SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hudson Valley

The Hudson Valley comprises the valley of the Hudson River and its adjacent communities in the U. S. state of New York. The region stretches from the Capital District including Albany and Troy south to Yonkers in Westchester County, bordering New York City; the Hudson River valley runs north to south down the eastern edge of New York State, cutting through a series of rock types including Triassic sandstones and redbeds in the south and much more ancient Precambrian gneiss in the north. In the Hudson Highlands, the river enters a fjord cut during previous ice ages. To the west lie the extensive Appalachian highlands. In the Tappan Zee region, the west side of the river has high cliffs produced by an erosion-resistant diabase; the Hudson Valley is one physiographic section of the larger Ridge-and-Valley province, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division. The northern portions of the Hudson Valley fall within the Eastern Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands Ecoregion. During the last ice age, the valley was filled by a large glacier that pushed south as far as Long Island.

Near the end of the last ice age, the Great Lakes drained south down the Hudson River, from a large glacial lake called Lake Iroquois. Lake Ontario is the remnant of that Lake. Large sand deposits remain from; the Hudson Valley was inhabited by indigenous peoples ages. The Lenape and Mahican branches of the Algonquins lived along the river in peace with the other groups; the lower Hudson River was inhabited by the Lenape, The Lenape people waited for the explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano onshore, traded with Henry Hudson, sold the island of Manhattan. Further north, the Wappingers lived from Manhattan Island up to Poughkeepsie, they lived a similar lifestyle to the Lenape. They traded with both the Lenape to the Mahicans to the north; the Mahicans lived in the northern valley from present-day Kingston to Lake Champlain, with their capital located near present-day Albany. The Algonquins in the region lived in small clans and villages throughout the area. One major fortress was called Navish, located at Croton Point, overlooking the Hudson River.

Other fortresses were located in various locations throughout the Hudson Highlands. In 1497, John Cabot claimed the entire country for England. Between and about 1609, exploration took place around New York Bay, but not into the Hudson Valley. In 1609, the Dutch East India Company financed English navigator Henry Hudson in his attempt to search for the Northwest Passage. During this attempt, Henry Hudson decided to sail his ship up the river that would be named after him; as he continued up the river, its width expanded, into Haverstraw Bay, leading him to believe he had reached the Northwest Passage. He docked his ship on the western shore of Haverstraw Bay and claimed the territory as the first Dutch settlement in North America, he proceeded upstream as far as present-day Troy before concluding that no such strait existed there. After Henry Hudson realized that the Hudson River was not the Northwest Passage, the Dutch began to examine the region for potential trading opportunities. Dutch explorer and merchant Adriaen Block led voyages there between 1611 and 1614, which led the Dutch to determine that fur trade would be profitable in the region.

As such, the Dutch established the colony of New Netherland. The Dutch settled three major fur-trading outposts in the colony, along the river, south to north: New Amsterdam and Fort Orange. New Amsterdam became known as New York City, Wiltwyck became Kingston, Fort Orange became Albany. In 1664, the British invaded New Netherland via the port of New Amsterdam. New Amsterdam and New Netherland as a whole was surrendered to the British, renamed New York. Under British colonial rule, the Hudson Valley became an agricultural hub, with manors being developed on the east side of the river. At these manors, landlords rented out land to their tenants, letting them take a share of the crops grown while keeping and selling the rest of the crops. Tenants were kept at a subsistence level so that the landlord could minimize his costs, they held immense political power in the colony due to driving such a large proportion of the agricultural output. Meanwhile, land west of Hudson River contained smaller landholdings with many small farmers living off the land.

A large crop grown in the region was grain, shipped downriver to New York City, the colony's main seaport, for export back to Great Britain. In order to export the grain, colonial merchants were given monopolies to grind the grain into flour and export it. Grain production was at high levels in the Mohawk River Valley; the Hudson River was a key river during the Revolutionary War. The Hudson's connection to the Mohawk River allowed travelers to get to the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River eventually. In addition, the river's close proximity to Lake George and Lake Champlain would allow the British navy to control the water route from Montreal to New York City. In doing so, the British, under General John Burgoyne's strategy, would be able to cut off the patriot hub of New England and focus on rallying the support of loyalists in the South and Mid-Atlantic regions; the British knew that total occupation of the colonies would be unfeasible, why this strategy was chosen. As a result of the strategy, numerous b

2014 Fergana Challenger

The 2014 Fergana Challenger was a professional tennis tournament played on hard courts. It was the 15th edition of the tournament for men, part of the 2014 ATP Challenger Tour, offering a total of $50,000 in prize money, the fourth edition of the event for women on the 2014 ITF Women's Circuit, offering a total of $25,000 in prize money, it took place in Fergana, Uzbekistan, on 9–15 June 2014. 1 Rankings as of 26 May 2014 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Rasul Akhmadaliev Djurabeck Karimov Rizo Saidkhodjaev Khumoun SultanovThe following players entered as an alternate into the singles main draw: Artur Dubinski Sarvar Ikramov Batyr Sapaev Shonigmatjon ShofayziyevThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Sanjar Fayziev Temur Ismailov Mikhail Ledovskikh Vaja UzakovThe following players entered as a lucky loser into the singles main draw: Odil Akramov 1 Rankings as of 26 May 2014 The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Rizo Saidkhodjaev / Diyor Yuldashev Ahad Ermatov / Azizbek Lukmanov Rasul Akhmadaliev / Khumoun Sultanov 1 Rankings as of 26 May 2014 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Akgul Amanmuradova Shakhnoza Khatamova Polina Merenkova Sarvinoz SaidhujaevaThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Kamila Kerimbayeva Varvara Kuznetsova Katya Malikova Amina Mukhametshina Gulchekhra Mukhammadsidikova Alisa Tymofeyeva Komola Umarova Guzal YusupovaThe following player received entry by a lucky loser spot: Alina Abdurakhimova 1 Rankings as of 26 May 2014 The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Shakhnoza Khatamova / Sarvinoz Saidhujaeva Polina Merenkova / Komola Umarova Amina Mukhametshina / Jamilya Sadykzhanova Blaž Kavčič def.

Alexander Kudryavtsev, 6–4, 7–6 Nigina Abduraimova def. Nao Hibino, 6–3, 6–4 Sergey Betov / Alexander Bury def. Nicolás Barrientos / Stanislav Vovk 6–7, 7–6, Hiroko Kuwata / Mari Tanaka def. Nao Hibino / Prarthana Thombare 6–1, 6–4 Official website

Inmarsat-C

Inmarsat-C is a two-way, packet data service operated by the telecommunications company Inmarsat which operates between mobile earth stations and land earth stations. It became operational after a period of pre-operational trials in January 1991; the advantages of Inmarsat-C compared to Inmarsat-A are low cost and uses a smaller omni-directional antenna. The disadvantage is that voice communication is not possible with Inmarsat-C; the service is approved for use under the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System, meets the requirements for Ship Security Alert Systems defined by the International Maritime Organization and is the most used service in fishing Vessel Monitoring Systems. The service works with a store-and-forward method which enables interface with data network transfer including; the service is operated via a lower-power mini-C Transceiver. Data transfers between MES and LES at a rate of 600 bits/second; the frequencies for transmitting are 1626.5MHz -1645.5MHz and for receiving are 1530.0MHz - 1545.0MHz.

The service is available for land mobile and aeronautical use. This system was used to track the BBC's project "The Box". BBC News followed a container around the world for a year to tell stories of globalization and the world economy; the headquarters for Inmarsat C is located in London. The four Ocean Regions that are covered by Inmarsat C are: the Atlantic Ocean Region East Atlantic Ocean Region West Pacific Ocean Region Indian Ocean Region. Within each ocean region, there are four or five Maritime Rescue Coordination Centers. In total, there are over twenty MRCC's in the world, each MRCC station contributes to a certain MRCC area; the MRCC stations are located in: Safety communications using Inmarsat C