Lucius Frederick Hubbard
Lucius Frederick Hubbard was an American politician. The Republican served as the ninth Governor of Minnesota from January 10, 1882 to January 5, 1887, he served as an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Born in 1836 in Troy, New York, orphaned at ten, Hubbard first worked as a tinsmith in the east and in Chicago. At age 21 he moved to Minnesota with an old hand-operated printing press and some type. During the American Civil War, Hubbard joined the Union Army in 1861 as a private in the 5th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, he took part in the siege of Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg, the battle of Nashville and the battle of Fort Blakely. He became colonel of his regiment and, for his services at Nashville, was made a brevet brigadier general on December 16, 1864. After the war's end Hubbard returned to Red Wing, where he engaged in milling and railroading, he won election to the state senate, completing his second term in 1875. A partner in the Midland Railroad, he presided over operations of the Cannon Valley Railroad until his gubernatorial election in 1881.
Hubbard forcefully urged government intervention in public health, charities, railroads and commerce, the legislature complied by increasing the state's regulatory and licensing powers. His second term lasted three years, in accordance with a state constitutional amendment to have state and federal biennial elections all coincide, he was a member of the Military Order of Foreign Wars, Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States and the Sons of the American Revolution. In 1887 Hubbard took over operations of yet another railroad; when America declared war against Spain in 1898, President William McKinley appointed the 62-year-old as a brigadier general of volunteers and asked him to oversee a military post in Florida. Two years Hubbard moved to St. Paul and to Minneapolis, where he died at 77. Hubbard County, Minnesota is named after him. List of American Civil War brevet generals Biographical information and his gubernatorial records are available for research use at the Minnesota Historical Society.
Minnesota Legislators Past and Present Lucius F. Hubbard in MNopedia, the Minnesota Encyclopedia
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Wadena County, Minnesota
Wadena County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,843, its county seat is Wadena. The county was formed in 1858 and organized in 1873. Wadena County was organized on February 21, 1873, at which time Wadena was chosen as the county seat. Wadena county is composed of 15 townships, first surveyed in 1863; each township contains 36 sections of land. In 1857, a man named Augustus Aspinwall laid out a townsite in what is now Section 15, Thomastown township, at the junction of the Crow Wing and Partridge rivers, named it Wadena. In 1872, when the railroad went through the area it ran about three miles south of this site and thus the town withered away. During that period there were three county commissioners; the balance of the townships were organized between this time and 1899. As of 2010, there are six organized towns in the county: Wadena, Sebeka, Menahga and Nimrod. Ghost towns, towns of the past or unorganized villages, included Kindred or Shell City and Ferris, Huntersville, Leaf River, Blue Grass.
In the early days, before rural mail delivery began, many post offices in the county served people so they did not have to travel far to get their mail. These included Kindred or Shell City, Wing River, Leaf River, Taylor’s Landing, Hoptacong, Lukens, Hartshorn, Bullard and Oylen. Today there are post offices in Menahga, Wadena and Aldrich. For the last part of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, there were two railroads in the county; the Northern Pacific main line running east to west through Wadena was built in 1872, while the Great Northern branch or "K" line which ran from Sauk Centre to Bemidji, via Sebeka and Menahga, was completed in 1891. The line from Park Rapids to Long Prairie was abandoned in 1984 while the rest was abandoned in the early 1970s with the northern section from Park Rapids to Cass Lake since converted to the Heartland Trail. Wadena used to be served by Elliott Bros.. Transportation Co. Northwest Transportation Co. Red Bus Line, Gray Bus Line, Liederbach Bus Co. and Mercury Bus line.
There are four historical societies in the county, including the Wadena County Historical Society, the Verndale Historical Society, the Sebeka Finnish American Historical Society and the Menahga Historical Society. In 2010, there were four organized school districts in the county: Wadena, Verndale and Menahga. In 1906, there were 52 school districts in the county. Sebeka once had the second largest creamery in the state of Minnesota. Over the years there have been ten creameries in the county and ten cheese factories. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 543 square miles, of which 536 square miles is land and 7.0 square miles is water. Wadena is one of 17 Minnesota counties with more savanna soils than forest soils. Bill Lake - Blueberry Township Blueberry Lake - Blueberry Township Burgen Lake - Huntersville Township Duck Lake - southeast edge in Huntersville Township, southwest edge in Shell River Township Finn Lake - Shell River Township Granning Lake - Lyons Township Jim Cook Lake - Shell River Township Lily Lake - north quarter in Lyons Township, south three-quarters in Bullard Township Lovejoy Lake - Thomastown Township Lower Twin Lake - east half in Shell River Township, west half in Blueberry Township Mud Lake - Meadow Township Radabaugh Lake - Thomastown Township Rice Lake - Meadow Township Round Lake - Huntersville Township Simon Lake - Thomastown Township Spirit Lake - Menahga Stocking Lake - Blueberry Township Strike Lake - Lyons Township Thomas Lake - Blueberry Township Upper Twin Lake - south edge in Shell River Township Yaeger Lake - Meadow Township U.
S. Route 10 U. S. Route 71 Minnesota State Highway 29 Minnesota State Highway 87 Minnesota State Highway 227 Hubbard County Cass County Todd County Otter Tail County Becker County As of the census of 2000, there were 13,713 people, 5,426 households, 3,608 families residing in the county; the population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 6,334 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.89% White, 0.48% Black or African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 37.5% were of German, 14.0% Norwegian, 12.5% Finnish, 9.0% United States or American and 5.3% Swedish ancestry. There were 5,426 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.30% were married couples living together, 7.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.50% were non-families.
29.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 19.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there w
Leech Lake Indian Reservation
The Leech Lake Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation located in the north-central Minnesota counties of Cass, Itasca and Hubbard. The reservation forms the land base for the federally recognized Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, one of six bands comprising the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, organized in 1934; the Leech Lake Reservation has the highest population of any reservation in Minnesota, with a resident population of 10,660 indicated by the 2010 United States census. As of the 2010 census, the reservation had a population of 10,660, making it the largest in the state by number of residents; as the reservation covers 972.517 sq mi of land and 337.392 sq mi of water, about one-fourth of its territory is covered by lakes. The largest lakes on the reservation are Leech Lake, Lake Winnibigoshish, Cass Lake; the band uses 40 lakes for the production of wild rice, the community produces more rice than any other reservation in the state. The reservation is the second-largest in Minnesota in terms of land area, the largest in terms of total area.
The core areas of the reservation were established by the 1855 treaty of Washington, which formed three smaller reservations for the Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians, modified several times thereafter. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the present "Greater" Leech Lake Indian Reservation was formed from the merger of the Leech Lake, Cass Lake, Lake Winnibigoshish reservations of the Pillager Band, the Chippewa Indian Reservation of the Lake Superior Band, the White Oak Point reservation of the Mississippi Band. A minimal percentage of reservation land is owned by citizens of the Band; the reservation consists of eleven villages. Nearly all Leech Lake communities are located near the woods of the Chippewa National Forest; the largest community is Cass Lake, situated on the southwestern shores of the eponymous lake. The next largest settlements are Ball Club, Onigum and Bena. In some communities, housing is located with each side lined with homes. Battle of Sugar Point Bryan v. Itasca County Leech Lake Tribal College List of historical Indian reservations in the United States List of largest Indian reservations Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Palace Bingo and Casino Official website Ekidong, Aaniin.
Ojibwe Vocabulary Project. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Humanities Center. ISBN 9780578034645. Treuer, Anton. Living Our Language: Ojibwe Tales & Oral Histories. Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 9780873514040. Treuer, Anton. Ojibwe in Minnesota. Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 9780873517683
U.S. Route 2
U. S. Route 2 or U. S. Highway 2 is an east–west U. S. Highway spanning 2,571 miles across the northern continental United States. US 2 consists of two segments connected by various roadways in southern Canada. Unlike some routes, which are disconnected into segments because of encroaching Interstate Highways, the two portions of US 2 were designed to be separate in the original 1926 highway plan; the western segment of US 2 has its western terminus at an interchange with Interstate 5 and State Route 529 in Everett and its eastern terminus at I-75 in St. Ignace, Michigan; the eastern segment of US 2 has its western terminus at US 11 in Rouses Point, New York and its eastern terminus at I-95 in Houlton, Maine. As its number indicates, it is the northernmost east–west U. S. Route in the country, it is the lowest primary-numbered east–west U. S. Route, whose numbers otherwise end in zero, was so numbered to avoid a US 0. Sections of US 2 in New England were once New England Route 15, part of the New England road marking system.
The western segment of US 2 extends from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan across the northern tier of the lower 48 states. Most of the western route was built paralleling the Great Northern Railway. US 2 adopted the railway's route nickname "The Highline" as the most northern crossing in the U. S; the Adventure Cycling Association's Northern Tier Bicycle Route is a bicycle touring route which follows or parallels US 2 for over 600 miles, most notably a 550-mile stretch between Columbia Falls and Williston, North Dakota. Within Washington state, US 2 is the northernmost all-season highway through the Cascade Mountains, it begins at Interstate 5 and State Route 529 in Everett, travels east via Stevens Pass. It intersects US 97 4 miles east of Leavenworth and continues as a duplicate route crossing the Columbia River at Wenatchee continues north as far as Orondo, where US 97 splits north. US 2 continues to the border in Newport. Shortly after entering Idaho from the west, US 2 crosses the Priest River.
US 2 follows Pend Oreille River to its source at Lake Pend Oreille. US 2 intersects Idaho State Highway 57 in the town of Priest River at mile 5.8. US 2 intersects US 95 at mile 28.4 in the town of Sandpoint. The two routes are duplexed for 36.2 miles until just after Bonners Ferry. At Three Mile Corner, US Route 2 continues southeast for 15.8 miles. US 2 is a vital northern corridor for Montana and has more mileage within Montana than in any other state, it intersects US 93 at Kalispell and passes through the southern end of Glacier National Park, crossing the continental divide at Marias Pass, before it enters the Great Plains west of Browning. It travels through Shelby; the highway continues east and leaves the state near the confluence of the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. US 2 is an east–west highway that runs through North Dakota’s northern tier of larger cities: Williston, Devils Lake, Grand Forks. US 2 intersects US 85 at Williston, US 52 and US 83 at Minot, US 281 at Churchs Ferry, the I-29 / US 81 concurrency at Grand Forks.
US 2 is four-laned from North Dakota’s eastern edge to just past Williston, a stretch of about 343 miles, leaving the remaining 12 miles to the Montana border as a two-lane highway. In Rugby, just east of the route's intersection with ND 3, the highway passes the location designated in 1931 as the geographical center of North America; the monument marking the geographic center had to be relocated in 1971 when US 2 was converted from two lanes to four lanes. The portion of US 2 from Cass Lake to Bemidji is designated the Paul Bunyan Expressway, it intersects US 169 and the Mississippi River in Grand Rapids, Minnesota. At the crossing between Duluth, Minn. and Superior, Wisc. the highway crosses the Richard I. Bong Memorial Bridge, about 8,300 feet in length—roughly 11,800 feet in length when the above land approaches are included. Of the 266 miles of US 2 in Minnesota, 146 miles have four lanes located in the northwest part of the state; the Minnesota section of US 2 is defined as Routes 8 and 203 in Minnesota Statutes §§161.114 and 161.115.
After crossing the Bong Bridge and entering into the city of Superior, Wisconsin's western segment of the highway joins Belknap Street. After crossing the midsection of Superior, US 2 merges with US 53 for a few miles following East 2nd Street out of the city. Ten miles outside of Superior, US 53 and US 2 part ways. US 53 veers south toward Eau Claire, while US 2 continues to the city of Ashland and to the Wisconsin–Michigan state line at the city of Ironwood. An eastern segment of US 2 re-enters Wisconsin 4 miles northwest of Florence and proceeds concurrently with US 141 for 14.5 miles until exiting Wisconsin again near Iron Mountain, Michigan. US 2 enters Michigan at the city of Ironwood and runs east to the town of Crystal Falls, where it turns south and re-enters Wisconsin northwest of Florence, it re-enters Michigan north of Iron Mountain and continues through the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to the cities of Escanaba, St. Ignace. Along the way, it cuts through the Ottawa and Hiawatha National Forests and follows the northern shore of Lake Michigan.
It ends at I-75, just north of the Mackinac Bridge in St. Ignace; the eastern segment of US 2 traverses the northeastern part of New York and the northern New England states. The road starts at US 11, just 1 mile south of the Canadian border at Rouses Point in Champlain, New York. From there it crosses the Richelieu River at the outlet of
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Clearwater County, Minnesota
Clearwater County is a county in the state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 8,695, its county seat is Bagley. Clearwater County is home to the source of the Mississippi River. Parts of the Red Lake and White Earth Indian reservations extend into the county; the Red Lake River flows out of Red Lake and courses westward across the top of Clearwater County on its way to discharge into the Red River at Grand Forks, North Dakota. The Clearwater River flows west-southwesterly across the central part of the county on its way to discharge into the Red Lake River; the county terrain consists of wooded rolling hills, dotted with ponds. The terrain slopes to the north, with the highest point on the lower west boundary, at 1,781' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,030 square miles, of which 999 square miles is land and 31 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Bagley have ranged from a low of −5 °F in January to a high of 79 °F in July, although a record low of −53 °F was recorded in February 1996 and a record high of 103 °F was recorded in August 1976.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.64 inches in December to 4.62 inches in June. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 8,423 people, 3,330 households, 2,287 families in the county; the population density was 8.43/sqmi. There were 4,114 housing units at an average density of 4.12/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 89.26% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 8.58% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.6% were of Norwegian, 15.6% German, 6.5% Swedish, 6.2% American ancestry. There were 3,330 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.80% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.30% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.02.
The county population contained 26.00% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 24.60% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 17.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 101.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,517, the median income for a family was $39,698. Males had a median income of $29,338 versus $20,417 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,694. About 11.00% of families and 15.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.90% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. North Clearwater South Clearwater In past decades, Clearwater County functioned as a swing precinct, but no Democratic Party candidate has carried the county since 1996. National Register of Historic Places listings in Clearwater County MN Clearwater County government website City of Bagley website