Roland Green (Australian politician)
Roland Frederick Herbert Green was an Australian politician. He attended Sydney Boys High School and served in the 6th Battalion AIF in the First World War, until losing a leg at the Battle of Menin Road in Belgium, in September 1917. To general surprise, Green won the House of Representatives seat of Richmond for the Country Party at the December 1922 election, defeating the sitting member and government minister Walter Massy-Greene. Green used an ingenious punning campaign slogan: "Vote for the Green without an E". Lack of an E in his name gave him precedence on the ballot paper over Massy-Greene, he remained the member for Richmond until his defeat at the 1937 election by Larry Anthony, another Country Party candidate
George Lawson (Australian politician)
George Lawson was an Australian trade union official and politician. Lawson was born in South Pine River, near Caboolture and educated at Warner State School, he fought in the Boer War in South Africa with the 5th Contingent in 1901–02 and was mentioned in dispatches. He married Rebecca Jane Buchanan in 1907 and they had two sons but she died in 1918. In 1907, he helped found the Brisbane Trolleymen and Carter's Union and was elected its secretary in 1908; the union became the Carters and Drivers' Union and in 1912 he was elected its general secretary, a position he held for twenty years. He was president of the Trades and Labour Council of Queensland in 1924 and 1927. At the time of his election to the House of Representatives, he was secretary of the Road Transport Workers' Union. Lawson was elected an alderman of the Windsor Town Council from 1916 to 1921 and appointed as an Australian Labor Party member of the Queensland Legislative Council in 1919, helped bring about its abolition in 1922.
He was elected the member for Brisbane in the Australian House of Representatives in the 1931 elections. In 1935 he married Kathleen Lally. With the election of the Curtin government in 1941 he became Minister for Transport, but lost his position in the ministry after the 1943 elections. After Labor's defeat in 1949 elections, he was a strong supporter of H. V. Evatt and opponent of both communists and groupers. Lawson retired from parliament in 1961, he died at his home in the Brisbane suburb of Ashgrove in 1966 and was buried in Pinnaroo Cemetery
National Party of Australia
The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. Traditionally representing graziers and rural voters it began as the Australian Country Party in 1920 at a federal level, it would briefly adopt the name National Country Party in 1975, before adopting its current name in 1982. Federally, in New South Wales, to an extent in Victoria and in Western Australia, it has, in government, been the minor party in a centre-right Coalition with the Liberal Party of Australia, its leader has served as Deputy Prime Minister. In Opposition the Coalition was maintained, but otherwise still continued to work in co-operation with the Liberal Party of Australia. In Queensland however, they were the senior coalition party between 1925 and 2008, after which they merged with the junior Liberal Party of Australia to form the Liberal National Party; the current leader of the National Party is Michael McCormack, who won a leadership spill following Barnaby Joyce's resignation in February 2018. The deputy leader of the Nationals, since 7 December 2017, is Bridget McKenzie.
The Country Party was formally founded in 1913 in Western Australia, nationally in 1920 from a number of state-based parties such as the Victorian Farmers' Union and the Farmers and Settlers Party of New South Wales. Australia's first Country Party was founded in 1912 by Harry J. Stephens, editor of The Farmer & Settler, but under fierce opposition from rival newspapers, failed to gain momentum; the VFU won a seat in the House of Representatives at the Corangamite by-election held in December 1918, with the help of the newly introduced preferential voting system. At the 1919 federal election the state-based Country Parties won federal seats in New South Wales and Western Australia, they began to win seats in state parliaments. In 1920 the Country Party was established as a national party led by William McWilliams from Tasmania. In his first speech as leader, McWilliams laid out the principles of the new party, stating "we crave no alliance, we spurn no support but we intend drastic action to secure closer attention to the needs of primary producers" McWilliams was deposed as party leader in favour of Dr Earle Page in April 1921 following instances where McWilliams voted against the party line.
McWilliams would leave the Country Party to sit as an Independent. According to historian B. D. Graham, the graziers who operated the sheep stations were politically conservative, they disliked the Labor Party, which represented their workers, feared that Labor governments would pass unfavorable legislation and listen to foreigners and communists. The graziers were satisfied with the marketing organisation of their industry, opposed any change in land tenure and labour relations, advocated lower tariffs, low freight rates, low taxes. On the other hand, Graham reports, the small farmers, not the graziers, founded the Country party; the farmers advocated government intervention in the market through price support schemes and marketing pools. The graziers politically and financially supported the Country party, which in turn made the Country party more conservative; the Country Party's first election as a united party, in 1922, saw it in an unexpected position of power. It won enough seats to deny the Nationalists an overall majority, was the Nationalists' only realistic coalition partner.
However, Page let it be known that his party would not serve under Hughes, forced his resignation. Page entered negotiations with the Nationalists' new leader, Stanley Bruce, for a coalition government. Page's terms were stiff—five seats in a Cabinet of 11, including the Treasurer portfolio and the second rank in the ministry for himself. Nonetheless, Bruce agreed, the "Bruce-Page Ministry" was formed—thus beginning the tradition of the party's leader ranking second in Coalition cabinets. Page remained dominant in the party until 1939 and served as an interim Prime Minister between the death of Joseph Lyons and the election of Robert Menzies as his successor, but Page's refusal to serve under Menzies led to his resignation as leader; the coalition was re-formed under Archie Cameron in 1940, continued until October 1941 despite the election of Arthur Fadden as leader after the 1940 Election. Fadden was well regarded within conservative circles and proved to be a loyal deputy to Menzies in the difficult circumstances of 1941.
When Menzies was forced to resign as Prime Minister, the UAP was so bereft of leadership that Fadden succeeded him. However, the two independents, propping up the government rejected Fadden's budget and brought the government down. Fadden stood down in favour of Labor leader John Curtin; the Fadden-led Coalition made no headway against Curtin, was defeated in the 1943 election. After that loss, Fadden became deputy Leader of the Opposition under Menzies, a role that continued after Menzies folded the UAP into the Liberal Party of Australia in 1944. Fadden remained a loyal partner of Menzies, though he was still keen to assert the independence of his party. Indeed, in the lead up to the 1949 federal election, Fadden played a key role in the defeat of the Chifley Labor government making inflammatory claims about the "socialist" nature of the Labor Party, which Menzies could "clarify" or repudiate as he saw fit, thus appearing more "moderate". In 1949, Fadden became Treasurer in the second Menzies government and remained so until his retirement in 1958.
His successful partnership with Menzies was o
Anthony family (Australian politics)
The Anthony family is the only three-generation dynasty in the Australian House of Representatives. All three sat in the Division of Richmond in north-eastern New South Wales. Larry Anthony Sr. born in Warren and chairman of the Banana Growers Federation, became an MP in 1937 and a minister by 1940, a minister again from 1949 until his sudden death in 1957. Doug Anthony, born in Murwillumbah, became an MP when his father died in 1957 and a minister from 1964, Deputy Prime Minister of Australia 1971-72 and 1975–83, before resigning in 1984. Larry Anthony, Jr. born in Sydney and stockbroker, was the third Anthony in Richmond, from 1996 to 2004. He was a minister from 1999 until his defeat by Justine Elliot five years later, he is now on the board of directors of the Queensland-based financial institution Indue, the leading edge technology company uniDap Solutions. He is the Chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award for Australia
Murwillumbah is a town in far north-eastern New South Wales, Australia, in the Tweed Shire, on the Tweed River, 848 km north-east of Sydney, 13 km south of the Queensland border and 132 km south of Brisbane. At the 2016 census, Murwillumbah had a population of 9,245 people; the town's name is abbreviated to M'bah or Murbah. Murwillumbah sits on the south eastern foothills of the McPherson Range in the Tweed Volcano valley; the area is hilly. Many of the buildings are Art Deco in style and there are cafes and antique shops in the town. Murwillumbah is the eighth town mentioned in the original Australia version of the song "I've Been Everywhere". Murwillumbah was used as the location for the film Lou starring John Hurt; the ABC television series of the novel Pastures of the Blue Crane was filmed in the Tweed region in 1969. It is the home of the Tweed Regional Gallery; the first people to live in the area were Kalibai people. The name Murwillumbah may derive from an Aboriginal compound meaning either "camping place" – from murrie, meaning "aboriginal people", wolli, "a camp", bah, "place", or, alternatively from murra "big",willum "opossum" and bah.
Nearby Mount Warning and its attendant national park are known as Wollumbin, meaning "Cloud Catcher", in the Bundjalung language. Timber-getters were drawn to the region in the 1840s; the river port at Tumbulgum was the main settlement. In 1902, a local government municipality was declared with Murwillumbah as its centre. Most of the town's business district was destroyed by fire in 1907. In 1918 an initial 18 allotments were advertised for sale in the Hartigan Estate and a subsequent 200 allotments were advertised for sale in September 1920; the land was bounded by the Tweed River and Commercial Road on the east, Condong Street on the north, Riverview Street on the west and Elizabeth Street to the south. The subdivision was sold as part of the estate of Denis Hartigan. In December 1923, "Bray Estate" made up of 9 farm and farmlet blocks was advertised to be auctioned by A. E. Budd & Son. Murwillumbah is the location for Australia’s largest-ever bank robbery which occurred in 1978 and has not been solved.
Murwillumbah is protected by a series of levees, but they do not protect all parts of the town in major floods. The worst flood to affect the town occurred on 30 March 2017 when the Tweed River reached 6.2 metres after rainfall of over 700 millimetres from the remnants of Tropical Cyclone Debbie fell in its upper catchment over a 36 hour period. This level caused extensive flooding and mass evacuations in South Murwillumbah and other low-lying areas, cut road access from the north and south, fell just short of overtopping the 6.3 metres levees protecting the central business district. The event exceeded previous major floods in 1954 and 1956. In March 1974, two hundred people were evacuated from the town after floodwater from Tropical Cyclone Zoe inundated the area. In January 2008, Murwillumbah and surrounding areas were hit by severe flooding. May 2009 surrounds after heavy rainfall. Murwillumbah has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Casino-Murwillumbah railway, South Murwillumbah: Murwillumbah railway station The town was bypassed by the Pacific Highway in August 2002.
Today, main road access from both north and south is via the scenic Tweed Valley Way, a section of the original highway. There is an inland road that passes along the Numinbah Valley through the towns of Chillingham and Natural Bridge, scenic tourist drive. Another major road west of the town heads to Kyogle via the town Uki, passes near the town of Nimbin. Murwillumbah station was the terminus of the Casino–Murwillumbah branch line, had daily train services to Sydney until the line closed in 2004. Today NSW TrainLink coaches to and from Casino provide connections to daily trains to Sydney. Several bus services serve the area. Murwillumbah Bus Company offers regular services to major parts of the town, as well as Condong and Uki. Parson's Bus Service offers services to Pottsville, Cabarita Beach, Stokers Siding. Gosel's Bus Service offers services to Nimbin via Uki on route 630. Singh's Bus Service offers services to Chillingham and Eungella. Surfside Buslines operate hourly service to Tweed Heads via Terranora on route 605.
Taxi services are available. Murwillumbah's airfield, Whittle Field, is named after a noted local World War II Spitfire pilot, the late Bob Whittle, it has no scheduled services, but its 800-metre grass runway supports Murwillumbah Aero Club and business activities including crop-dusting, aircraft restoration and scenic charter flights. The major industry of the area, apart from tourism, is sugarcane growing. There were numerous tramways in the area serving the sugar mill at Condong until 1973 with the introduction of mechanical cane harvesting. There is some dairy farming in the area. Coffee and assorted tropical fruit and vegetables are produced throughout the valley. Murwillumbah is home to Stone & Wood Brewing Co.'s second brewery, which opened in 2014. There are alternative lifestyle retreats nearby, notably one belonging to the Hare Krishna religion; the annual Tweed Banana Festival, the second oldest festival in Australia is staged in the town. In 2005, the festival celebrated its 50th anniversary.
From 2002 to 2009 an historic motor racing festival was run through the streets of Murwillimbah, featuring a parade through town, a one kilometre hillclimb course, connected events, attracting thousands of spectators. Modeled on the Goodwood Festival of Speed, Speed on Tweed was a highlight of the local calendar attracting cars and competitors from all over Australia and from Europe and North America. In Sept
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of the Defence Force commands the ADF, the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army; the CA is therefore subordinate to the CDF, but is directly responsible to the Minister for Defence. Although Australian soldiers have been involved in a number of minor and major conflicts throughout its history, only in World War II has Australian territory come under direct attack. Formed in March 1901, with the amalgamation of the six separate colonial military forces, the history of the Australian Army can be divided into two periods: 1901–47, when limits were set on the size of the regular Army, the vast majority of peacetime soldiers were in reserve units of the Citizens Military Force, expeditionary forces were formed to serve overseas, Post-1947, when a standing peacetime regular infantry force was formed and the CMF began to decline in importance.
During its history the Australian Army has fought in a number of major wars, including: Second Boer War, First World War, the Second World War, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, Vietnam War, more in Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 1947 the Australian Army has been involved in many peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations, however the non-United Nations sponsored Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai is a notable exception. Australia's largest peacekeeping deployment began in 1999 in East Timor, while other ongoing operations include peacekeeping on Bougainville, in the Sinai, in the Solomon Islands. Humanitarian relief after 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake in Aceh Province, Operation Sumatra Assist, ended on 24 March 2005; the 1st Division comprises a deployable headquarters, while 2nd Division under the command of Forces Command is the main home-defence formation, containing Army Reserve units. 2nd Division's headquarters only performs administrative functions.
The Australian Army has not deployed a divisional-sized formation since 1945 and does not expect to do so in the future. 1st Division carries out high-level training activities and deploys to command large-scale ground operations. It has few combat units permanently assigned to it, although it does command the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment as part of Australia's amphibious task group. Forces Command controls for administrative purposes all non-special-forces assets of the Australian Army, it is neither an a deployable command. 1 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Darwin and Adelaide. 3 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Townsville. 6 Brigade – Mixed brigade based in Sydney. 7 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Brisbane. 16 Aviation Brigade – Army Aviation brigade based in Enoggera, Brisbane. 17 Combat Service Support Brigade – Logistic brigade based in Sydney. 2nd Division administers the reserve forces from its headquarters located in Sydney. 4 Brigade – based in Victoria.
5 Brigade – based in New South Wales. 8 Brigade – training brigade with units around Australia 9 Brigade – based in South Australia and Tasmania. 11 Brigade – based in Queensland. 13 Brigade – based in Western Australia. Additionally, Forces Command includes the following training establishments: Army Recruit Training Centre at Kapooka, NSW. Special Operations Command comprises a command formation of equal status to the other commands in the ADF, it includes all of Army's special forces assets. Under a restructuring program known as Plan Beersheba announced in late 2011, the 1st, 3rd and 7th Brigades will be re-formed as combined-arms multi-role manoeuvre brigades with the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment forming the core of a future amphibious force; the force will be known as the Amphibious Ready Element and will be embarked on the Navy's new Canberra-class amphibious assault ships. Infantry, some other combat units of the Australian Army carry flags called the Queen's Colour and the Regimental Colour, known as "the Colours".
Armoured units carry Standards and Guidons – flags smaller than Colours and traditionally carried by Cavalry, Light Horse and Mounted Infantry units. The 1st Armoured Regiment is the only unit in the Australian Army to carry a Standard, in the tradition of heavy armoured units. Artillery units' guns are considered to be their Colours, on parade are provided with the same respect. Non-combat units do not have Colours, as Colours are battle flags and so are only available to combat units; as a substitute, many have Banners. Units awarded battle honours have them emblazoned on their Colours and Guidons, they are a memorial to the fallen. Artillery do not have Battle Honours – their single Honour is "Ubique" which means "Everywhere" – although they can receive Honour Titles; the Army is the guardian of the National Flag and as such, unlike the Royal Australian Air Force, does not have a flag or Colours. The Army, has a banner, known as the Army Banner. To commemorate the centenary of the Army, the Governor General Sir William Deane, presented the Army with a new Banner at a parade in front of the Australian War Memorial on 10 March 2001.
The Banner was
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC