Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
Levi Woodbury was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, a U. S. Senator, the 9th Governor of New Hampshire, cabinet member in three administrations. Born in Francestown, New Hampshire, he established a legal practice in Francestown in 1812. After serving in the New Hampshire Senate, he was appointed to the New Hampshire Supreme Court in 1817, he served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1824 and represented New Hampshire in the Senate from 1825 to 1831, becoming affiliated with the Democratic Party of Andrew Jackson. He served as the United States Secretary of the Navy under President Jackson and as the United States Secretary of the Treasury under Jackson and President Martin Van Buren, he served another term representing New Hampshire in the Senate from 1841 to 1845, when he accepted President James K. Polk's appointment to the Supreme Court. Woodbury was the first Justice to have attended law school, he received significant support for the presidential nomination at the 1848 Democratic National Convention among New England delegates, but the nomination went to Lewis Cass of Michigan.
Woodbury served on the court until his death in 1851. Woodbury was born in the son of Mary and Peter Woodbury, he began his education at Atkinson Academy. He graduated from Dartmouth College, Phi Beta Kappa, in 1809 attended Tapping Reeve Law School in Litchfield and read law to be admitted to the New Hampshire Bar in 1812, he became the first Supreme Court justice to attend law school. He was in private practice in Francestown from 1812 to 1816, he joined the Freemasons. His education contributed to his early start in law, which led to his political positions, he began practicing law in his hometown. During his time in Francestown, he wrote the Hillsborough Resolves to defend the Madison administration for their decisions in the War of 1812, which marked the beginning of his political involvement. Following the publication of his defense, he gained the recognition he needed to receive an appointment to the state senate in 1816. In quick succession, he was appointed to the state supreme court a year and in 1823, he was elected as the Governor of New Hampshire.
During the time of his gubernatorial election, there was factionalism within the party. The caucus chose Samuel Dinsmoor as the candidate for governor, but an "irregular" public convention elected Woodbury as the other candidate. Woodbury defeated Dinsmoor by a wide margin, he did not make a lot of progress. He became a U. S. Senator from New Hampshire, during which time he served as the Chairman of the Senate Commerce Committee. Throughout Woodbury's political career, he was characterized as being independent and moderate, which some scholars interpret as indecisiveness and hesitancy. Woodbury was a clerk of the New Hampshire State Senate from 1816 to 1817, a Justice of New Hampshire Superior Court of Judicature from 1817 to 1823, he was Governor of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1824 and was Speaker of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, 1825. Woodbury served as a United States Senator from New Hampshire from 1825 to 1831. Elected to serve in New Hampshire State Senate in 1831, Woodbury did not take office due to his appointment as United States Secretary of the Navy under President Andrew Jackson, from 1831 to 1834.
At the beginning of this term, he was instrumental in the appointment of fellow New Hampshireman Edmund Roberts as special agent and envoy to the Far East. Woodbury served as Secretary of the Treasury under Jackson and Martin Van Buren from 1834 to 1841, served again as Senator from New Hampshire from 1841 to 1845, he was a Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, 1845 to 1851; as a U. S. Senator, Woodbury was a dependable Jackson Democrat, President Jackson appointed him Secretary of the Navy and Secretary of the Treasury. Woodbury worked to end the Second Bank of the United States. In retrospect, the financial Panic of 1837 and the collapse of speculative land prices were legacies of Woodbury's tenure. After the Panic, Woodbury realised that the U. S. Treasury needed a more secure administration of its own funds than commercial banks supplied, he backed the act for an "Independent Treasury System" passed by Congress in 1840, it was repealed under the new administration the following year, but the foundation was laid for an independent U.
S. Treasury established in 1846, under President James K. Polk. Woodbury served as chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Finance during a Special Session of the 29th Congress, his ten-day chairmanship is the shortest on record. In the 1844 presidential election and the Jackson Democrats supported the Democrats' nomination of Polk. In that year, Woodbury delivered a Phi Beta Kappa Address at his alma mater, Dartmouth College, titled "Progress." The address discussed Thomas Cole's series of The Course of Empire. Woodbury believed that, unlike Cole's depiction of a cycle of rise and decline, in the United States there would only be a rise. On September 20, 1845, Polk gave Woodbury a recess appointment to the seat on the U. S. Supreme Court vacated by Joseph Story. Formally nominated on December 23, 1845, Woodbury was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 3, 1846, received his commission the same day, he was promoted as a candidate for president at the 1848 Democratic National Convention, his support was centered in New England.
He remained on the Cou
Matthew Harvey was an American lawyer and politician from New Hampshire. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives and as the 13th governor of New Hampshire, he was a long serving United States federal judge. Born in Sutton, New Hampshire, Harvey studied with private tutors, he graduated from Dartmouth College in 1806, read law and was admitted to the bar in 1809. He began the practice of law in Hopkinton, New Hampshire in 1809 and practiced there until 1814. Harvey was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1814 to 1821, serving as Speaker of the State House from 1818 to 1820, he was a member of the New Hampshire Senate and President from 1825 to 1827. Elected as a Democratic-Republican, Harvey represented New Hampshire in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1821 to March 4, 1825, during the Seventeenth U. S. Congress and the Eighteenth U. S. Congress, he was a member of the New Hampshire Senate from 1825 to 1827, a member of the New Hampshire Executive Council from 1828 to 1829.
Harvey served one abbreviated term as Governor of New Hampshire, beginning in 1830. On November 2, 1830, Harvey received a recess appointment from President Andrew Jackson to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of New Hampshire vacated by John Samuel Sherburne. Formally nominated on December 14, 1830, Harvey was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 16, 1830, received his commission the same day. Harvey resigned as governor on February 28, 1831, he remained on the bench until his death in Concord in 1866, is buried there at the Old North Cemetery. Harvey was the son of Hannah Harvey. Harvey's brother, Jonathan Harvey was a member of the US House of Representatives. United States Congress. "Matthew Harvey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Matthew Harvey at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. National Governors Association Matthew Harvey at Find a Grave
William Plumer was an American lawyer, Baptist lay preacher, politician from Epping, New Hampshire. He is most notable for his service as a Federalist in the United States Senate, Governor of New Hampshire as a Democratic-Republican. Plumer was born in Newburyport, Province of Massachusetts Bay on June 25, 1759, the son of farmer and merchant Samuel Plumer and Mary Plumer, his family moved to Epping, New Hampshire in 1768, he was raised at his father's farm on Epping's Red Oak Hill. Plumer attended the Red Oak Hill School until he was 17. Frequent ill health left him unsuited for military service during the American Revolution or life as a farmer, after a religious conversion experience in his late teens, Plumer was trained as a Baptist exhorter. For several years he traveled throughout the state to deliver sermons to Baptist churches and revival meetings, he considered a career as a doctor, began to study medicine. Deciding on a legal career, he studied law with attorneys Joshua Atherton of Amherst and John Prentice of Londonderry.
While studying under Atherton, his fellow law clerks included William Coleman, who remained a lifelong friend. Plumer attained admission to the bar in 1787, began to practice in Epping. In addition to practicing law, Plumer was active in local politics and government, he held several town offices, including selectman. Plumer served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1785 to 1786, in 1788, from 1790 to 1791, from 1797 to 1800. In 1791 and 1797 he served as Speaker of the House. Plumer was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1791-1792. Plumer was elected to the United States Senate as a federalist, filling the vacancy caused when James Sheafe resigned, he served from June 17, 1802 to March 3, 1807, was not a candidate for reelection. In 1803, Plumer was one of several New England Federalists who proposed secession from the United States due to lack of support for Federalists, rising influence of Jeffersonian Democrats and the diminished influence of the North due to the Louisiana Purchase.
Recalling his involvement in the secession scheme in 1827, Plumer said, "This was, I think, the greatest political error of my life: & would, had it been reduced to practise, instead of releiving, destroyed New England.... For my own reputation the erroneous opinion I formed produced no bitter fruits to myself or my country." Plumer served in the New Hampshire Senate in 1810 and 1811, was chosen in both years to serve as the Senate's president. By now a Democratic-Republican, in 1812, Plumer was the party's successful nominee for Governor of New Hampshire, he served until 1813, he returned to office in 1816, served until 1819. In the 1820 presidential election, Plumer was one of New Hampshire's electoral college members, he cast the only dissenting vote in the Electoral College against incumbent President James Monroe, voting instead for John Quincy Adams. While some accounts say that this was to ensure that George Washington remained the only American president unanimously chosen by the Electoral College, others assert that he was instead calling attention to his friend Adams as a potential future presidential candidate, or protesting against the "wasteful extravagance" of the Monroe Administration.
Plumer eschewed voting for Daniel D. Tompkins for Vice President as "grossly intemperate" and having "not that weight of character which his office requires," and "because he grossly neglected his duty" in his "only" official role as president of the Senate by being "absent nearly three-fourths of the time." Plumer instead voted for Richard Rush. Plumer was the first president of the New Hampshire Historical Society, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1815. Plumer was buried at the Plumer Family Cemetery in Epping. In 1788, Plumer married Sarah "Sally" Fowler of New Hampshire, they were the parents of six children -- William, Samuel, George Washington, John Jay, Quintus. William Plumer Jr. was an author and attorney who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1819 to 1825. Paper Money Riot Works by William Plumer at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Plumer at Internet Archive A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787–1825United States Congress.
"William Plumer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Plumer at Find a Grave William Plumer at National Governors Association Memoir of William Plumer, Senior, by Albert Harrison Hoyt. 1871
Nathaniel B. Baker
Nathaniel Bradley Baker was an American politician and military leader who served as Governor of New Hampshire and Adjutant General of the Iowa Militia. Nathaniel B. Baker was born in Henniker, New Hampshire on September 29, 1818, raised in West Concord. Nathaniel Baker graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in Harvard University, he studied law under Franklin Pierce, Asa Fowler and Charles H. Peaslee and passed the bar in 1842. Baker was a co-owner of the New Hampshire Patriot. A Democrat, he served as Clerk of the Merrimack County Court of Common Pleas in 1845; the following year he became Merrimack County Clerk. Baker was active in the New Hampshire Militia, serving as Quartermaster and Adjutant of the 11th Regiment, he subsequently served as Aide-de-Camp to Governor John H. Steele with the rank of Colonel. In 1851, Baker assumed the position of Chief Fire Engineer for Concord's Fire Department, he served in the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1850 and 1851, was elected Speaker of the House.
In 1852 he was a Presidential Elector, cast his ballot for Franklin Pierce and William R. King. From 1854 to 1859 Baker was a trustee of Norwich University, he received an honorary master of arts degree from Norwich in 1855. In 1854 he was elected governor and served a single one-year term, June 6, 1854 to June 7, 1855. During his term the legislature failed to pass resolutions condemning the Missouri Compromise and the Kansas–Nebraska Act, evidence that New Hampshire was trending away from the Democratic Pierce and Baker and becoming antislavery, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1855. After Baker's term as governor, he moved to Clinton, where he continued to practice law, he was elected to the Iowa House of Representatives in 1859 as a Democrat. His antislavery views caused him to join the Republican Party. Baker's work as chairman of the Iowa House's Military Affairs Committee at the start of the American Civil War led to his appointment as adjutant general of the Iowa Militia, he served until his death.
By now a resident of Des Moines, during the war he was praised for his efforts to recruit and train soldiers for front line regiments, to keep track of their service records, including enlistments, wounds and discharges. In addition, at the end of the war, Baker was credited with acquiring from returning Iowa units captured Confederate regimental flags and other memorabilia, arranging to have it preserved. In 1874 Baker took part in an effort to combat a massive grasshopper infestation in Northwestern Iowa, exposing himself out of doors in harsh weather including sleet and high winds, his health began to decline as a result, Baker died in Des Moines on September 11, 1876. He was buried at Woodland Cemetery in Des Moines. Colbert, Matthew M.. General Nathaniel B. Baker and the grasshopper plagues in northwest Iowa, 1873–1875. Iowa State University. Retrieved February 14, 2013. Baker at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources Nathaniel B. Baker at National Governors Association Nathaniel B. Baker at Find a Grave
John Hardy Steele
John Hardy Steele served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1844 to 1846. John H. Steele was born in Salisbury, North Carolina on January 4, 1789, his mother, Elizabeth Taylor, was unmarried. His father, John Steele was married to another woman, was the father of several children with his wife; as a result of the circumstances of his parentage and the early death of his mother, John Hardy Steele was raised by his maternal grandfather, Absalom Taylor. Steele was educated in Salisbury, at age 14 was apprenticed as a cabinetmaker and chair maker. At age 22 Steele settled in Fayetteville, where he worked at his trade for Nathaniel Morrison, a native of Peterborough, New Hampshire. Morrison was impressed with Steele's mechanical aptitude, asked Steele to accompany him to New Hampshire to establish a textile manufacturing business. Steele designed and constructed the spinning mules and looms for Morrison's mills, one of, the first to weave cotton cloth by waterpower. In 1824 Steele joined several partners to establish the Union Manufacturing Company, a cloth production factory which operated with Steele as manager.
A Democrat in a town, predominantly Whig in its politics, Steele was popular enough to win election to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1829. He declined reelection, declined an 1831 nomination for a seat in the New Hampshire State Senate. From 1830 to 1838 Steele served as Peterborough's Town Meeting Moderator. Steele was active in the New Hampshire Militia, attained the rank of Colonel as aide-de-camp to Governor Matthew Harvey. In 1840 Steele won election to the Executive Council of New Hampshire, he was reelected in 1841. Steele was elected Governor in 1844, reelected in 1845, his term was marked by the creation of a state railroad commission. In addition, Steele provided letters of introduction to James Knox Polk and members of Polk's cabinet for his friend Jesse Carter Little, a Mormon pioneer who sought government assistance to enable the Mormons to begin settling in Utah. After leaving office Steele retired to a farm, where he conducted experiments in animal husbandry and other scientific agriculture techniques.
He was President of the Peterborough Savings Bank. He served as a Selectman in 1846, in 1850 he was a delegate to New Hampshire's constitutional convention. Steele was buried in the Village Cemetery. Biography at New Hampshire Historical Resources John Hardy Steele at Find a Grave John Hardy Steele at National Governors Association
Meshech Weare was an American farmer and revolutionary statesman from Seabrook and Hampton Falls, New Hampshire. He served as the first President of New Hampshire from 1776 to 1785. Meshech was born to Deacon Nathaniel Weare and his second wife, Mary Waite, in what was the Third Parish, New Hampshire; the site of the home is now in Seabrook. Weare was baptized in modern-day Hampton Falls, New Hampshire, on June 21, 1713, he was the youngest of 14 children. Some of his siblings included Elizabeth, Mehitable and Nathan. Weare graduated from Harvard College in 1735, he planned to work in the Congregational ministry, but those plans were changed after his marriage to Elizabeth Shaw in 1738. He planned on improving the land he and his wife bought after their marriage, but this plan was cut short by his wife's death, he remarried to Mehitable Wainwright in 1746. During this time he began to study law, starting with the books passed down to him from his father and grandfather, who were former lay Judges in the provincial court.
The house in which Weare lived was built in 1737 by Samuel Shaw, is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was to be visited by George Washington, Marquis de Lafayette, James Monroe; the back half of the house burnt many years after Weare's death. It still stands in Hampton Falls, next to the park named after Weare and across from the town school, Lincoln Akerman School. Weare's political career began in 1739. For the next 35 years, he served in various political positions, including selectman and representative of Hampton Falls in the Assembly, he was thrice speaker of the House of Representatives, its clerk for eight years. In 1754, he was one of New Hampshire's delegates to the Albany Congress. In September 1772, Weare served as one of the four judges in the trial of the participants in the Pine Tree Riot, an early act of rebellion against British authority in the Colonies. Although the defendants were found guilty, the light fines assessed by the court were seen as encouraging other such acts, including the Boston Tea Party.
On January 5, 1776, New Hampshire became the first American state to adopt a formal constitution. Weare was a leader in the drafting of this document, which served as the basic instrument of government for the ensuing eight years or until the adoption of a second and more permanent constitution in 1784. Under this constitution, there was no established executive, the legislature was supreme. In practice, executive power was delegated to a Committee of Safety consisting of eight or ten legislative leaders; this committee had full power to act on behalf of the government while the legislature was not in session. After a brief interval, Weare was elected chairman of the Committee of Safety and served in this capacity throughout the Revolution. In addition to being New Hampshire's first "President", Weare was chief justice of the state's highest court the "Superior Court of Judicature" from 1776 to 1782, he served as presiding officer of the Council part of the upper house of the legislature. He managed to hold that position throughout the American Revolution.
He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1782. The Committee of Safety, over which Weare presided, was a most interesting governmental institution, it operated both at the state and at the local level, was a law unto itself while the legislature was not in session. Its duties included supervision and coordination of military affairs within the state, raising of recruits and supplies, regulation of the state militia, custody of prisoners of war, supervision of the entrance and clearance of vessels from Portsmouth Harbor, regulation of privateers and captured prizes, surveillance of the Loyalists, regulation of trade and currency, supervision of price controls; the New Hampshire town of Weare was renamed in 1764 to honor his service as the town's first clerk. In Hampton Falls, a park, built in the early 2000s directly next to his house, is named for him. Weare's grave is located in a small cemetery an eighth of a mile down the road. Brown, Warren.
History of Hampton Falls N. H. Vol. II. 1918. Meschach Weare at SeacoastNH.com Meshech Weare at Find a Grave