Hudson Institute

The Hudson Institute is a politically conservative, 501 non-profit American think tank based in Washington, D. C, it was founded in 1961 in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by futurist, military strategist, systems theorist Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation. According to its website, the Institute promotes "American leadership and global engagement for a secure and prosperous future." It promotes public policy change in accordance with its stated belief that "America's unique and central role in the global system offers the best foundation for security, the defense of liberty, assuring economic growth."In March 2011, Kenneth R. Weinstein was appointed president and chief executive officer of the Hudson Institute. Hudson Institute was founded in 1961 by Herman Kahn, Max Singer, Oscar M. Ruebhausen. In 1960, while employed at the RAND Corporation, Kahn had given a series of lectures at Princeton University on scenarios related to nuclear war. In 1960, Princeton University Press published On Thermonuclear War, a book-length expansion of Kahn's lecture notes.

Major controversies ensued, in the end, Kahn and RAND had a parting of ways. Kahn moved to Croton-on-Hudson, New York, intending to establish a new think tank, less hierarchical and bureaucratic in its organization. Along with Max Singer, a young government lawyer, a RAND colleague of Kahn's, New York attorney Oscar Ruebhausen, Kahn founded the Hudson Institute on 20 July 1961. Kahn was Singer built up the institute's organization. Ruebhausen was an advisor to New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller. Hudson's initial research projects reflected Kahn's personal interests, which included the domestic and military use of nuclear power and scenario planning exercises about present policy options and their possible future outcomes. Kahn and his colleagues made pioneering contributions to nuclear deterrence theory and strategy during this period. Hudson's detailed analyses of "ladders of escalation" and reports on the consequences of limited and unlimited nuclear exchanges published as Thinking About the Unthinkable and On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios, were influential within the Kennedy administration, helped the Institute win its first major research contract from the Office of Civil Defense at the Pentagon.

Kahn did not want Hudson to restrict itself to defense-related research, along with Singer recruited a full-time professional staff with different academic backgrounds. Hudson Institute involved a broad range of outside notables in their analytic projects and policy deliberations; these included French philosopher Raymond Aron, African-American novelist Ralph Ellison, political scientist Henry Kissinger, conceptual artist James Lee Byars, social scientist Daniel Bell. Hudson's focus expanded to include geopolitics, demography, anthropology and technology, urban planning. Kahn expanded the use of scenario planning from defense policy work to economics, in 1962 became the first analyst to predict the rise of Japan as the world's second-largest economy. Hudson Institute's publications soon became popular in Japan and Kahn developed close ties to numerous politicians and corporate leaders there. Hudson Institute used scenario-planning techniques to forecast long-term developments and became renowned for its future studies.

In 1967, Hudson published The Year 2000, a bestselling book, commissioned by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Many of the predictions came to pass, including technological developments like portable telephones and network-linked home and office computers. In 1970, The Emerging Japanese Superstate, elaborating Kahn’s predictions on the rise of Japan, was published. After the Club of Rome's controversial 1972 report The Limits to Growth produced widespread alarm about the possibility that population growth and resource depletion might result in a 21st-century global "collapse", Hudson responded with an analysis of its own, The Next 200 Years, which concluded, that scientific and practical innovations were to produce better worldwide living standards. Maintaining this optimism about the future in his 1982 book The Coming Boom, Kahn argued that pro-growth tax and fiscal policies, an emerging information technology revolution, breakthrough developments in the energy industry would make possible a period of unprecedented prosperity in the Western world by the early 21st century.

Kahn was among the first to foresee unconventional extraction techniques like hydraulic fracturing. Within 20 years, Hudson had become an international think tank with offices in Bonn, Brussels and Tokyo. Other research projects were related to South Korea, Singapore and Latin America. Following Kahn's sudden death on July 7, 1983, Hudson was restructured. Recruited by the City of Indianapolis and the Lilly Endowment, Hudson relocated its headquarters to Indiana in 1984. In 1987, Mitch Daniels, a former aide to Senator Richard Lugar and President Ronald Reagan, was appointed CEO of Hudson Institute. Daniels recruited new experts to the Institute. William Eldridge Odom, former Director of the National Security Agency, became Hudson's director of national security studies. Technologist George Gilder led a project on the implications of the digital era for American society. In 1990, Daniels left Hudson Institute to become Vice President of Corporate Affairs at Eli Lilly and Company, he was succeeded as CEO by Leslie Lenkowsky, a social scientist, former consultant to Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan.

Under Lenkowsky, Hudson put an emphasis on social policy. In the early 199

Target Rock National Wildlife Refuge

The Target Rock National Wildlife Refuge is located just east of the village of Lloyd Harbor, New York, on the north shore of Long Island, 25 miles east of New York City. It is managed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service as part of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex; the 80-acre refuge is composed of mature oak-hickory forest, a one-half-mile rocky beach, a brackish pond, several vernal ponds. The land and waters support a variety of songbirds, shorebirds, fish and amphibians. During the colder months, diving ducks are common offshore, while harbor seals use the beach and nearby rocks as resting sites. New York State and federally protected piping plover, least tern, common tern depend on the refuge's rocky shore for foraging and rearing young; the spring bloom at Target Rock is a reminder of its days as a garden estate, with flowering rhododendrons and mountain laurel. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Target Rock National Wildlife Refuge Media related to Target Rock National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons

Hendrick van der Heul

Hendrick van der Heul was a Dutch privateer who served with Captain William Kidd as his quartermaster. He purportedly led an attempt to traverse the Northwest Passage, during which he and his crew froze to death; because of references to him as a "small black man", he has sometimes been identified as African, which would make him the highest ranking known black pirate. However, his known ancestry is Dutch, the description may mean that he had swarthy skin. Van der Heul was born in 1676 in New Amsterdam, the site of present-day lower Manhattan, the son of Abraham Jansen van der Heul, his mother, Tryntjen Kip, was born in 1633 in Amsterdam and died in 1695. Hendrick married Marritje Meyer. In 1696 The Scottish seafarer William Kidd received letters of Marque from agents of King William III and other prominent English lords to outfit a ship and proceed to the Indian Ocean to find and take from the 5 or 6 known European pirate vessels in those waters any merchant goods they had and eliminate the threat they posed to trade between England and India.

Hendrick van der Heul served as his quartermaster. Quartermasters on pirate vessels were entitled to 2 shares of the booty like the captain, were elected by the crew, he was responsible for dividing the shares equally. Van der Heul moved to Montaukett territory, where he built a family, he became a Masters Mate on a merchant vessel and in 1730 captained a ship north in search of the Northwest Passage, for which a prize of £20,000 was being offered. Goldson, William. Observations on the Passage Between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, in Two Memoirs on the Straits of Anian, the Discoveries of De Fonte. Elucidated by a New and Original Map. Portsmouth: Rare Books Division; the Straits of Anian Map