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Hucknall

Hucknall Hucknall Torkard, is an English town in the district of Ashfield, Nottinghamshire. It was a centre for framework knitting and for mining, but is now a focus for other industries and a dormitory town for Nottingham, it was the site. It is the final resting place of Lord Byron in 1824 and of his estranged daughter, the mathematician and pioneer computer programmer Ada Lovelace in 1852. Hucknall is 7 miles north-west of Nottingham, on the west bank of the Leen Valley, on land which rises from the Trent Valley in the south to the hills of the county north of Kirkby-in-Ashfield; the Whyburn or Town Brook flows through the town centre. Farleys Brook marks its southern boundary; the town's highest point is Long Hill, at 460 ft above sea level, with views over the city and Trent Valley, which descends to 22–24 metres AOD, flowing just beyond most of the city centre. The town is surrounded by parkland. To the north-west lie Misk Hills and Annesley. To the north-east of the town are the villages of Linby and Papplewick, beyond these two, Newstead Abbey and its grounds, once the residence of Lord Byron.

To the west lies Eastwood, birthplace of D. H. Lawrence and an inspiration for many of his novels and short stories. To the east of the town is Bestwood Country Park; the contiguous settlements of Butler's Hill and Westville appear as distinct entities on maps, but are seen as parts of Hucknall. They belong to its historic and present-day Church of England parish, although the town itself has no civil parish council; the identity is reinforced by being shared wards of Hucknall. Hucknall was once a thriving market town, its focal point is the parish church of St. Mary Magdalene, next to the town's market square; the church was built by the Anglo-Saxons and completed after the Norman Conquest, though its medieval chancel, north aisle and tower were much restored and enlarged in the Victorian period. In 1872 a south aisle was added and in 1887 unusually long transepts, while the rest of the building apart from the tower was restored; the top tower stage and the south porch are 14th-century. There are 25 stained-glass windows by Charles Eamer Kempe, installed in the 1880s, a modest memorial to Lord Byron.

From 1295 until 1915, the town was known as Hucknall Torkard, taken from Torcard, the name of a dominant landowning family. Signs of the earlier name can be seen on some older buildings. During the 19th and 20th centuries, coal was discovered and mined throughout the Leen Valley, which includes Hucknall; this brought increased wealth to the town, along with the construction of three railway lines. The first was the Midland Railway line from Nottingham to Mansfield and Worksop, closed to passengers on 12 October 1964 though retained as a freight route serving collieries at Hucknall and Annesley; the Hucknall station on this line was known as Hucknall Byron in its latter years. In the 1990s the line was reopened to passengers in stages as the Robin Hood Line, the section through Hucknall in 1993, with a new station on the site of the old "Byron", though called Hucknall; the second was the Great Northern Railway route up the Leen Valley and on to Shirebrook, serving many of the same places as the Midland south of Annesley.

It closed to passengers on 14 September 1931, but remained in freight use until 25 March 1968. The station on this line was known as Hucknall Town; the third was the Great Central Railway, the last main line built from the north of England to London, opened on 15 March 1899. The stretch through Hucknall closed on 5 September 1966, but Hucknall Central station had closed earlier, on 4 March 1963. From 1894 until 1974 Hucknall was the seat of Hucknall Urban District Council. With the abolition of the UDC, local government was transferred to Ashfield. In 1956 the Church of St Peter and St Paul, Hucknall was built to serve western parts of Hucknall. Hucknall was recorded as Hokeuhale and Hokenale, suggesting “nook of land of Hōcanere”, from Old English halh; this same tribe's name occurs in Oxfordshire. It has been suggested that the name Hucknall once referred to a larger area on the Nottinghamshire/Derbyshire border. Two other settlements in the locality are called Hucknall, it is that Hucknall Torkard marked the southern boundary of this larger Hucknall Area.

In the Domesday Book the name appears as Hochenale. The Hucknall Tourism and Regeneration Group has a mission statement: "To help Hucknall regain its position as a strong and prosperous town. To retain the historical legacy of the town and surrounding area. To attract visitors and boost the local economy by raising awareness of our heritage to both visitors and residents alike." The Hucknall Tourism and Regeneration Group was inaugurated in 2002. It consists of people from all aspects of Hucknall life, who have a desire to help regenerate the town through tourism, after the devastating loss of the mining industry and large portions of the textile industry. Members of the group include business owners, volunteer workers and councillors. HTRG works with other well-established organisations such as the Hucknall Round Table, the Rotary Club of Hucknall, Hucknall Heritage Society, the Eric Coates Society, St Mary Magdalene Church, Ashfield District Council Nottinghamshire County Council, Hucknall Library and volunteer organisations, to pre

Beiger Mansion

The Beiger Mansion, pronounced By-gur, though known more colloquially as Bee-gur, was the palatial home of Martin Valentine and Susie Higgins Beiger at 317 Lincoln Way E. in Mishawaka, Indiana. In 1973 it was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Built in 1903 the home was burned to the ground in 1975 and has since been restored, though not to its former grandeur; the restoration process is still ongoing. It is now operated as breakfast and event facility. Martin V. Beiger, born February 3, 1847, was Mishawaka's first millionaire. Martin made his fortune with the Mishawaka Woolen and Rubber Manufacturing Company, which would become Ball Band Uniroyal. He, along with his father Jacob Beiger, bought the small textiles mill in 1867; the mill had just 3 workers and made flannels. He married Susie Higgins, the daughter of a local jeweler, in December 1875. In 1886 Martin Beiger, along with Adolphus Eberhart, patented the first all knit wool boot that did not lose shape or size. Demand for this product grew the company.

The boots were topped with a black band and a red ball which became the companies trade mark. Ball Band went on to employ 5000 workers by as many as 10000 in the 1940s. By 1903 the company had around 2000 employees and Martin had become wealthy. Soon he and Susie were considering a more lavish home in the style of some of New Port Rhode Island's mansions that of The Breakers. Planning for a new home was begun in 1900, construction on the ​4 1⁄2-story neoclassical mansion began in 1903. Architectural plans were designed by Durham and Snyder, a company in South Bend and landscaping plans were designed by prominent landscape architect Jens Jensen. In the first year of construction, on September 26, 1903, Martin Beiger died at the age of 56 after an infection from an operation for appendicitus. Construction on the mansion was halted for a time, however Susie decided to continue with construction and the mansion was completed in 1908 at a total cost of 100,000 dollars; the home is 21,790 square feet and had some 40 rooms.

It has 11 unique fireplaces. Among the original rooms there were 11 bedrooms, 2 dining rooms, 2 kitchens, 2 sitting rooms, a billiards room, a library, a breakfast room, a solarium, a reception room, a ball room, a one-lane bowling alley, a museum, a music room; the music room featured a three-manual Aeolian organ costing $25,000 at the time. The 5th floor is a 2,000-square-foot area that housed the gardeners quarters; the mansion sat on nearly an entire block, featured landscaped gardens and a full tennis court, built for her nephew. The home was modern for its time, it had electric lighting throughout, an internal bell system for calling the staff, a central vacuum system, radiator and forced air heating. The home was designed with an elevator in it. With time this would prove to be an important choice; the main safe on the second floor encompasses several hundred square feet of storage. All the safes were provided by the Mosler Safe Company of Cincinnati Ohio; the mansion featured several prized woods including, African mahogany, birds eye maple, teak.

Several of the rooms had large murals hand painted on silk. The first floor dining room had an Italianate scene, the library had a depiction of the birth of Christ from Ben Hur, the breakfast room had a sunrise motif. Susie, along with a two nieces and nephew of hers, moved into the mansion in 1908, she lived well, with 6 servants, entertained lavishly. Susie is reported to have had the first car in Mishawaka. SHe lived in the home until her death in 1927, when Ms. Beiger fell while walking down the main staircase in the home, breaking her hip. Susie died of complications due to this fall at the age of 68. Since she did not have any children Ms. Beiger left the mansion in trust as a home for the care of elderly women. Ms. Beiger willed 210 thousand dollars of her 1.55 million dollar estate to care for and maintain the home and its furnishings. The home for the care of the elderly was opened February 1, 1930; the home remained a care facility until its operation was no longer financially viable ceasing operation in 1967.

During this time the surrounding grounds, which were an entire block, were sold off. To the south of the mansion, on the original site of the tennis courts, lies the Dodge House for the Elderly, built in 1933. By the late 1960s the future of the home was uncertain, in 1972 it was slated for demolition to make way for used car lot. However, the local community along with the Mishawaka Historical Society banded together in order to save and restore the mansion. On September 7, 1973, the home was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. In the early morning on 20 January 1975, the mansion was burned to the ground in an unsolved arson; the terracotta roof collapsed through into the basement and nearly the entire home was destroyed. All that remained standing were the limestone walls and safes; the bulk of the valuable furniture and artifacts within were lost as well. Disastrously there was only a $75,000 insurance policy on the mansion, leaving its future again unclear. However, again the community moved to save the mansion.

The recovery was slow. It took. By the mid- to late 1980s, the Historical Society had lost support and finances for preserving and restoring the mansion. On August 1, 1989, Ron Montandon purchased the mansion from the Historical Society, he has since worked to restore the mansion to its original grandeur. The current floor plan matches the original, most of the

Trump coup

The trump coup is a contract bridge coup used when the hand on lead has no trumps remaining, while the next hand in rotation has only trumps, including a high one that would have been onside for a direct finesse if a trump could have been led. The play involves forcing that hand to ruff. A similar motive is met in coup en passant. In the end position below, spades are trump; the king of spades is onside, but declarer cannot finesse against it because dummy has no trumps remaining. Declarer takes all three tricks by playing a heart first; when a club is led from dummy, East has nothing but spades remaining and therefore must ruff, South can overruff with the ace or queen according to which spade East plays. A trump coup is not possible in a double-finesse position, since declarer with a holding like A-Q-10 over defender's K-J-x would take the first trump trick and would have to give the defender a free finesse. In effect, a trump coup against a king must find it guarded by one other trump. With A-K-J of trumps in hand, a trump coup against Q-x-x on the right is possible, so on.

To execute a trump coup, declarer must have the same number of trumps as the defender. If declarer had more trumps, entry could not be given to dummy at the critical point when the defender will have only trumps remaining. Sometimes a declarer with too many trumps, but needing to do a trump coup, can set up the desired position by entering dummy and leading a suit he can ruff, to shorten his own trumps. If the card, ruffed in order to shorten the trumps would have been a winner, the play is called a grand coup: South, having opened strong 2♣, plays in 6♣. West leads a diamond to East's ace. South discovers the bad break. Now, South has to ruff his high spades in dummy twice to shorten its trumps to the same length as West. Next, he ruffs another spade, he cashes the ♦K, reenters his hand with the ♥K. At that point and West have only two trumps each—K 10 and J 9 respectively. Either a heart or a spade from South's hand completes the coup. A similar tactic can be used to create an endplay situation, with similar results to the more ordinary trump coup: In this six-card ending given as a whist hand, clubs are trumps and the lead is in the North hand.

To win five of the six remaining tricks, the ♥10 must be led from dummy and South must ruff with a low club. After this the ♠A K must be cashed, a low club led from hand. East can now win only one trump trick—if he takes this trick he will be endplayed into leading into South's remaining trump tenace and lose the last two tricks, while if he ducks, he will of course prosaically lose his ♣9 or ♣8 to South's ♣J and win only trick 13. South wins a trick less if he plays otherwise, as the tempo of the situation is altered and it will be South who becomes endplayed at trick 12 to give up a second trump winner to East—if he does not ruff dummy's heart winner, after giving up the first trump trick to East, the latter will still have a major suit card at trick 11 in addition to his two trumps, which he will lead to compel South to ruff and again lead trumps up to East. If he executes the coup but fails to cash both spades before touching trumps, East will lead his remaining spade to force South back on lead to give up a second trump trick.

For a trump coup to work, the key defender must have a suitable distribution in other suits, so that he cannot ruff a declarer's winner prematurely. Smother play Devil's coup

Meriden Britannia Company

The Meriden Britannia Company was formed in 1852 in Meriden, Connecticut as a manufacturing company focused on producing wares in britannia metal. By 1876, the Meriden Britannia Company had grown a great deal and the company made significant efforts at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in that year; the company won the First Place medal for plated wares. According to Sotheby's in New York, "The publicity of the award and the impression the firm made on the fair's 8 million visitors was continued by the catalogues and other intensive marketing; the main factories were in Meriden and a branch factory was in Hamilton, Canada. By 1893, the company had expanded production with its floor surface covering over eight acres of space in downtown Meriden. In 1898, the Meriden Britannia Company became part of the larger International Silver Company corporation headquartered in Meriden. Afterwards, while part of ISC, many designs were produced under the Meriden Britannia brand with design trade catalogues specifying Meriden Britannia wares.

Meriden Britannia Company designs are included in many museum collections, including the Brooklyn Museum, New York. Recent museum exhibitions featuring Meriden Britannia designs include Life and the pursuit of happiness at the Yale University Art Gallery, travelled to Louisville, KY. In 1994-95, Meriden Britannia was included in the Dallas Museum of Art's Silver in America, 1840-1940: A century of splendor exhibition, in 1986-87 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art's exhibition In pursuit of beauty: Americans and the Aesthetic Movement. In 1985, Meriden Britannia was included in a special exhibition at the Palácio Nacional da Ajudo, Portugal, organized on the occasion of U. S. President Ronald Reagan and the First Lady's visit to the city

South African Class 26 4-8-4

The South African Railways Class 26 4-8-4 of 1981, popularly known as the Red Devil, is a 4-8-4 steam locomotive, rebuilt from a Class 25NC locomotive by mechanical engineer David Wardale from England while in the employ of the South African Railways. The rebuilding took place at the Salt River Works in Cape Town and was based on the principles developed by Argentinian mechanical engineer L. D. Porta; the original locomotive from which the Class 26 was rebuilt entered service in 1953 as the last of the Class 25NC 4-8-4 Northern type locomotives to be built. The Class 25 condensing and Class 25NC non-condensing locomotives were designed by the South African Railways under the direction of L. C. Grubb, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the SAR from 1949 to 1954, in conjunction with Henschel and Son; the first Class 25, no. 3451, most of the Class 25 condensing tenders and Class 25NC locomotives in the number range from 3412 to 3450 were built by Henschel, while Class 25NC locomotives in the number range from 3401 to 3411 and the other eighty-nine Class 25 condensing locomotives were built by the North British Locomotive Company in Glasgow, Scotland.

The rebuilding project suffered from the outset from, at best, half-hearted support on the side of the SAR management who had by already decided to replace all steam traction with electric and diesel-electric power. Wardale, was determined to demonstrate that the efficiency of steam locomotives could be drastically increased by making use of a Gas Producer Combustion System to produce more steam for less fuel consumed, the Lempor exhaust system developed by Argentinian mechanical engineer L. D. Porta to use steam with maximum efficiency; as a trial run, Wardale was allowed to carry out extensive modifications on a Krupp-built Class 19D 4-8-2 Mountain type branchline locomotive, no. 2644. A GPCS and tandem dual Lempor exhausts were installed along with some other small improvements which included high mounted smoke deflectors; the modifications enabled the locomotive to achieve higher power and lower fuel consumption than other unmodified Class 19Ds, which resulted in Wardale being allowed to continue with the building of a Class 26 prototype.

Work on Class 25NC no. 3450 began at the end of 1979. The manufacturing of all new items and modifications to existing parts were carried out at the SAR workshops at Salt River in Cape Town, Beaconsfield in Kimberley, Koedoespoort in Pretoria and Pietermaritzburg, the work being allocated to the workshop best suited to the particular task at hand; the primary objectives of the modifications were threefold. To improve the combustion and steaming rate. To reduce the emission of wasteful black smoke. To overcome the problem of clinkering; this was achieved by the use of a single-stage gas producer, the GPCS, which relies on the gasification of coal on a low temperature firebed so that the gases are fully burnt above the firebed. It minimises the amount of air being drawn up through the firebed, the main source of air required for combustion being through ancillary air intakes located above the firebed; the most serious waste of fuel in a conventional steam locomotive is the loss of unburned coal particles from the fuel bed because of the rapid flow of air through the grate.

With the GPCS, the coal is therefore heated to drive off the volatile components which are burned in the secondary air admitted above the grate. The result is improved combustion, thereby minimising black smoke, evidence of incomplete combustion with the result that unburnt coal particles are ejected through the exhaust. Amongst many minor detail improvements, other major modifications to the engine included the following: A lengthened smokebox to accommodate the tandem double Lempor exhausts. Offset double chimneys. A feedwater-heater between the chimneys. Improved lubrication on cylinder and valve liner rubbing surfaces. A booster for increased superheating. New piston valves. Articulated valve spindles. New cooled valve liners. Redesigned chromium cast iron rings and valve liners with streamlined cylinder ports. New cylinder liners. Altered valve gear. Herdner starting valves. Air sanding. An altered self-cleaning smokebox. Enlarged steam chests. Direct steam pipes. Improved pistons. Improved valve and piston rod packings.

An improved variable stroke lubricator drive. Improved insulation. Improved Walschaerts valve gear with computer calculated dimensions. Continental European style high mounted exhaust deflectors, curved round but not parallel to the smokebox; the coal capacity of the Class 25NC's Type EW1 tender was increased from 18 long tons to about 20 long tons by raising the coal bunker sides. With all the modifications done, the total weight of the locomotive in full working order had been increased from 231 tonnes to about 236 tonnes; these extensive modifications justified reclassification and the locomotive became the first and only Class 26, although its original Class 25NC number 3450 was retained. The Class 26 number plates, builder's plate and the Salt River rebuild plate which were attached to the cab sides at the time, have since been replaced with plates inscribed "Transnet National Collection"; the Henschel works plates which were mounted on the cab sides of 3450 were not the originals, but were taken off Class GMAM 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratt no.

4068, Henschel works number 28697, withdrawn from service and stored at De Aar at about the time no. 3450 was being rebuilt to Class 26. The Red Devil's actual builder's works number, 28769, had the same digits, albeit in a different order; the locomotive was painted in a red livery and was named L. D. Porta after the Argentinian engineer responsible for some of the ideas and developments incorporated in its modification. Initi

1999 Saskatchewan general election

The 1999 Saskatchewan general election was the twenty-fourth provincial election held in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It was held on September 1999 to elect members of the 24th Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan. Polls during the campaign indicated strong levels of support for the New Democratic Party government. However, facing the fallout of a poor crop growing season and a scandal involving the Crown Corporation electric utility SaskPower, the New Democrat government of Premier Roy Romanow – challenged by the newly created Saskatchewan Party – lost a significant share of the popular vote; the right-wing Saskatchewan Party was created during the sitting of the 23rd Assembly by former members of the Progressive Conservative Party and by conservative Liberals who were unhappy with the leadership of Jim Melenchuk. The new party was led by a former Reform Party federal Member of Parliament. In this election, it won 39.61% of the popular vote – more than the NDP's 38.73%. However, this was only enough five short of making Hermanson premier.

This was because it was nonexistent in the province's more urban areas. The NDP was able to continue to govern with the support of some Liberal Members of the Legislative Assembly; some NDP members unhappy with the government of Roy Romanow left to form the New Green Alliance, an environmentalist party. This party won about 1% of the popular vote, no seats in the legislature. What remained of the Progressive Conservatives fielded 14 paper candidates – all in NDP strongholds – in order to preserve their status as a registered political party; the Tories did not campaign and won only a few votes. Notes: * Party did not nominate candidates in previous election. 1 One constituency – Wood River – was won by the Liberals, but the result was overturned by the courts. The Saskatchewan Party won the ensuing by-election. Wood River: Yogi Huyghebaert def. Glen McPherson by 7 votes1 Saskatoon Southeast: Pat Lorje def. Grant Karwacki by 38 votes Regina Wascana Plains: Doreen Hamilton def. Dan Thibault by 119 votes Saskatoon Northwest: Jim Melenchuk def.

Grant Whitmore by 127 votes Saskatchewan Rivers: Daryl Wiberg def. Jack Langford by 156 votes Shellbrook-Spiritwood: Denis Allchurch def. Lloyd Johnson by 301 votes Yorkton: Clay Serby def. Lorne Gogal by 306 votes Meadow Lake: Maynard Sonntag def. Bob Young by 323 votesNotes: 1 see below under "Wood River controversy" People in bold represent cabinet ministers and the Speaker. Party leaders are italicized; the symbol " ** " represents MLAs who are not running again. 1. Elhard was elected to the Legislature as a member of the Saskatchewan Party in a June 1999 by-election following the resignation and eventual conviction of former PC MLA Jack Goohsen. 2. See below under Wood River controversy The Wood River electoral district in the wake of the 1999 general election endured a nine-month crisis where it went without representation. On election night returns came back in favour of Saskatchewan Party candidate Yogi Huyghebaert who defeated incumbent Glen McPherson by just seven votes in unofficial returns.

The close election results were challenged in the courts. After five months a judicial decision came down and the results were certified on January 27, 2000. Saskatchewan Liberal Party incumbent Glen McPherson was declared by a judge the winner by a single vote defeating Yogi Huyghebaert from the Saskatchewan Party; the Saskatchewan Party decided to challenge the judicial decision, it was overturned and dissolved based on irregularities in the absentee ballots. The seat was dissolved and a by-election was called by Premier Roy Romanow on May 29, 2000. McPherson did not run in the subsequent by-election, his candidacy for the Liberal party was replaced by Gerry Ruehs. Huyghebaert ended up winning the by-election. List of political parties in Saskatchewan List of Saskatchewan provincial electoral districts Elections Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Archives Board - Election Results By Electoral Division Elections Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Archives Board - Election Results By Electoral Division