Churchill River (Hudson Bay)
The Churchill River is a major river in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. From the head of the Churchill Lake it is 1,609 kilometres long, it was named after John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1685 to 1691. The Cree name for the river is Missinipi, meaning "big waters"; the river is located within the Canadian Shield. The drainage basin includes a number of lakes in Central-East Alberta which flow into a series of lakes in Saskatchewan and Manitoba; the main tributary, the Beaver River, joins at Lac Île-à-la-Crosse. Nistowiak Falls—the tallest falls in Saskatchewan—are on the Rapid River, which flows north, out of Lac la Ronge into Nistowiak Lake on the Churchill just north of La Ronge. A large amount of flow of the Churchill River after Manitoba–Saskatchewan border comes from the Reindeer River, which flows from Wollaston and Reindeer lakes. Flow from Reindeer Lake is regulated by the Whitesand Dam. From there, the Churchill River flows east through a series of lakes flows via a diversion for hydro-electric generation into the Nelson River, the rest flows as the Churchill River into Hudson Bay at Churchill, Manitoba.
The Churchill formed a major part of the "voyageur highway" in the 18th to 20th centuries after Dene people showed Peter Pond the Methye Portage which connects the Hudson Bay watershed with the Clearwater – Athabasca – MacKenzie rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean. See Canadian Canoe Routes; the Churchill is home of several fish species including: walleye, yellow perch, northern pike, lake trout, lake whitefish, white sucker, shorthead redhorse, longnose sucker, lake sturgeon and burbot. List of longest rivers of Canada List of rivers of Manitoba List of rivers of Saskatchewan Saskatchewan's Churchill River, Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society Saskatchewan Documented Canoe Routes, Canoe Saskatchewan website Fish Species of Saskatchewan Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
The Albany River is a river in Northern Ontario, which flows northeast from Lake St. Joseph in Northwestern Ontario and empties into James Bay, it is 982 kilometres long to the head of the Cat River, tying it with the Severn River for the title of longest river in Ontario. Major tributaries include the Kenogami Ogoki River; the river was named after James, Duke of York and Albany, who became King James II of England. The river begins at Lake St. Joseph at an elevation of 371 metres. and flows over the Rat Rapids dam and under Ontario Highway 599 into Osnaburgh Lake. From there it flows via a Main Channel and South Channel around Kagami Island northeast, takes in the right tributary Misehkow River and left tributary Etowamami River; the river continues over the Upper Eskakwa Falls, takes in the right tributary Shabuskwia River, travels over the Eskakwa Falls and Snake Falls. The river empties into the Akimiski Strait on James Bay via a series of channels; the community of Fort Albany lies on a southern channel and the Kashechewan First Nation on a northern one.
The river is navigable for the first 400 kilometres. This river drains an area of 135,200 square kilometres and has a mean discharge of 1,420 cubic metres per second. For much of its length, the river defines the boundary between Kenora District and Thunder Bay & Cochrane Districts. There are three diversions in the Albany River watershed, all diverting water from the James Bay drainage basin and all undertaken as part of hydroelectric projects. Two divert water into Lake Superior in the Great Lakes Basin: the Ogoki River has been diverted via Lake Nipigon and the Nipigon River; the third diverts the waters of Lake St. Joseph via the English River and Nelson River into Hudson Bay. Since the Albany extends far to the west, its mouth is a natural site for a trading post. See Canadian Canoe Routes. Trade in the area was long contested by the English from Hudson Bay and the French on the Great Lakes. Much of the Albany basin was visited by coureurs des bois long before the English penetrated inland.
In 1674 Charles Bayly of the Hudson's Bay Company became the first European to see the Albany. Sometime before 1679 the HBC founded Fort Ontario at the mouth of the river. In 1685 the French built Fort des Français at the future site of Henley House. In 1743 Henley House was established 160 miles upriver at the mouth of the Kenogami River. In 1775-76 Edward Jarvis from Henley House explored the relation between the Kenogami and the Missinaibi Rivers and went down to Michipicoten on Lake Superior. In 1777 Glouster House was built 243 miles above Henley House on Upashewey Lake. In 1779 Philip Turnor surveyed as far as Gloucester House. In 1786 Osnaburgh House was built near the outlet of Lake St. Joseph. By 1790 or so the Fort Albany trade extended all the way to Lake Winnipeg; the land north of the Albany River was part of the Northwest Territories until 1912, when it was transferred to Ontario in the Ontario Boundaries Extension Act, 1912. A provincial waterway park has been established on the river north of Wabakimi Provincial Park.
Pagashi River Cheepay River Henley River Streatfeild River Kenogami River Ogoki River Shabuskwia River Etowamami River Misehkow River Lake St. Joseph Cat River Kashechewan First Nation Fort Albany Ghost River, an unincorporated place at the confluence with the Cheepay River Ogoki Post, Marten Falls Eabametoong First Nation / Fort Hope, just off the main river on Eabamet Lake, connected by the Eabamet River Osnaburgh List of longest rivers of Canada List of Ontario rivers
History of geography
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups. In more recent developments, geography has become a distinct academic discipline.'Geography' derives from the Greek γεωγραφία – geographia, a literal translation of which would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes. However, there is evidence for recognizable practices of geography, such as cartography prior to the use of the term geography; the known world of Ancient Egypt saw the Nile as the centre, the world as based upon "the" river. Various oases were known to the east and west, were considered locations of various gods 12. To the South lay the Kushitic region, known as far as the 4th cataract. Punt was a region south along the shores of the Red Sea. Various Asiatic peoples were known as Retenu, Que, Harranu, or Khatti. At various times in the Late Bronze Age Egyptians had diplomatic and trade relationships with Babylonia and Elam.
The Mediterranean was called "the Great Green" and was believed to be part of a world encircling ocean. Europe was unknown. To the west of Asia lay the realms of Keftiu Crete, Mycenae (thought to be part of a chain of islands, that joined Cyprus, Southern Italy and perhaps Sardinia and the Balarics to Africa; the oldest known world maps date back to ancient Babylon from the 9th century BC. The best known Babylonian world map, however, is the Imago Mundi of 600 BC; the map as reconstructed by Eckhard Unger shows Babylon on the Euphrates, surrounded by a circular landmass showing Assyria and several cities, in turn surrounded by a "bitter river", with seven islands arranged around it so as to form a seven-pointed star. The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean; the descriptions of five of them have survived. In contrast to the Imago Mundi, an earlier Babylonian world map dating back to the 9th century BC depicted Babylon as being further north from the center of the world, though it is not certain what that center was supposed to represent.
The ancient Greeks saw the poet Homer as the founder of geography. His works the Iliad and the Odyssey are works of literature, but both contain a great deal of geographical information. Homer describes a circular world ringed by a single massive ocean; the works show that the Greeks by the 8th century BC had considerable knowledge of the geography of the eastern Mediterranean. The poems contain a large number of place names and descriptions, but for many of these it is uncertain what real location, if any, is being referred to. Thales of Miletus is one of the first known philosophers known to have wondered about the shape of the world, he proposed that the world was based on water, that all things grew out of it. He laid down many of the astronomical and mathematical rules that would allow geography to be studied scientifically, his successor Anaximander is the first person known to have attempted to create a scale map of the known world and to have introduced the gnomon to Ancient Greece. Hecataeus of Miletus initiated a different form of geography, avoiding the mathematical calculations of Thales and Anaximander he learnt about the world by gathering previous works and speaking to the sailors who came through the busy port of Miletus.
From these accounts he wrote a detailed prose account of. A similar work, one that survives today, is Herodotus' Histories. While a work of history, the book contains a wealth of geographic descriptions covering much of the known world. Egypt, Scythia and Asia Minor are all described, including a mention of India; the description of Africa as a whole are contentious, with Herodotus describing the land surrounded by a sea. Though the Indian sea was thought of an inland sea, that round of the southern part of Africa is surrounded by the eastern part of Asia by connecting land, which inference only after the circumnavigation of Africa by Vasco da Gama was abandoned by the western cartographers of the 15th century. Some, hold that the descriptions of areas such as India are imaginary. Regardless, Herodotus made important observations about geography, he is the first to have noted the process by which large rivers, such as the Nile, build up deltas, is the first recorded as observing that winds tend to blow from colder regions to warmer ones.
Pythagoras was the first to propose a spherical world, arguing that the sphere was the most perfect form. This idea was embraced by Aristotle presented empirical evidence to verify this, he noted that the Earth's shadow during an eclipse is curved, that stars increase in height as one moves north. Eudoxus of Cnidus used the idea of a sphere to explain how the sun created differing climatic zones based on latitude; this led the Greeks to believe in a division of the world into five regions. At each of the poles was an uncharitably cold region. While extrapolating from the heat of the Sahara it was deduced that the area around the equator was unbearably hot. Between these extreme regions both the northern and southern hemispheres had a temperate belt suitable for human habitation; these theories clashed with the evidence of explorers, Hanno the Navigator had traveled as far south as Sierra Leone, it is possible other Phoenicians had circumnavigated Africa. In the 4th century BC the Greek explorer Pytheas traveled through northeast Europe, circled the British Isles.
He found that the region was more habi
Settlement geography is a branch of geography that investigates the earth's surface's part settled by humans. According to the United Nations' Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements, "human settlements means the totality of the human community – whether city, town or village – with all the social, organizational and cultural elements that sustain it." Traditionally, it belongs to cultural geography and is divided into the geography of urban settlements and rural settlements. Thereby, settlements are seen as elements of the cultural landscape that developed over time. Apart from Australia and India, the term is rarely used in English-speaking geography. One of the last English books on settlement geography was published by Cambridge University Press in the 1990s. However, it is a actual branch in many other countries. Due to processes of urban sprawl such as counter urbanization, peri-urbanisation or postsuburbanisation the existing dichotomy between the urban and the rural is losing importance in industrialized countries and newly industrialized countries.
This point of view is represented by many planning strategies such as the unified settlement planning. Hence, an integrative geography of settlements that considers the urban and the rural settlements as a continuum is regaining the importance lost during the 20th century. Further it is used in prehistoric and present-focusing geographic research. Referring to Stone, settlement geography is the description and analysis of the distribution of buildings by which people attach themselves to the land. Further, that the geography of settling designate the action of erecting buildings in order to occupy an area temporarily or permanently, it should be understood that buildings are one tangible expression of man-land relationships and that specification of this focus assumes study may be at any scale from quite general to most specific. Buildings are one representation of the process of people living in an area they are a mappable division of the landscape to which attention needs direction. With respect to Stone's definition, Jordan emphasizes that settlement geography not investigates the distributions, but more the structures and interactions between settlements and its environment, which produce them.
More however, the study of settlement has evolved into the interaction of humans with the physical and ecological world. This more holistic study is concerned with sustainability and seeks to better understand the present landscape and plan the future. In sum, settlement geography describes and explains the settlements' location, substance and structure, as well as the functions and processes that produced them over time; as an applied science, it projects future settlement development and contributes to the sustainable development of human-environmental systems. Circles of Sustainability Human settlement Sustainable development UN-HABITAT