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Hu Yaobang

Hu Yaobang was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China. He held the top office of the Communist Party of China from 1981 to 1987, first as Chairman from 1981 to 1982 as General Secretary from 1982 to 1987. Hu joined the Chinese Communist Party in the 1930s, rose to prominence as a comrade of Deng Xiaoping. During the Cultural Revolution, Hu was purged and purged again by Mao Zedong. After Deng rose to power, following the death of Mao Zedong, Hu was promoted to a series of high political positions. Throughout the 1980s Hu pursued a series of economic and political reforms under the direction of Deng. Hu's political and economic reforms made him the enemy of several powerful Party elders, who opposed free market reforms and attempts to make China's government more transparent; when widespread student protests occurred across China in 1987, Hu's political opponents blamed Hu for the disruptions, claiming that Hu's "laxness" and "bourgeois liberalization" had either led to, or worsened, the protests.

Hu was forced to resign as Party general secretary in 1987, but was allowed to retain a seat in the Politburo. Hu's position as Party general secretary was taken by Zhao Ziyang, who continued many of Hu's economic and political reforms. A day after Hu's death in 1989, a small-scale demonstration commemorated him and demanded that the government reassess his legacy. A week the day before Hu's funeral, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen Square, leading to the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests which were a part of the Chinese Democracy Movement. Following the government's violent suppression of the 1989 protests, the Chinese government censored the details of Hu's life within mainland China, but it rehabilitated his image and lifted its censorship restrictions on the 90th anniversary of Hu's birth, in 2005. Hu Yaobang's ancestors were Hakkas from Jiangxi. During the Ming dynasty they migrated into Hunan. Hu Yaobang was born into a poor peasant family, received little formal education; as a child he never attended school, he taught himself to read.

Hu participated in his first rebellion when he was twelve, left his family to join the Chinese Communist Party when he was only fourteen, became a full member of the Party in 1933. During the factional struggles that polarized the CCP during the 1930s, Hu supported Mao Zedong and opposed the 28 Bolsheviks. Hu was one of the youngest veterans of the Long March. Once Mao was removed from power, shortly before the beginning of the Fourth Encirclement Campaign, Mao's supporters were persecuted, Hu Yaobang was sentenced to death. Just before the beginning of the Long March, he and others were on their way to be beheaded. However, a powerful local communist commander named Tan Yubao intervened at the last minute, saving Hu's life; because of Hu's support of Mao, he was deemed unreliable and ordered to join the Long March so that he could be placed under surveillance. Hu Yaobang was wounded in the battle of Mount Lu, near Zunyi, close to the area where Mao Zedong rose back to power via the Zunyi Conference.

After Hu was wounded the communist field medic teams chose not to help Hu, left him in the battlefield to die on the side of the road. Hu was rescued by a childhood friend of a Chinese Red Army commander, who happened to pass by. Hu called out his friend's nickname to ask for help, the friend helped him catch up with the retreating main force of the Chinese Red Army and get treatment for his wounds. In 1936, Hu joined an expeditionary force led by Zhang Guotao; the objective of Zhang's 21,800+ strong force, was to cross the Yellow River, to expand the communist base west of Shaanxi, to link up with forces from the Soviet Union or with the Xinjiang warlord Sheng Shicai, an ally of the communists and the Soviet Union. Zhang Guotao's forces were soundly defeated by the Ma clique. Hu Yaobang, along with Qin Jiwei, became two of the thousands of prisoners-of-war captured by Ma clique's forces. Hu was one of only 1,500 prisoners-of-war whom Ma Bufang decided to use as forced labor rather than execute.

Ma Bufang sent several Muslim cavalry divisions under General Ma Biao to fight against the Japanese. However Chiang Kai-shek pressured Ma Bufang to contribute more of his troops to fight Japanese invaders, Ma Bufang decided that, instead of using more of his own troops, he would instead send the 1,500 Chinese Red Army prisoners-of-war as conscripts. Since the marching route had to pass the border of the communist base in Shaanxi, Hu Yaobang and Qin Jiwei decided to return to the Communists, secretly organized an escape; the escape took place as planned and was a success: out of the total 1,500 POWs, more than 1,300 returned to Yan'an. Mao welcomed these returning communists, Hu Yaobang returned to communist forces, where he would remain for rest of his life. After Hu arrived in Yan'an, he attended the Anti-Japanese Military School. While studying in Yan'an, Hu met and married his wife, Li Zhao, a student in Yan'an. After his training, Hu worked in the political department, was assigned to work as a member of Peng Dehuai's Third Front Army.

Hu befriended and worked with Deng Xiaoping in the 1930s. In the 1940s, Hu worked under Deng as a political commissar in the Second Field Army. In the final stages of the Chinese Civil War, Hu accompanied Deng to Sichuan, communist forces took control of the province from Nationalist forces in 1949. In 1949, the CCP defeated Nationalist forces on mainland China, the communists founded the People's Republic. In 1952, Hu accompanied Deng to Beijing, Hu became the leader of the Communist Youth League from 1952

C. Louise Boehringer

Cora Louise Boehringer was the first female superintendent of schools in Yuma County and the first woman to be elected to office in the state. She has been called "the mother of the Arizona educational system". In 2008 she was inducted into the Arizona Women's Hall of Fame. Cora Louise Boehringer was born in Morrison, the daughter of Jacob F. Boehringer and Louise Greenawald, immigrants from Germany. Boehringer attended primary school in Missouri. In 1902 she graduated from DeKalb Normal School in Illinois, she attended teacher colleges in Illinois and Missouri. She studied and received degrees from Columbia University, Columbia Teacher's College and California State University at Berkeley. Boehringer held several positions as instructor in Illinois and Missouri: director of the Normal Department, Illinois Normal School, Illinois. In this period she wrote for the Missouri State Courses of Study for Village Schools. While in the Midwest, Boehringer participated in the women's suffrage movement. In 1913, Boehringer was elected County Superintendent of Schools in Yuma, the first woman to hold such an elective office in Arizona, a position she held until 1917.

She became president of the Arizona Council of Administrative Women in Education, an organization of female education workers, such as high school principals, department heads, county school superintendents. In 1916, 1922 and 1940, Boehringer ran for Arizona Superintendent of Public Instruction, but was unsuccessful because the school superintendent was on the state Parole and Pardons Board and the majority of voters was not comfortable with the idea that women could decide on the fate of criminals. In 1917, Boehringer attended the University of Illinois to take journalism courses and became an educational journalist, she bought the Arizona Teacher Magazine and served as its editor until 1939, when she turned over ownership of the magazine to the Arizona Education Association. She was editor of the Arizona Patent-Teacher Bulletin, the National Altrusian, Arizona Geography, a free-lance writer on education and pioneer women, she was vice president of the Arizona National League of American Pen Women, for which she organized the Arizona branches in Phoenix and Tucson.

She contributed to Women in the Biographies in Arizona Historical Review. She was chairman of educational broadcasts for the Arizona Department of Public Instruction. In 1921 and 1922, Boehringer served in the Arizona House of Representatives as a Democrat, she served as chair of the Committee on Education, established the State School Board, created per capita funding for schools, legitimized children born out of wedlock. In 1933 she was appointed director of curriculum for the Department of Education, a position she held for six years. In 1934 she was appointed president of the Arizona Parent-Teacher Association. In 1926 Boehringer was legislative chairman for the Arizona Federation of Women's Clubs. In 1919, she was a founding member of the Professional Women's Foundation, she was elected first president of the Arizona branch in 1921 and re-elected in 1924. In both positions, she advocated for equal pay and education. Boehringer was involved in many other organizations: Professor at Northern Arizona University, summer classes.

State Chairman of Better Homes in America, appointed in 1928 by Herbert Hoover. Member of American Association of University Women. Member of National Education Association, in 1913 she spoke at their convention in San Francisco. Founder of the State Council of Administrative Women in Education in 1915. Chairman of the College Woman's Drive for Food Conservation, Arizona, in 1917. Secretary of the Arizona State Teacher's Association, 1919. Member of Altrusa International, Inc. Member of Delta Kappa Gamma Member of the Women's Suffrage League In 1912 C. Louise Boehringer moved to Yuma, joining her brother and parents who had moved there in 1909, claiming a 40-acre ranch and establishing a dairy farm; when in 1940 Boehringer lost for the third time in the run for State Superintendent of Public Instruction, she retired from public life and in 1953 she moved to Washington with her sister-in-law. She died in Seattle on September 11, 1956, is buried at Evergreen Washelli Memorial Park, Seattle

Hugh Porter (cricketer)

Hugh Lachlan Porter was an English cricketer. Porter was a right-handed batsman, he was born at Kensington in London. Porter made his debut for Suffolk County Cricket Club against Lincolnshire in the 1934 Minor Counties Championship. Prior to the start of World War II in 1939, Porter made 32 appearances for Suffolk in the Minor Counties Championship. Playing minor counties cricket for Suffolk allowed him to be selected to play for a combined Minor Counties cricket team, who he made his first-class debut for against Cambridge University at Fenner's in 1935; the Minor Counties won the toss and elected to bat first, making 195 all out, with Porter being dismissed for 38 runs by Jahangir Khan. Cambridge University made 163 all out in their first-innings, to which the Minor Counties responded in their second-innings by making 144 all out, with Porter being dismissed for 4 runs by James Grimshaw. Set a target of 177 for victory, Cambridge University reached their target with four wickets to spare, he made a second first-class appearance for the team in 1935 against Oxford University at the University Parks.

Oxford University won the toss and elected to bat first, reaching 169/4. With the match impacted by poor weather, this was the only innings possible during the match, which ended as a draw. Following World War II, Porter returned to play minor counties cricket for Suffolk, making an additional 21 appearances, the last of which came against Bedfordshire in 1949, he served as the President of Suffolk County Cricket Club from 1967 to 1969. In September 1939, he married Barbara Mary, with the couple having five children, he died at Ealing, Middlesex, on 8 January 1982. Hugh Porter at ESPNcricinfo

Luigi Carlo Farini

Luigi Carlo Farini was an Italian physician and historian. Farini was born in what is now the province of Ravenna. After completing a brilliant university course at Bologna, which he interrupted to take part in the revolution of 1831, he practised as a physician at Russi and at Ravenna, he acquired a considerable reputation, but in 1843 his political opinions brought him under the suspicion of the police and caused his expulsion from the papal states. He resided successively in Florence and Paris, travelled about Europe as private physician to Prince Jérôme Bonaparte, but when Pius IX was elected to the Holy See and began his reign with Liberal and nationalist tendencies, Farini returned to Italy and was appointed secretary-general to G Recchi, the minister of the interior, but he held office for little more than a month, since like all the other Italian Liberals he disapproved of the Pius IX's change of front in refusing to allow his troops to fight against Austria, resigned with the rest of the ministry on 29 April.

Pius, wishing to counteract the effect of this policy, sent Farini to Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, to hand over the command of the papal contingent to him. Elected member of parliament for Faenza, he was again appointed secretary to the ministry of the interior in the Mamiani cabinet, director-general of the public health department, he resigned office on the proclamation of the republic after the flight of the pope to Gaeta in 1849, resumed it for a while when Pius returned to Rome with the protection of French arms, but when a reactionary and priestly policy was instituted, he went into exile and took up his residence at Turin. There he became convinced that it was only through the House of Savoy that Italy could be liberated, he expounded his views in Cavour's paper Il Risorgimento, in La Frusta and Il Piemonte, of which latter he was at one time editor, he wrote his chief historical work, Lo Stato Romano dal 1815 al 1850, in four volumes. In 1851 he was appointed minister of public instruction in the D'Azeglio cabinet, an office which he held till May 1852.

As a member of the Sardinian parliament and as a journalist Farini was one of the staunchest supporters of Cavour, favoured the proposal that Piedmont should participate in the Crimean War, if indeed he was not the first to suggest that policy. In 1856 and 1857 he published two letters to British liberal statesman William Ewart Gladstone on Italian affairs, which created a sensation, while he continued to propagate his views in the Italian press; when on the outbreak of the war of 1859 Francis V, duke of Modena, was expelled and a provisional government set up, Farini was sent as Piedmontese commissioner to that city. He negotiated an alliance with Parma and Tuscany, when other provisional governments had been established, entrusted the task of organizing an army for this central Italian league to General Fanti. Annexation to Piedmont having been voted by plebiscite and the opposition of Napoleon III having been overcome, Farini returned to Turin, where the king conferred on him the order of the Annunziata and Cavour appointed him minister of the interior, subsequently viceroy of Naples.

Cavour died in 1861, the following year, Farini succeeded Rattazzi as premier, in which office he endeavoured to carry out Cavour's policy. Over-exertion, brought on softening of the brain, which compelled him to resign office on 24 March 1863, resulted in his death in poverty at Quarto dei Mille in Genoa, he was buried at Turin. His son Domenico Farini had a distinguished political career and was three times President of the Chamber of Deputies and President of the Senate; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Farini, Luigi Carlo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 179–180. La diplomazia e la quistione Italiana, lettera By Luigi Carlo Farini Lo stato Romano dall'anno 1815 all'anno 1850 By Luigi Carlo Farini Vol. I, Vol. II, Vol. III, Vol. IV

Grand Ricci

Le Grand Ricci (or Grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise, Simplified Chinese: 利氏汉法辞典. It is composed of seven volumes of more than 1,200 pages each, identifying 13,500 characters, about 300,000 entries of terms and expressions, it is, the largest Chinese-French dictionary yet, the largest dictionary of Chinese into a Western language. It has become known since its publication in 2001, Le Grand Ricci is the most comprehensive up-to-date dictionary of Chinese into a modern Western language. Though it covers the whole history of Chinese language development, most of the dictionary deals with early and imperial period Chinese language usage."It is difficult to imagine any scholar in Chinese studies who will not eagerly welcome this new digital incarnation of the Le Grand Ricci. Le Grand Ricci is to all purposes the most comprehensive bilingual dictionary of Chinese in the Western world, it covers three millennia of the Chinese language, from the Classics to the modern age, is encyclopedic in its scope.

The compilers were able to draw on the full range of French sinological expertise in completing the project. Since its publication Le Grand Ricci has established itself as an indispensable reference tool. Now available online, searchable, its functionality has only further increased."Wilt L. Idema. Research Professor of Chinese Literature, HarvardOn the 11th of May, 2010, the DVD version was presented for the first time at the Shanghai Museum; the resources of the Ricci dictionary are available on Android phones and tablets and Apple IOS via Pleco Software. Ricci Institutes of the Paris Ricci Institute and of the Taipei Ricci Institute: Le Grand Dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise, Desclée de Brouwer, 2001, ISBN 2-220-04667-2. Id: Le Grand Ricci numérique, Dictionnaire encyclopédique de la langue chinoise, sur DVD-ROM, Editions du Cerf, Paris, 2010, ISBN 978-2-204-09239-5. Taipei Ricci Institute: |利氏學社 《利氏漢法辭典》, 台北, 1999, ISBN 2-220-04592-7 Jesuit China missions Alexander of Rhodes Association Ricci pour le grand dictionnaire français de la langue chinoise

Thomas Helliker

Thomas Helliker was a figure in early English trade union history, hanged, aged 19, for his alleged role in machine-breaking at a Wiltshire woollen mill. His conviction has been challenged as controversial and faulty, he is now regarded as a victim of anti-Luddite sentiment. Helliker had been employed as a shearman's colt at a woollen mill owned by a Mr Naish at Semington, near Trowbridge in Wiltshire; as such he was close to the most skilled workers who stood to lose most from mechanisation and therefore were well-organised in resisting it. The workers had organised an anti-machinery mill-burning riot that destroyed the mill on 22 July 1802 and Helliker was accused of waving a pistol at a night-watchman during this attack. Heath, the tenant of the mill, witnessed this attack and gave a description similar to Helliker's to a police officer, Read, he was arrested in Trowbridge on 3 August 1802. Heath picked him out in an identification parade although Helliker was the only mill employee in the line-up and known to him.

He was taken before the magistrates and denied the offence, however the magistrate, Mr Jones told him You have been recognised and it will go bad for you. Despite Helliker having an alibi from his friend Joseph Warren, to the effect that they had both got drunk on the night in question and had locked themselves inside a house until the morning, he was charged and lodged in Salisbury gaol. Thomas Helliker was tried in Salisbury despite the fact that many people at the time believed his statements that he was innocent, tried to get him to name the actual culprit, he refused to do so. The only evidence against Helliker was that of Heath's identification, although he had been given £500, a large sum at that time, as a reward. Helliker's counsel, a Mr Garrow, failed to undermine Heath's identification, a newspaper report of the time said Helliker was hanged on his 19th birthday. On 22 March 2003, the anniversary of his hanging was marked by a ceremony by the side of his tomb, it was said that He is an important figure in the town's history and I think it is important that it doesn't go without being marked.

A handwritten copy of the last letter written by Helliker is on display at Trowbridge Museum. In 2010 it was selected as one of 100 objects in the BBC's A History of the World project, in partnership with the British Museum and 350 museums and institutions across the country. Helliker's tomb is in the churchyard of St James's Church, Trowbridge, a short distance from the town centre. A second inscription was added later: This tomb was placed over the remains of Thomas Helliker At a time of great disturbance throughout the manufacturing towns of this county, he was condemned for an offence against the law of which he was afterwards believed to be innocent and determined to die rather than give testimony which would have saved his own life, but forfeited the lives of others. Some of the cloth-workers of this town being so desirous to perpetuate the remembrance of such an heroic act of self sacrifice have restored this memorial in the year of our lord 1876. Ponting, Kenneth; the Woollen Industry of South-West England.

Bath: Adam & Dart. ISBN 0-239-00064-1. Randall, Adrian. Before the Luddites. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-89334-8