Earl Marshal is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England. He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral; the marshal was responsible, along with the constable, for the monarch's horses and stables including connected military operations. As a result of the decline of chivalry and sociocultural change, the position of Earl Marshal has evolved and among his responsibilities today is the organisation of major ceremonial state occasions like the monarch's coronation in Westminster Abbey and state funerals, he is a leading officer of arms and oversees the College of Arms. The current Earl Marshal is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, who inherited the position in 2002. There was an Earl Marshal of Ireland and Earl Marischal of Scotland; the office of royal marshal existed in much of Europe, involving managing horses and protecting the monarch.
In England, the office became hereditary under John FitzGilbert the Marshal after The Anarchy, rose in prominence under his second son, William Marshal Earl of Pembroke. He served under several kings, acted as regent, organised funerals and the regency during Henry III's childhood. After passing through his daughter's husband to the Earls of Norfolk, the post evolved into "Earl Marshal" and the title remained unchanged after the earldom of Norfolk became a dukedom. In the Middle Ages, the Earl Marshal and the Lord High Constable were the officers of the king's horses and stables; when chivalry declined in importance, the constable's post declined and the Earl Marshal became the head of the College of Arms, the body concerned with all matters of genealogy and heraldry. In conjunction with the Lord High Constable, he had held a court, known as the Court of Chivalry, for the administration of justice in accordance with the law of arms, concerned with many subjects relating to military matters, such as ransom and soldiers' wages, including the misuse of armorial bearings.
In 1672, the office of Marshal of England and the title of Earl Marshal of England were made hereditary in the Howard family. In a declaration made on 16 June 1673 by Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, the Lord Privy Seal, in reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms the powers of the Earl Marshal were stated as being "to have power to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. Additionally it was declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted, no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms, without the consent of the Earl Marshal; the Earl Marshal is considered the eighth of the Great Officers of State, with the Lord High Constable above him and only the Lord High Admiral beneath him. Nowadays, the Earl Marshal's role has to do with the organisation of major state ceremonies such as coronations and state funerals. Annually, the Earl Marshal helps organise the State Opening of Parliament.
The Earl Marshal remains to have charge over the College of Arms and no coat of arms may be granted without his warrant. As a symbol of his office, he carries a baton of gold with black finish at either end. In the general order of precedence, the Earl Marshal is the highest hereditary position in the United Kingdom outside the Royal Family. Although other state and ecclesiastical officers rank above in precedence, they are not hereditary; the exception is the office of Lord Great Chamberlain, notionally higher than Earl Marshal and hereditary, but as it is held by a marquess, is lower in the general order of precedence. The holding of the Earl Marshalship secures the Duke of Norfolk's traditional position as the "first peer" of the land, above all other dukes; the House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, but the Act provided that the persons holding the office of Earl Marshal and, if a peer, the Lord Great Chamberlain continue for the time being to have seats so as to carry out their ceremonial functions in the House of Lords.
Among the men who have held the title of Earl Marshal of Ireland are: - William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke John Marshal William Marshal'who joined the Barons against King Henry III and d. 1264' John Marshal, son of the last-mentioned and father of the next-mentioned. William Marshal, 1st Baron Marshal John Marshal, 2nd Baron Marshal Robert de Morley, 2nd Baron Morley William de Morley, 3rd Baron Morley Thomas de Morley, 4th Baron Morley Thomas de Morley, 5th Baron Morley Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex. See A view of the legal institutions, honorary hereditary offices... Walter Lynch, 1830, P 71 Unpublished statute entered on the Chancery Roll, Dublin, in the year 1460, relative to the independence of Ireland Family Tree of the Marshal family, from J. H Round, "The king's serjeants & offic
John, King of England
John known as John Lackland, was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. John lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian dynasty during the 13th century; the baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom. John, the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine, was at first not expected to inherit significant lands. Following the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child, he was given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William and Geoffrey died young. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's royal administrators whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade.
Despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England, came to an agreement with Philip II of France to recognise John's possession of the continental Angevin lands at the peace treaty of Le Goulet in 1200. When war with France broke out again in 1202, John achieved early victories, but shortages of military resources and his treatment of Norman and Anjou nobles resulted in the collapse of his empire in northern France in 1204. John spent much of the next decade attempting to regain these lands, raising huge revenues, reforming his armed forces and rebuilding continental alliances. John's judicial reforms had a lasting effect on the English common law system, as well as providing an additional source of revenue. An argument with Pope Innocent III led to John's excommunication in 1209, a dispute settled by the king in 1213. John's attempt to defeat Philip in 1214 failed due to the French victory over John's allies at the battle of Bouvines; when he returned to England, John faced a rebellion by many of his barons, who were unhappy with his fiscal policies and his treatment of many of England's most powerful nobles.
Although both John and the barons agreed to the Magna Carta peace treaty in 1215, neither side complied with its conditions. Civil war broke out shortly afterwards, with the barons aided by Louis of France, it soon descended into a stalemate. John died of dysentery contracted whilst on campaign in eastern England during late 1216. Contemporary chroniclers were critical of John's performance as king, his reign has since been the subject of significant debate and periodic revision by historians from the 16th century onwards. Historian Jim Bradbury has summarised the current historical opinion of John's positive qualities, observing that John is today considered a "hard-working administrator, an able man, an able general". Nonetheless, modern historians agree that he had many faults as king, including what historian Ralph Turner describes as "distasteful dangerous personality traits", such as pettiness and cruelty; these negative qualities provided extensive material for fiction writers in the Victorian era, John remains a recurring character within Western popular culture as a villain in films and stories depicting the Robin Hood legends.
John was born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166. Henry had inherited significant territories along the Atlantic seaboard—Anjou and England—and expanded his empire by conquering Brittany. Henry married the powerful Eleanor of Aquitaine, who reigned over the Duchy of Aquitaine and had a tenuous claim to Toulouse and Auvergne in southern France, in addition to being the former wife of Louis VII of France; the result was the Angevin Empire, named after Henry's paternal title as Count of Anjou and, more its seat in Angers. The Empire, was inherently fragile: although all the lands owed allegiance to Henry, the disparate parts each had their own histories and governance structures; as one moved south through Anjou and Aquitaine, the extent of Henry's power in the provinces diminished scarcely resembling the modern concept of an empire at all. Some of the traditional ties between parts of the empire such as Normandy and England were dissolving over time, it was unclear.
Although the custom of primogeniture, under which an eldest son would inherit all his father's lands, was becoming more widespread across Europe, it was less popular amongst the Norman kings of England. Most believed that Henry would divide the empire, giving each son a substantial portion, hoping that his children would continue to work together as allies after his death. To complicate matters, much of the Angevin empire was held by Henry only as a vassal of the King of France of the rival line of the House of Capet. Henry had allied himself with the Holy Roman Emperor against France, making the feudal relationship more challenging. Shortly after his birth, John was passed from Eleanor into the care of a wet nurse, a traditional practice for medieval noble families. Eleanor left for Poitiers, the capital of Aquitaine, sent John and his sister Joan north to Fontevrault Abbey; this may have been done with the aim of steering her youngest son, with no obvious inheritance, towards a future ecclesiastical career.
Eleanor spent the next few years conspiring against her husband Henry and neither parent played a
Earl of Ormond (Ireland)
For the titles in the Peerage of Scotland see: Earl of Ormond The peerage title Earl of Ormond and the related titles Duke of Ormonde and Marquess of Ormonde have a long and complex history. An earldom of Ormond has been created three times in the Peerage of Ireland; the earldom of Ormond was created in 1328 for James Butler. For many subsequent years, the earls took significant roles in the government of Ireland, kept a tradition of loyalty to the English crown and to English custom. Several of the earls had reputations as scholars; the fifth earl was created Earl of Wiltshire in the Peerage of England, but he was attainted in 1461 and his peerages were declared forfeit. The earldom of Ormond was restored to his younger brother, John Butler, the sixth earl, in 1476. Thomas, the 7th earl, died without issue in 1515; this facilitated the next creation by awarding the titles of Ormond and Wiltshire to Thomas Boleyn, the father of Anne Boleyn. At that time, Anne was the mistress of King Henry VIII of England.
As a maternal grandson of the 7th Earl, Thomas Boleyn had a slim claim to the title. Through his daughter, Anne, he was the grandfather of Elizabeth I of England. On the death of Boleyn, these peerages of the second creation became extinct because he lacked male heirs, his son George having been executed for treason; as a reward for his patriotism and generosity, Piers Butler was created Earl of Ossory five days after resigning his rights to the other titles. The third creation for Piers Butler recognised the reality of the situation prior to the Boleyn irruption, in 1544 an act of parliament confirmed him in the possession of his earldom, declared to be the creation of 1328, not the new creation of 1538. James Butler, the fifth earl of this creation, was made Marquess of Ormonde and Duke of Ormonde in the Peerage of Ireland, Duke of Ormonde in the Peerage of England. Through his marriage with his cousin Elizabeth Preston, granddaughter of the third earl, he had reunited the titles with the Ormonde estates.
After 1682, the spelling "Ormonde" was used universally. Prior to the creation of the Earldom of Ormond, the First Earl's father had been created the first Earl of Carrick. However, this title did not pass to James Butler. After a gap of 7 years following his father's death, who had married Eleanor de Bohun was rewarded with an earldom in his own right – Ormond. Subsidiary titles for the duke were Earl of Brecknock and Baron Butler in the Peerage of England and Earl of Ormond, Earl of Ossory and Viscount Thurles in the Peerage of Ireland. In 1715 the second duke was attainted and his English peerages declared forfeit. In 1758 the de jure third duke died and the dukedom and marquessate became extinct. Walter, the eleventh earl, was given an English peerage as Lord Butler of Llanthony in 1801, was created the Marquess of Ormonde in the Peerage of Ireland in 1816; that title became extinct in 1997. An unrelated Earldom of Ormonde was twice created in the Peerage of Scotland. James Butler, 1st Earl of Ormond James Butler, 2nd Earl of Ormond James Butler, 3rd Earl of Ormond James Butler, 4th Earl of Ormond James Butler, 5th Earl of Ormond and 1st Earl of Wiltshire John Butler, 6th Earl of Ormond Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire and 1st Earl of Ormond Piers Butler, 8th Earl of Ormond James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond Thomas Butler, 10th Earl of Ormond.
Distant cousin of Elizabeth I James Butler, Viscount Thurles Walter Butler, 11th Earl of Ormond Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles James Butler, 12th Earl of Ormonde James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde Charles Butler, 3rd Duke of Ormonde John Butler, 15th and 8th Earl of Ormonde Walter Butler, 16th Earl of Ormonde John Butler, 17th Earl of Ormonde Walter Butler, 18th Earl of Ormonde Walter Butler, 1st Marquess of Ormonde James Wandesford Butler, 19th and 12th Earl of Ormonde James Wandesford Butler, 1st Marquess of Ormonde and 19th Earl of Ormonde John Butler, 2nd Marquess of Ormonde and 20th Earl of Ormonde James Edward Butler, 3rd Marquess of Ormonde and 21st Earl of Ormonde Arthur Butler, 4th Marquess of Ormonde and 22nd Earl of Ormonde George Butler, 5th Marquess of Ormonde and 23rd Earl of Ormonde James Anthony Butler, Viscount Thurles Arthur Butler, 6th Marquess of Ormonde and 24th Earl of Ormonde Charles Butler, 7th Marquess of Ormonde and 25th Earl of Ormonde.
The presumed successors of the 7th marquess in the Earldoms of Ormonde and Ossory have been the 17th and 18th Viscounts M
Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke
Isabel de Clare, suo jure 4th Countess of Pembroke and Striguil, was a Cambro-Norman-Irish noblewoman and one of the wealthiest heiresses in Wales and Ireland. She was the wife of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who served four successive kings as Lord Marshal of England, her marriage had been arranged by King Richard I. Isabel was born in 1172 in Pembrokeshire, the eldest child of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known to history as "Strongbow", Aoife of Leinster, the daughter of Diarmait Mac Murchada, the deposed King of Leinster and Mór ingen Muirchertaig; the latter was a daughter of Cacht ingen Loigsig. The marriage of Strongbow and Aoife took place in August 1170, the day after the capture of Waterford by the Cambro-Norman forces led by Strongbow. Isabel's paternal grandparents were Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, his wife Lady Isabel de Beaumont, she had a younger brother Gilbert de Striguil who, being a minor, was not formally invested with either the earldom of Pembroke or of Striguil.
It is unlikely that his father could have passed on the title to Pembroke as he himself did not possess it. When Gilbert died in 1185, Isabel became Countess of Pembroke in her own right until her death in 1220. In this way, she could be said to be the first successor to the earldom of Pembroke since her grandfather Gilbert, the first earl. By this reckoning, Isabel ought to be called the second countess, not the fourth countess of Pembroke. In any event, the title Earl was re-created for her husband, she had an illegitimate half-sister Basile de Clare, who married three times. Basile's husbands were: Robert de Quincy. Isabel was described as having been "the good, the fair, the wise, the courteous lady of high degree", she spoke French and Latin. After her brother Gilbert's death, Isabel became one of the wealthiest heiresses in the kingdom, owning besides the titles of Pembroke and Striguil, much land in Wales and Ireland, she inherited the numerous castles on the inlet of Milford Haven, guarding the South Channel, including Pembroke Castle.
She was a legal ward of King Henry II, who watched over her inheritance. The new King Richard I arranged her marriage in August 1189 to William Marshal, regarded by many as the greatest knight and soldier in the realm. Henry II had promised Marshal he would be given Isabel as his bride, his son and successor Richard upheld the promise one month after his accession to the throne. At the time of her marriage, Isabel was residing in the Tower of London in the protective custody of the Justiciar of England, Ranulf de Glanville. Following the wedding, celebrated in London "with due pomp and ceremony", they spent their honeymoon at Stoke d'Abernon in Surrey which belonged to Enguerrand d'Abernon. Marriage to Isabel elevated William Marshal from the status as a landless knight into one of the richest men in the kingdom, he would serve as Lord Marshal of England, four kings in all: Henry II, Richard I, Henry III. Although Marshal did not become the jure uxoris 1st Earl of Pembroke, Earl of Striguil until 1199, he assumed overlordship of Leinster in Ireland, Pembroke Castle, Chepstow Castle, as well as Isabel's other castles in Wales such as the keep of Haverford, Lewhaden, Stackpole.
Shortly after their marriage and Isabel arrived in Ireland, at Old Ross, a settlement located in the territory which belonged to her grandfather, Dermot MacMurrough. A motte was hastily constructed, a medieval borough grew around it, afterwards the Marshals founded the port town by the river which subsequently became known as New Ross; the Chronicles of Ross, which are housed in the British Museum, described Isabel and Marshal's arrival in Ireland and records that Isabella set about building a lovely city on the banks of the Barrow. In 1192, Isabel and her husband assumed the task of managing their vast lands, they commissioned the construction of several abbeys in the vicinity. The marriage was happy, despite the vast difference in age between them. William Marshal and Isabel produced a total of five daughters. William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Chief Justiciar of Ireland, he married firstly, Alice de Bethune, secondly, Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of King John. Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, married Gervase le Dinant.
He died childless. Maud Marshal, she married Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, by whom she had issue. Five queen consorts of Henry VIII: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard and Catherine Parr were her descendants. Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke, he married Marjorie of Scotland, daughter of King William I of Scotland. He died childless. Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke, he married Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln, widow of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln, as her second husband. The marriage was childless. Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke, he married Maud de Bohun. He died childless. Isabel Marshal, she married firstly, 4th Earl of Hertford. She had
Maud FitzJohn, Countess of Warwick
Maud FitzJohn, Countess of Warwick was an English noblewoman and the eldest daughter of John FitzGeoffrey, Lord of Shere. Her second husband was 9th Earl of Warwick, a celebrated soldier. Through her daughter, Maud was the maternal grandmother of Hugh the younger Despenser, the unpopular favourite of King Edward II of England, executed in 1326. Maud was born in Shere, England in about 1238, the eldest daughter of John FitzGeoffrey, Lord of Shere, Justiciar of Ireland, Isabel le Bigod, a descendant of Strongbow and Aoife of Leinster. Maud had two brothers, Richard FitzJohn of Shere and John FitzJohn of Shere, three younger sisters, Aveline FitzJohn, Joan FitzJohn, Isabel FitzJohn, she had a half-brother, Walter de Lacy, two half-sisters, Margery de Lacy, Maud de Lacy, Baroness Geneville, from her mother's first marriage to Gilbert de Lacy of Ewyas Lacy. The chronicle of Tintern Abbey in Monmouthshire names Matilda uxor Guidono comitis Warwici as the eldest daughter of Johanni Fitz-Geffrey and Isabella Bygod.
Her paternal grandparents were Geoffrey Fitzpeter, 1st Earl of Essex and Aveline de Clare, her maternal grandparents were Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk and Maud Marshal. Maud married Gerald de Furnivall, Lord of Hallamshire on an unknown date. Sometime after his death in 1261, Maud married her second husband, the celebrated soldier, William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Upon their marriage, Maud was styled as Countess of Warwick. Together William and Maud had at least two children: Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick, on 28 February 1310, he married as her second husband, heiress Alice de Toeni, by whom he had seven children. Isabella de Beauchamp, married firstly in 1281 Sir Patrick de Chaworth, Lord of Kidwelly, by whom she had a daughter, Maud Chaworth. Maud died between 16 and 18 April 1301, she was buried at the house of the Friars Minor in Worcester. Richardson, Douglas. Magna Carta Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Genealogical Publishing.135 Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Essex 1199-1227 Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Warwick
Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk
Roger Bigod was the son of Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk and his first wife, Juliana de Vere. Although his father died 1176 or 1177, Roger did not succeed to the earldom of Norfolk until 1189 for his claim had been disputed by his stepmother for her sons by Earl Hugh in the reign of Henry II. Richard I confirmed him in his earldom and other honours, sent him as an ambassador to France in the same year. Roger inherited his father's office as royal steward, he took part in the negotiations for the release of Richard from prison, after the king's return to England became a justiciar. During the Revolt of 1173–74, Roger remained loyal to the king while his father sided with the king's rebellious sons. Roger fought at the Battle of Fornham on 17 October 1173, where the royalist force defeated a rebel force led by Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester. In most of the years of the reign of King John, the earl was with the king or on royal business, yet Roger was to be one of the leaders of the baronial party which obtained John's assent to Magna Carta, his name and that of his son and heir Hugh II appear among the twenty-five barons who were to ensure the king's adherence to the terms of that document.
The pair were excommunicated by the pope in December 1215, did not make peace with the regents of John's son Henry III until 1217. Around Christmas 1181, Roger married Ida Ida de Tosny, by her had a number of children including: Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk who married in 1206/ 1207, Maud, a daughter of William Marshal William Bigod Ralph Bigod Roger Bigod Margery, married William de Hastings Mary Bigod, married Ralph fitz RobertMany historians, including Marc Morris have speculated that the couple had a third daughter, who married Aubrey de Vere IV, Earl of Oxford as his second wife. If so, the marriage would have been well within the bounds of consanguinity, for the couple would have been quite related, a daughter of the second earl of Norfolk being first cousin once removed to the second earl of Oxford. Roger Bigod and his wife Ida de Tosny are the main characters in Elizabeth Chadwick's The Time of Singing, published in the USA as For the King's Favor, they appear as minor characters in other of her books set at the same time, notably To Defy a King, which concerns the marriage of their son Hugh to Maud, a daughter of William Marshal.
As Bigot, Bigod appears as a character in the play King John by William Shakespeare. Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis, Vol. 13 Morris, Marc. The Bigod Earls of Norfolk in the Thirteenth Century Cawley, Medieval Lands Project on Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey
William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey was the son of Hamelin de Warenne and Isabel, daughter of William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey. His father Hamelin granted him the manor of North Lincolnshire. De Warenne was present at the coronation of John, King of England on 27 May 1199; when Normandy was lost to the French in 1204 he lost his Norman holdings, but John recompensed him with Grantham and Stamford. His first tenure of office as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports began in 1204, lasted until 1206, he was a Warden of the Welsh Marches between 1208 and 1213. Between the years 1200 and 1208, between 1217 and 1226 he was to serve as the High Sheriff of Surrey. William was one of the few barons who remained loyal to King John (who was his cousin. In 1212, when a general rebellion was feared, John committed to him the custody of the northern shires. During the king's difficulties with the barons, when they sought for the French prince to assume the English throne, William is listed as one of those who advised John to accede to the Magna Carta.
His allegiance only faltered a few times. In March 1217 he again demonstrated his loyalty to England by supporting the young King Henry III, he was responsible for the establishment of Salisbury Cathedral. However, he disliked the royal favourites who came into power after 1227, used his influence to protect Hubert de Burgh when the latter had been removed from office by their efforts in 1232. Warenne's relations with the king became strained in course of time. In 1238 he was evidently regarded as a leader of the baronial opposition, for the Great Council appointed him as one of the treasurers who were to prevent the king from squandering the subsidy voted in that year. William married Maud Marshal, on 13 October 1225, they had a daughter. The son John succeeded his father as earl, while the daughter, Isabel de Warenne, married Hugh d'Aubigny, 5th Earl of Arundel. William may have had an earlier, childless marriage to another Matilda, daughter of William d'Aubigny, 2nd Earl of Arundel