Philip I of France
Philip I, called the Amorous, was King of the Franks from 1060 to his death. His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was long for the time. The monarchy began a modest recovery from the low it reached in the reign of his father and he added to the royal demesne the Vexin, Philip was born 23 May 1052 at Champagne-et-Fontaine, the son of Henry I and his wife Anne of Kiev. Unusual at the time for Western Europe, his name was of Greek origin, although he was crowned king at the age of seven, until age fourteen his mother acted as regent, the first queen of France ever to do so. Baldwin V of Flanders acted as co-regent, following the death of Baldwin VI of Flanders, Robert the Frisian seized Flanders. Baldwins wife, Richilda requested aid from Philip, who defeated Robert at the battle of Cassel in 1071, Philip first married Bertha in 1072. Although the marriage produced the heir, Philip fell in love with Bertrade de Montfort. He repudiated Bertha and married Bertrade on 15 May 1092, in 1094, he was excommunicated by Hugh of Die, for the first time, after a long silence, Pope Urban II repeated the excommunication at the Council of Clermont in November 1095.
In France, the king was opposed by Bishop Ivo of Chartres, Philip appointed Alberic first Constable of France in 1060. A great part of his reign, like his fathers, was spent putting down revolts by his power-hungry vassals, in 1077, he made peace with William the Conqueror, who gave up attempting the conquest of Brittany. In 1082, Philip I expanded his demesne with the annexation of the Vexin, in 1100, he took control of Bourges. It was at the aforementioned Council of Clermont that the First Crusade was launched, Philip at first did not personally support it because of his conflict with Urban II. Philips brother Hugh of Vermandois, was a major participant, Philip died in the castle of Melun and was buried per request at the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire – and not in St Denis among his forefathers. He was succeeded by his son, Louis VI, whose succession was, according to Abbot Suger, Philip‘s children with Bertha were, married Hugh I of Champagne before 1097 and then, after her divorce, to Bohemund I of Antioch in 1106
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philips predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné God-given because he was the first son of Louis VII. Philip was given the nickname Augustus by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably, the military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals, Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority and he built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165 and he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philips recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered, however, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all power was transferred to Philip. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180, while the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne, Philips eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died.
The main source of funding for Philips army was from the royal demesne, in times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights,250 horse sergeants,100 mounted crossbowmen,133 crossbowmen on foot,2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights,9,000 sergeants,6,000 urban militiamen, using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men, within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wifes dowry, finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin
Anne of Kiev
Anne of Kiev, Anna Yaroslavna, Anna of Rus called Agnes, was the queen consort of Henry I of France, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Philip I of France, from 1060 until 1065. Anne founded St. Vincent Abbey in Senlis, Anne was born between 1024 and 1032. Her parents were Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev and Novgorod, there is not much information about her childhood, but she was evidently given a careful education, and could read and write, which was rare even among royal princesses at the time. In 1043–44, Anne was suggested to marry Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1049, the King of France sent an embassy to distant Kiev, which returned with Anne. But she did bring wealth to the match, including a jacinth which Suger mounted in the reliquary of St Denis and Henry I were married at the cathedral of Reims on 19 May 1051. Immediately after the ceremony, she was crowned queen of France and she became the first French queen to be crowned at Reims. Only one year after the marriage, Anne fulfilled her task by giving birth to an heir to the throne, Anne came to play an important personal role as queen of France.
As queen, it was her role to act as the manager of the court and household, supervise the upbringing of the royal children. But she came to play a political role, Queen Anne could ride a horse, was knowledgeable in politics, and actively participated in governing France. She accompanied Henry I on his travels around France. Many French documents bear her signature, written in old Slavic language, Henry I respected Anna so much that his many decrees bear the inscription With the consent of my wife Anna and In the presence of Queen Anna. French historians point out there are no other cases in the French history. On 4 August 1060, Henry I died and was succeeded by her son Philip I, by that time eight years old. During his minority, Anne, as a member of the council, acted as Regent of France. She was the first queen of France to serve as regent, Anne was a literate woman, rare for the time, but there was some opposition to her as regent on the grounds that her mastery of French was less than fluent.
In 1061, the Regent Anne reportedly took a fancy for Count Ralph IV of Valois. The traditional story describe how Ralph IV organized an abduction of Anne when she was hunting in the hunting grounds in Senlis and brought her to Crépy-en-Valois. Accused of adultery, Ralph IVs wife Eleanor de Montdidier appealed to Pope Alexander II, the Popes investigation resulted in the marriage between Anne and Ralph IV to be declared invalid and Ralph IV to be excommunicated in 1064
Hugh Capet was the first King of the Franks of the House of Capet from his election in 987 until his death. He succeeded the last Carolingian king, Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks, and Hedwige of Saxony, daughter of the German king Henry the Fowler, Hugh was born in 941. Hugh Capet was born into a well-connected and powerful family with ties to the royal houses of France. Through his mother, Hugh was the nephew to Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, Bruno the Great, Archbishop of Cologne, and finally, Gerberga of Saxony, Queen of France. Gerberga was the wife of Louis IV, King of France and mother of Lothair of France and Charles and his paternal family, the Robertians, were powerful landowners in the Île-de-France. His grandfather had been King Robert I, King Odo was his granduncle and King Rudolph was his uncle by affinity. Hughs paternal grandmother was a descendant of Charlemagne, after the end of the ninth century, the descendants of Robert the Strong became indispensable in carrying out royal policies.
As Carolingian power failed, the nobles of West Francia began to assert that the monarchy was elective, not hereditary. Robert I, Hugh the Greats father, was succeeded as King of the Franks by his son-in-law, when Rudolph died in 936, Hugh the Great had to decide whether he ought to claim the throne for himself. To block his rivals, Hugh the Great brought Louis dOutremer and this maneuver allowed Hugh to become the most powerful person in France in the first half of the tenth century. Once in power, Louis IV granted him the title of dux Francorum, Louis officially declared Hugh the second after us in all our kingdoms. Hugh gained power when Herbert II of Vermandois died in 943, Hugh the Great came to dominate a wide swath of central France, from Orléans and Senlis to Auxerre and Sens, while the king was rather confined to the area northeast of Paris. The realm in which Hugh grew up, and of which he would one day be king, Hughs predecessors did not call themselves kings of France, and that title was not used by his successors until the time of his descendant, Philip II.
Kings ruled as rex Francorum, the remaining in use until 1190 The lands they ruled comprised only a small part of the former Carolingian Empire. The eastern Frankish lands, the Holy Roman Empire, were ruled by the Ottonian dynasty, represented by Hughs first cousin Otto II and by Ottos son, Otto III. The lands south of the river Loire had largely ceased to be part of the West Francia kingdom in the years after Charles the Simple was deposed in 922. Both the Duchy of Normandy and the Duchy of Burgundy were largely independent, in 956, when his father Hugh the Great died, the eldest son, was about fifteen years old and had two younger brothers. In 954, Otto I appointed his brother Bruno, Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lorraine, as guardian of Lothair, in 956, Otto gave him the same role over Hugh and the Robertian principality
Henry of France, Archbishop of Reims
Henry of France, Bishop of Beauvais, Archbishop of Reims, was the third son of Louis the Fat, King of France and his second wife Adélaide de Maurienne. As the third son of the King Henry was destined for a place in the church from an age, tonsured at the age of thirteen. He advanced by stages through the hierarchy, probably with a view to preparing him for a position of the highest rank. In 1146, however, he was converted from his life as a wealthy secular cleric by St. Bernard of Clairvaux. Pope Eugenius III, himself a former Cistercian monk, speaks of Henry in 1147 as humbly washing dishes at Clairvaux, in 1149, on the death of Bishop Odo III of Beauvais, the cathedral chapter, persuaded by Bernard of Clairvaux, elected Henry as their bishop. Henry was ill-prepared for the political responsibilities of his new office, King Louis backed the town, while Henry was supported by his younger brother Robert, Count of Dreux. The conflict was settled by Pope Eugenius III in 1151. In 1161 Henry became Archbishop of Reims, succeeded at Beauvais by Bartholomew of Montcornet, Henry organised an important church council at Reims in 1164.
He again found himself in conflict with the populace of his city, the revolt was suppressed and Archbishop Henry devoted himself to beautifying and fortifying Reims, which included building the castles of Septsaulx and Cormicy. “Henri de France, ” in Alfred Baudrillart, et al. eds, dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, XXIII, cols. Henri de France, archevêque de Reims, “Henri de France et Louis VII. L’Évêque cistercien et son frère le roi, ” [in Les Serviteurs de l’État au Moyen Âge, actes du XXIXe Congrès de la Société des historiens médiévistes de l’enseignement supérieur public. Ludwig Falkenstein, “Alexandre III et Henri de France, Conformités et conflits, ” in, Rolf Grosse, dietrich Lohrmann, “Autour d’un acte d’Henri, évêque de Beauvais, concernant trois granges de Froidmont, ” in Michel Parisse, ed. A Propos des actes d’évêques, Hommage à Lucie Fossier, Presses Universitaires de Nancy,1991, pp. 161–167
Constance of France, Princess of Antioch
Constance of France was the daughter of King Philip I of France and Bertha of Holland. She was a member of the House of Capet and was Countess of Troyes from her first marriage and she was regent during the minority of her son. Her mother was repudiated by her father for Bertrade de Montfort and it caused the displeasure of the church and an interdict was placed on France several times as a result. Constance was the eldest of five children and was the daughter of her father from his first marriage. Constances brother was Louis VI of France, between 1093 and 1095, Phillip I arranged for his daughter, Constance, to marry Hugh, Count of Troyes and Champagne. Philip hoped to influence Hughs family, the powerful House of Blois, but the union between Constance and Hugh was too late to achieve the desired result. Hughs half-brother, Stephen II, Count of Blois, holder of most counties of the House of Blois was married, Stephen had married Adela of Normandy, daughter of William I of England, and their marriage had produced children.
After ten years and without any surviving issue, Constance demanded an annulment of their marriage, Constance obtained a divorce at Soissons on 25 December 1104, under grounds of consanguinity. Constance went to the court of Adela, wife of Stephen and she was acting as regent since Stephen was killed in the Holy Land. Adela was well educated and all seemed to be well at the Court and it appeared that Adela used all her power to help Constance get a divorce from Hugh, who left to fight in the Holy Land. At the same time, Bohemond I of Antioch was just released by the Turks and he returned to Europe to obtain relief for the Crusaders in the Holy Land. The regency of the Principality of Antioch was assured by Bohemonds nephew Tancred and he impressed audiences across France with gifts of relics from the Holy Land and tales of heroism while fighting the Saracens, gathering a large army in the process. Henry I of England famously prevented him landing on English shores. His new-found status won him the hand of Constance, so great was the reputation for valour of the French kingdom and of the Lord Louis that even the Saracens were terrified by the prospect of that marriage.
She was not engaged since she had broken off her agreement to wed Hugh, count of Troyes, and wished to avoid another unsuitable match. The marriage was celebrated in the cathedral of Chartres between 25 March and 26 May 1106, and the festivities were held at the court of Adela, who took part in negotiations. Pleased by his success, Bohemond resolved to use his army of 34,000 men, not to defend Antioch against the Greeks and he did so, but Alexius, aided by the Venetians, proved too strong, and Bohemond had to submit to a humiliating peace. After her marriage, Constance accompanied her husband to Apulia, where she gave birth to their first son, future Prince of Antioch, a second son, was born in Apulia between 1108 and 1111, but died in early infancy, ca
Adelaide, Countess of Vermandois
Adelaide of Vermandois was suo jure Countess of Vermandois and Valois and the last member of the Carolingian dynasty. Adelaide was the daughter of Herbert IV, Count of Vermandois and her brother was Eudes, Count of Vermandois, married to Hedwig. Later became Lord of Saint-Simon by marriage, Adelaide first married Hugh Magnus, son of the Capetian King Henry I of France and younger brother of Philip I of France. By this marriage she had one daughter, who first married Charles I, Count of Flanders and second Hugh II, in 1102, Adelaide was succeeded by her son, Ralph I. Adelaide died in 1120 or 1124 and the Carolingian dynasty died out with her
Isabella of France, Queen of Navarre
Isabella of France was a daughter of Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence. She was married to Theobald II of Navarre, eldest son of Theobald I of Navarre, isabelle became Queen consort of Navarre. Louis IX wanted to make peace with Navarre so he married Isabella off to Theobald, the Archbishop of Rouen celebrated the marriage between Isabella and Theobald II, King of Navarre and Count of Champagne, on 6 April 1255 in Melun. The bridegroom was 16 and the bride 14 years old, together with her husband and her father, the very pious Isabella travelled with the Eighth Crusade in July 1270. Her father died there in August of the same year, then, in December, Isabellas husband died of an epidemic while in Sicily. After the deaths of both her father and husband, Isabella returned to France and lived in Provence until her only two months in 1271. Isabella is buried next to her husband in Provins, list of Navarrese royal consorts French monarchs family tree Media related to Isabella of France at Wikimedia Commons Marek, Miroslav
Isabelle of France (saint)
Isabelle of France was the daughter of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile. She was a sister of King Louis IX of France and of Alfonso, Count of Poitiers. In 1256, she founded the Poor Clare Monastery of Longchamp in the part of the Forest of Rouvray and she is honored as a saint by the Franciscan Order. Isabelles father died and it was Isabelles mother, who oversaw her education and she could read both Latin, and the vernacular, and enjoyed tales of chivalry as well as devotional texts. While pursuing the traditional feminine interests such as embroidery, she took pleasure in working on priestly vestments. When still a child at court, Isabelle was already devoted to religion, by the papal bull of 26 May 1254, Pope Innocent IV allowed her to retain some Franciscan friars as her special confessors. She was even more devoted to the Franciscan Order than her royal brother, she refused the hand of Conrad IV of Germany, son of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, although was pressed to accept him by everyone, even by Innocent IV.
As Isabelle wished to found a monastery of Poor Clares, her brother King Louis began in 1255 to acquire the land in the Forest of Rouvray, not far from the Seine. On 10 June 1256, the first slide of the church was laid. Not as strict as that rule, the community was allowed to hold property, the monastery was named the Monastery of the Humility of the Blessed Virgin. In the Rule the nuns were called the Sisters of the order of servants of the most Blessed Virgin Mary. The nuns were subject to the Friars Minor, some of the first nuns came from the Poor Clare monastery in Reims. Isabelle never joined the community herself, but did live in the monastery in a separate from the nun’s cells. She suffered from illnesses during her life, which prevented her from following the rule of life for the nuns, Isabelle refused to become abbess, which allowed her to retain her wealth and resources, so she could support them and continue to give to the poor. She kept a discipline of silence for most of her day, Isabelle died at Longchamp on 23 February 1270, and was buried in the monastery church.
After nine days her body was exhumed, when it showed no signs of decay, in 1521 Pope Leo X allowed the Monastery of Longchamp to celebrate her feast day with a special Office. On 4 June 1637, a second took place. The Monastery of Longchamp had many vicissitudes, the French Revolution closed it, and in 1794 the empty building was offered for sale, but, as no one wished to purchase it, it was destroyed
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child