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Huddersfield

Huddersfield is a large market town in the metropolitan borough of Kirklees in West Yorkshire, England. It has a population of 162,949 at the 2011 census, it lies west of Wakefield and north of Sheffield. As well as 24 miles northeast of Manchester, it is the administrative centre of the wider metropolitan borough of Kirklees. Huddersfield is near the confluence of the River Holme. Within the historic county boundaries of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is the largest urban area in the metropolitan borough of Kirklees and the administrative centre of the borough; the town is known for its role in the Industrial Revolution, for being the birthplaces of rugby league, Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson, the film star James Mason. Huddersfield is home to rugby league team Huddersfield Giants, founded in 1895, who play in the Super League, Championship football team Huddersfield Town A. F. C. Founded in 1908; the town is home to the University of Huddersfield and the sixth form colleges Greenhead College, Kirklees College and Huddersfield New College.

Huddersfield is a town of Victorian architecture. Huddersfield railway station is a Grade I listed building described by John Betjeman as "the most splendid station façade in England", second only to St Pancras, London; the station in St George's Square was renovated at a cost of £4 million and subsequently won the Europa Nostra award for European architecture. There has been a settlement in the area for over 4,000 years; the remains of a Roman fort were unearthed in the mid 18th century at Slack near Outlane, west of the town. Castle Hill, a major landmark, was the site of an Iron Age hill fort; the place-name'Huddersfield' is first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it appears as Oderesfelt. It appears as Hudresfeld in a Yorkshire charter from 1121-7, as Huderesfeld in Subsidy Rolls in 1297; the name means'Huder's field or open space'. The modern name Huddersfield is pronounced without a word-initial /h/ in the local dialect, suggesting that the standard English pronunciation has been influenced by the accepted spelling.

Huddersfield has been a market town since Anglo-Saxon times. The market cross is on Market Place; the manor of Huddersfield was owned by the de Lacy family until 1322, at which it reverted to royal ownership. In 1599, William Ramsden bought the manor, the Ramsden family continued to own the manor, which came to be known as the Ramsden Estate, until 1920. During their ownership they supported the development of the town. Sir John Ramsden, 3rd Baronet built the Huddersfield Cloth Hall in 1766 and his son the fourth baronet was responsible for Sir John Ramsden's Canal in 1780; the Ramsdens supported the arrival of the railway in the 1840s. Huddersfield was a centre of civil unrest during the Industrial Revolution. In a period where Europe was experiencing frequent wars, where trade had slumped and the crops had failed, many local weavers faced losing their livelihood due to the introduction of machinery in factories. Luddites began destroying mills and machinery in response. In his book Rebels Against the Future, Kirkpatrick Sale describes how an army platoon was stationed at Huddersfield to deal with Luddites.

In response, Luddites began to focus attacks on nearby towns and villages, which were less well-protected. The government campaign that crushed the movement was provoked by a murder that took place in Huddersfield. William Horsfall, a mill-owner and a passionate prosecutor of Luddites, was killed in 1812. Although the movement faded out, Parliament began to increase welfare provision for those out of work, introduce regulations to improve conditions in the mills. Two Prime Ministers spent part of their childhood in Huddersfield: Harold Wilson, who attended Royds Hall School, H. H. Asquith. Wilson is commemorated by a statue in front of the railway station; the Huddersfield constituency has been represented by Labour MP Barry Sheerman since its creation in 1983 and is considered a safe seat for Labour. Kirklees Council was the first in the UK to have a Green Party councillor, Nicholas Harvey, instrumental in protesting against the intended closure of the Settle and Carlisle Railway line; the town has Conservative Party, Liberal Democrats and UKIP presences.

Huddersfield was incorporated as a municipal borough in the ancient West Riding of Yorkshire in 1868. The borough comprised the parishes of Almondbury, Huddersfield, Lindley-cum-Quarmby and Lockwood; when the West Riding County Council was formed in 1889, Huddersfield became a county borough, exempt from county council control. In 1920, the Corporation bought the Ramsden Estate from the Ramsden family, that had owned much of the town since 1599, for the sum of £1.3 million. As a result, the town became known for a time as'the town that bought itself'. To this day, much of the freehold of the town belongs to the local authority. Huddersfield expanded in 1937, assimilating parts of the Golcar and South Crosland urban districts; the county borough was abolished in 1974 and its former area was combined with that of other districts to form the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in West Yorkshire. Attempts by the council to gain support for city status were rejected by the population in an unofficial referendum held by the Huddersfield Daily Examiner.

The council did not apply for that status in either 2002 competitions. Hudder

SS1 (classification)

SS1 is a Les Autres sport classification is an ambulatory class for people with short stature. Eligible males have a standing height and arm length that added together are equal to or less than 180 centimetres. Eligible female have a standing height and arm length that added together are equal to or less than 173 centimetres. Internationally, governance for this sport is handled by IWAS, following the 2005 merger of ISMWSF and ISOD. Classification is handled nationally by relevant national organizations. Sports people in this class are eligible to participate in include archery, swimming and para-equestrian. SS1 is an Les Autres sports classification; this is a standing classification. Men in this class are 130 centimetres tall or less, with an arm length equal to or less than 59 centimetres; when their standing height and arm length are added together, the distance is equal to or less than 180 centimetres. For women in this class, the same measurements are 125 centimetres, 57 centimetres and 173 centimetres.

There are two types of syndromes that cause short stature. One is disproportionate limb size on a normal size torso; the second is proportionate, where they are small for their average age. There are a variety of causes including skeletal dysplasia and growth hormone deficiencies. Short stature can cause a number of other disabilities including eye problems, joint defects, joint dislocation or limited range of movement. Les Autres sport classification was created and governed by the International Sports Organization for the Disabled. Classification is overseen by IWAS, having taken over this role following the 2005 merger of ISMWSF and ISOD. National sport organizations handle classification on the national level. In the United Kingdom, this is Les Autres Sports Association. In the United States, this is the United States Les Autres Sports Association; the classification system used in the United States has matched the international norms, though in track in field there have been five wheelchair classes and five ambulatory classes for Les Autres sportspeople.

In Australia, Wheelchair Sports Australia was the governing body for classification for Les Autres sportspeople, with Disability Sports Australia taking over the role following the 2003 merger of Australian Sports Organisation for the Disabled, Cerebral Palsy Australian Sports and Recreation Federation and Wheelchair Sports Australia. The comparable class SS1 class in IPC athletics is T40 and F40. In 2010, the IPC announced that they would release a new IPC Athletics Classification handbook that dealt with physical impairments; this classification guide would be put into effect following the closing ceremony of the 2012 Summer Paralympics. One of these changes was creating a minimum age to compete in this class. Athletes needed to be at least 18 years old to compete; this was to prevent still growing children from competing in this class despite otherwise not having a disability. Swimming is another sport open to people in this class. SS1 swimmers may be found in several classes; these include S2, S5.

S5 swimmers with short stature have 137 cm for men. They have an additional disability; because they have intact hands, they can catch water for propulsion. They have full trunk control and have symmetrical kicks with their feet but their trunk movements can reduce their propulsion; as they get up to speed, this movement causes turbulence which slows them down and they need additional strokes to compensate. They start from the diving platform, though a few swimmers require assistance, they tend to use a standard kick turn. Powerlifting is one of the sports available to people in this class. Rather than be separated by disability type, people in this sport are separated based on weight classes. Para-equestrian is open to SS1 sportspeople; because they are ambulant, LAF5 riders may be in Grade 1 or Grade 4. Grade 1 is for people with cerebral palsy, les autres and spinal cord injuries who have severe levels of disability

The Purple Jar

"The Purple Jar" is a well-known short story by Maria Edgeworth, an Anglo-Irish writer of novels and stories. "The Purple Jar" first was reappeared in Rosamond. Edgeworth's parable of desire and disappointment is now popularly read as the story of a girl getting her first period or menstruation in general; the story is about a young girl, who needs new pair of shoes but is attracted to a purple jar which she sees displayed in a shop window. When her mother gives her the choice of spending her money on shoes or the jar, she chooses the purple jar. "You might be disappointed", her mother cautions, adding that Rosamund will not be able to buy new shoes until the next month. When the girl gets home, she discovers that the jar was not purple but clear and filled with a dark liquid, she cries: "I didn't want this black stuff!" Adding to her disappointment, her father refuses to take her out in public because she looks slovenly without good shoes. In the 21st century, scholars have read this story as a parable of consumer capitalism.

As Robbins has shown, many contemporary women authors refer to "The Purple Jar." Elizabeth Gaskell's Mary Barton alludes to Edgeworth's story. The character Rose Campbell in Louisa May Alcott's Eight Cousins refers to the story: I always thought it unfair in her mother not to warn the poor thing a little bit. Ugh! I always want to shake that hateful woman. A character in E. Nesbit's 1913 novel Wet Magic alludes to the "icy voice" of Rosamond’s mother, "the one, so hateful about the purple jar.""The Purple Jar" was read and commented on by Princess Victoria, the actress Fanny Kemble, Theodore Roosevelt, Eudora Welty. Miss Milliment in Elizabeth Jane Howard's The Light Years, volume 1 of The Cazalet Chronicles, thinks, "I am as bad as Rosamond in "The Purple Jar"" when she procrastinates over getting her shoes mended. Online version of "The Purple Jar", Web Books The Purple Jar public domain audiobook at LibriVox Painting of Rosamund and The Purple Jar by Henry Tonks, 1900, Tate Gallery Ursula Bethell's "By the River Ashley", New Zealand Electronic Poetry Centre, poem refers to the short story