today a listed company majority owned by the GP Group; the company provides a comprehensive range of construction services, including the design and construction of a variety of buildings and civil engineering works, steel structures with a full range of electrical and mechanical engineering services. Christiani & Nielsen was established by Rudolf Christiani, a Danish civil engineer, Aage Nielsen, a captain in the Royal Danish Navy, in Copenhagen in 1904 to build bridges, marine works, other reinforced concrete structures, it soon established a branch in Hamburg, after World War I, extended its operations to the United Kingdom, South America and Africa. In 1965 the company built the Kish Lighthouse in Dublin Bay. Christiani & Nielsen Ltd. was established on 28 February 1930. Over the years, the company executed a number of projects, including Democracy Monument Bangkok Port The Krungthep and Nonathburi bridges spanning Bangkok's Chao Phraya River Rajadamnern Boxing Stadium The Sukhothai Hotel in Bangkok The 13th Asian Games Sports Stadium All Season Place office complex SCG 100 Years New Office building, certified as LEED Platinum Class Prince Mahidol HallThe Thai company was the first construction company to be listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand in 1991.
In December 1992 it completed a reverse takeover of its publicly listed Danish parent company, the first such transaction in Thai business history. It expanded into Malaysia and China, along with investment in engineering and property related businesses; as a result of the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the company needed to undertake extensive restructuring by disposing of foreign subsidiaries and other investments, thereafter decided to focus on its core construction business in Thailand. The past few years have seen radical changes in the shareholding structure of the company. To comply with new regulations of the Bank of Thailand, in 2008, long standing major shareholder Siam Commercial Bank PCL sold its stake to the Crown Property Bureau, its largest shareholder, giving the CPB a majority share in the company. Thereafter, in 2011, the Crown Property Bureau sold all its shares in the company to the GP Group which thereby became the new major shareholder of the Company. GP Group funded new facilities including new offices, a plant and steel fabrication yard, a training center for staff and workers.
For the new offices, the company purchased land in Bang Na District and built a seven-storey building which can accommodate up to 750 staff. In 2013, the old plant and steel fabrication yard moved to newly purchased premises in Si Racha District; the equipment yard houses some 10,000 items of construction machinery, tools and form work. The steel fabrication yard has a production capacity of over 10,000 tonnes per year. A training centre was built on a 30 rai plot of land in Khlong Sam Wa District in Bangkok, including four training buildings, two accommodation buildings, a canteen, it has the capacity to train up to 2,000 workers each year
Interstate 687 was a proposed auxiliary Interstate Highway in the Capital District region of New York in the United States. The highway would have connected I-90 in to the Albany International Airport in Colonie. I-687 faced opposition from those living in the path of the highway, all, built of the highway was its interchange with I-90 in Albany, which now connects to a surface road, Corporate Woods Boulevard; the project was cancelled in 1973, I-687 was removed from the Interstate Highway System four years later. A small portion of what would’ve been I-687 is now used as a connector between the Adirondack Northway and the Albany International Airport, however it does not have a route designation and was completed as its own separate project in November 2019. I-687 was to begin between exits 25 on the New York State Thruway, it would continue north to a diamond intersection with NY-5. It would proceed north and east to an exit with NY-155, farther to an interchange with Interstate 88, via a connector running on the west side of the airport.
I-687 would have an entrance to the Albany International Airport, the main reason for its existence. Continuing east, I-687 would have a cloverleaf interchange with Interstate 87. Continuing east, I-687 would enter an interchange with a proposed northward extension of NY-85, serving as the northern terminus of NY-85; the highway would curve southeast into a diamond interchange with Osborne Road. After one final interchange with Everett Road, I-687 would end at exit 5A on I-90, now not associated with the Thruway; this would include an entrance and exit to North Manning Boulevard, for direct access to Downtown Albany. The highway would have been 9.10 miles long. The initial plans for the Capital District's portion of the Interstate Highway System were drawn up in the late 1950s. One of the highways proposed at this time was I-687 known as the "Northway Connection"; when the Adirondack Northway was completed through Colonie in 1960, a gap was left in the Northway's exit numbering system for an interchange with I-687.
The exits with NY 5 and Albany Shaker Road were designated as exits 2 and 4 leaving exit 3 for I-687. No such gap was left on the toll-free section of I-90, where the I-687 exit was numbered exit 5A; the construction of I-687 would have forced hundreds of households from their homes, most of which are located off of Albany Shaker Road. By way of comparison, today's Crossing Park in Colonie would have been directly in the path of the highway; as such, the project faced opposition from residents of the town of Colonie. The construction of the road was started despite the controversy surrounding it, the interchange with I-90 was completed c. 1972. Construction was halted soon afterward, however, as state and federal funds were diverted away from the project. I-687 and the proposed northward extension of the Crosstown Arterial were both cancelled by the state of New York in late September 1973, at which time the New York State Department of Transportation requested that I-687 be removed from the Interstate Highway System.
The request was granted in 1977. I-90 exit 5A, the only part of the project, constructed, was left as an interchange to nowhere for a decade; the North Manning Boulevard connection was never built. In the early 1980s, the large, freeway-standard trumpet interchange was linked up with Corporate Woods Boulevard, a local, two-lane street leading to an office park located just north of I-90 on Albany Shaker Road; the New York State Department of Transportation reconfigured the exit 4 and 5 ramps, which helped relieve traffic congestion in this area. On July 9, 2019, it was announced that the new airport connector will become exit 3. Exit 3 gives access to Albany International Airport, exit 4 gives access to Wolf Road, the exit 5 ramp southbound was realigned to meet directly with the Northway, instead of through the conjoined frontage road. Exit 4 will be relocated, will become an access exit to Albany Shaker Road and Albany International Airport. While the idea for I-687 is dead as of the end of 2019 with only an interchange to nowhere at exit 5A on I-90 built, a new exit 3 flyover ramp from I-87 to NY 155 called the Albany Airport Connector is in use where I-687 would've been built, providing an easier connection between the Northway and the Airport.
The connector was completed in November 2019. The entire route is in Albany County. All exits are unnumbered; the original proposal would have had ten exits as follows: The entire route is in Albany County. U. S. Roads portal New York portal
Tropical nursing is a nursing specialty predominantly undertaken in tropical and subtropical regions. These regions have underdeveloped health services and a lack of essential healthcare staff, including registered nurses and midwives. Registered nurses and midwives can undertake the 19-week Diploma in Tropical Nursing at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine; this course is intended for nurses and midwives who have travelled or worked in developing countries, or who hope to do so. The course director is Dame Claire Bertschinger, world renowned and has written an autobiography, Moving Mountains; the LSHTM has a leaflet. The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine runs the Diploma in Tropical Nursing as a three-week intensive programme, it is designed for registered midwives who intend to work in developing countries. The course will provide a wide knowledge base, incorporating laboratory work, clinical aspects of infectious diseases, child health, sexual health, neglected tropical diseases, non-communicable diseases as well as professional topics such as leading change, public health and ethics.
This diploma course is available to registered midwives. It is recommended. Medecins Sans Frontieres, Save the Children Voluntary Services Overseas and the British Red Cross are some of the international agencies that recommend the DipTN. A reliable source of general information is Nursing and Midwifery – A Practical Approach by Sally Huband, Pam Hamilton-Brown and Gillian Barber; the book focuses on Midwifery in Africa. It is distributed by Teaching Aids at Low Cost; the Oxford Handbook of Tropical Medicine is an authoritative reference guide to tropical medicine, a practical evidence-based guide for all healthcare professionals working in low-resource / tropical settings. The handbook includes advice about nursing issues alongside the medical information. Manson's Tropical Diseases continues to be a comprehensive and detailed textbook for Tropical Diseases; this book does not consider the role of the nurse in caring for patients with tropical diseases
The 18th Marine Regiment was a composite engineer regiment of the United States Marine Corps subordinate to the 2nd Marine Division. It was disbanded with the 1st and 2nd battalions remaining in the Division; the regiment was a composite of three different types of battalions and a headquarters and service company: 1st Battalion, 18th Marines, A, B, & C Companies 2nd Engineer Battalion now 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion 2nd Battalion, 18th Marines D, E, & F Companies 2nd Pioneer Battalion 3rd Battalion, 18th Marines, G, H, & I Companies 18th Naval Construction Battalion 18th Marines was activated on 8 September 1942 and participated in actions at Tarawa and Tinian. It was inactivated on 16 August 1944. On Tinian there were two small beaches on the North end where an assault landing could be made with low coral ledges; the rest of the island had coral cliffs up to 15 feet in height at the waters edge negating any assault plans. However, the Marine Corps asked the Seabees if they could come up with an idea to get over the coral.
Commodore Paul J. Halloran CB theater commander provided drawings of a conceptual landing ramp for the 18th and 121st CBs to fabricate, they mounted steel beams salvaged from Saipan's abandoned sugar mill on LVT-2s to create a portable assault ramps. If they worked they would allow the Marines to outflank Tinian's prepared defenses; the Marine Generals ordered that the ramps be put through a 100 vehicle use tests. The Seabee creation was named a Doodlebug, it worked as the Marines had hoped. Colonel Elmer E. Hall: 8 September 1942 Colonel Ewart S. Laue: 31 August - 3 October 1943.