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Hugo Award for Best Semiprozine

The Hugo Award for Best Semiprozine is given each year for semi-professionally-edited magazines related to science fiction or fantasy which had published four or more issues, with at least one issue appearing in the previous calendar year. Awards were once given out for professional magazines in the professional magazine category, are still awarded for fan magazines in the fanzine category; the Hugo Awards have been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing". The award was first presented in 1984, has been given annually since. A "semiprozine" is defined for the award as a magazine in the field, not professional but that either pays its contributors in something other than copies, or is available only for payment. In addition to the regular Hugo awards, beginning in 1996 Retrospective Hugo Awards, or "Retro Hugos", have been available to be awarded for years 50, 75, or 100 years prior in which no awards were given. To date, Retro Hugo awards have been awarded for 1939, 1941, 1943, 1946, 1951, 1954, but the category failed to receive enough to form a ballot each time.

During the 36 nomination years, 38 magazines run by 121 editors have been nominated. Of these, only 8 magazines run by 25 editors have won. Locus won 22 times and was nominated every year until a rules change in 2012 made it ineligible for the category. Uncanny Magazine has won 4 times in a row, 2016–2019, while Science Fiction Chronicle, Clarkesworld Magazine, Lightspeed are the only other magazines to win more than once, with 2 awards out of 18 nominations, 3 out of 4, 2 out of 5 while Ansible has won 1 out of 7 nominations, Interzone has won 1 out of 28, Weird Tales has won 1 out of its 3 nominations; as editor of Locus Charles N. Brown won 21 of 27 nominations, though he shared 5 of those awards with Kirsten Gong-Wong, 3 with Liza Groen Trombi and 2 with Jennifer A. Hall. Uncanny's awards were earned by a team of 5 people, Lynne M. Thomas, Michael Damian Thomas, Michi Trota, Erika Ensign, Steven Schapansky; the sole editor for Chronicle's awards was Andrew I. Porter, while David Pringle earned Interzone's, Ann VanderMeer and Stephen H. Segal were the editors for Weird Tales's victory.

Lightspeed's wins were under John Joseph Adams, Rich Horton, Stefan Rudnicki, with Wendy N. Wagner and Christie Yant added for the second win, while David Langford was the editor when Ansible was awarded. Clarkesworld Magazine's winning years were under Neil Clarke, Sean Wallace, Kate Baker, with 2 of the three under Cheryl Morgan and the other under Jason Heller; the New York Review of Science Fiction has received the most number of nominations without winning at 22, under the helm of David G. Hartwell, Kathryn Cramer, Kevin J. Maroney, 8 other editors; the next highest number of nominations without winning is 7 for Speculations under Kent Brewster, Denise Lee, Susan Fry. Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, the presentation evening constitutes its central event; the selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with six nominees, except in the case of a tie.

The works on the ballot are the most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of works that can be nominated. The 1953 through 1956 and 1958 awards did not include any recognition of runner-up magazines, but since 1959 all six candidates were recorded. Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of six nominations is performed in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held. Prior to 2017, the final ballot was five works. Worldcons are held near the start of September, are held in a different city around the world each year. At the 2008 business meeting, an amendment to the World Science Fiction Society's Constitution was passed which would remove this category; the vote to ratify this amendment was held the following year. Instead, a committee was formed to recommend improvements to related categories. In the following table, the years correspond to the date of the ceremony, rather than when the work was first published.

Each date links to the "year in literature" article corresponding with. Entries with a blue background won the award for that year. Note that Thrust was renamed to Quantum and was nominated under both names. * Winners and joint winners Hugo Award official site

Brady Keeper

Brady Keeper is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenseman playing for the Springfield Thunderbirds in the American Hockey League as a prospect under contract with the Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League. Keeper played junior hockey with the OCN Blizzard of the Manitoba Junior Hockey League from 2013 to 2017 and was named the league's Most Valuable Player for the 2016–17 season, he earned a scholarship to the University of Maine and played two seasons for the NCAA Division I Maine Black Bears, accumulating 57 points in 73 games. Having gone undrafted into NHL, Keeper left the University of Maine to sign an entry-level contract with the Florida Panthers on March 21, 2019, he made his NHL debut on March 28 against the Ottawa Senators. Keeper was born and raised in Cross Lake in northern Manitoba and is the first person from Cross Lake First Nation to play in the NHL. Notable Aboriginal people of Canada Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database

Retching

Retching is the reverse movement of the stomach and esophagus without vomiting. It can be caused by bad smells or choking, or by withdrawal from some medications after vomiting stops. Retching can occur as a result of an emotional response or from stress, which produces the same physical reaction; the function is thought to be mixing gastric contents with intestinal refluxate in order to buffer the former and give it momentum in preparation of vomiting. Treatments include correction of the fluid and electrolyte balance; the retching phase is characterized by a series of violent spasmodic abdomino-thoracic contractions with the glottis closed. During this time, the inspiratory movements of the chest wall and diaphragm are opposed by the expiratory contractions of the abdominal musculature. At the same time, movements of the stomach and its contents take place. Whereas a patient will complain of disagreeable sensations during nausea, speech is not possible during retching; the characteristic movements furnish a ready diagnostic sign of the retching phase.

Schindler studied retching on two occasions during gastroscopy and noted that longitudinal folds appeared in the smooth antrum, thickened came together and closed the antrum. Retching involves a deep inspiration against a closed glottis. This, along with contraction of the abdomen, leads to a pressure difference between the abdominal and thoracic cavities; as a result, the stomach and gastric contents are displaced upwards toward the thoracic cavity. Retching comprises a rhythmically alternating elevation and descension of the entire pharyngolaryngo-esophago-gastric apparatus in synchrony with the movement of the diaphragm; the function of retching may be to mix gastric contents with intestinal refluxate to buffer gastric contents before gastroesophageal reflux and to impart a momentum to the gastric contents before vomiting. Airway protection during retching is accomplished by glottal closure during retches and constriction of the upper esophageal sphincter between retches. Vomiting is preceded by retching, but retching and vomiting can occur separately and involve different sets of muscles.

During a retch, thoracic pressure is decreased and abdominal pressure is increased, which may serve to position gastric contents and overcome esophageal resistance. Conversely, a vomit occurs with abdominal pressure. Retches and vomits are lumped together in behavioral analyses and the neural controls for these processes are not well delineated; the treatments for significant retching include correction of fluid and electrolyte balance, nutritional support and medications like phenothiazines, 5-HT3 antagonist, dopamine receptor antagonists and anticholinergics. Alternative approaches are available; the best-studied alternative therapy is the use of acupressure for pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting. Wristbands with acupressure buttons are commercially available. An implanted device with attached electrodes into the gastric wall can be an option for patients with refractory nausea and vomiting. Pharyngeal reflex, the gag reflex Regurgitation Vomiting

Ragged Peak (Yosemite National Park)

Ragged Peak is a mountain, in the Tuolumne Meadows area of Yosemite National Park. Of the ridge south of the Young Lakes region, Ragged Peak is the most prominent feature, it is 4 miles north of Tioga Road and its summit has a great view of Mount Conness's southwest face. Ragged Peak is an isolated summit, close to Young Lakes. Ragged Peak is north of Dog Lake. Ragged Peak has a class 2 — class 3 southern route, the northwest face is listed as class 5, the northeast face as class 5.6, the east face as class 5. So, Ragged Peak is available, for rock climbing. On hiking up Ragged Peak, mentions the first climb, by white hikers Hiking Ragged Peak, via the Dog Lake trail An account by hikers, who climbed Ragged Peak More hikers, who climbed Ragged Peak, with many photos A YouTube video, from Ragged Peak's summit Some area photos

Kurt W├╝thrich

Kurt Wüthrich is a Swiss chemist/biophysicist and Nobel Chemistry laureate, known for developing nuclear magnetic resonance methods for studying biological macromolecules. Born in Aarberg, Switzerland, Wüthrich was educated in chemistry and mathematics at the University of Bern before pursuing his Ph. D. supervised by Silvio Fallab at the University of Basel, awarded in 1964. After his PhD, Wüthrich continued postdoctoral research with Fallab for a short time before leaving to work at the University of California, Berkeley for two years from 1965 with Robert E. Connick; that was followed by a stint working with Robert G. Shulman at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey from 1967 to 1969. Wüthrich returned to Switzerland, to Zürich, in 1969, where he began his career there at the ETH Zürich, rising to Professor of Biophysics by 1980, he maintains a laboratory at the ETH Zürich, at The Scripps Research Institute, in La Jolla, California and at the iHuman Institute of ShanghaiTech University.

He has been a visiting professor at the University of Edinburgh, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Yonsei University. During his graduate studies Wüthrich started out working with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, the subject of his Ph. D. thesis was "the catalytic activity of copper compounds in autoxidation reactions". During his time as a postdoc in Berkeley he began working with the newly developed and related technique of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the hydration of metal complexes; when Wüthrich joined the Bell Labs, he was put in charge of one of the first superconducting NMR spectrometers, started studying the structure and dynamics of proteins. He has pursued this line of research since. After returning to Switzerland, Wüthrich collaborated with, among others, Nobel laureate Richard R. Ernst on developing the first two-dimensional NMR experiments, established the nuclear Overhauser effect as a convenient way of measuring distances within proteins.

This research led to the complete assignment of resonances for among others the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and glucagon. In October 2010, Wüthrich participated in the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Lunch with a Laureate program where middle and high school students will get to engage in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize–winning scientist over a brown-bag lunch. Wüthrich is a member on the USA Science and Engineering Festival's Advisory Board, and a supporter of the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reform in the United Nations. He was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in 1991, the Louis-Jeantet Prize for Medicine in 1993, the Otto Warburg Medal in 1999 and half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for "his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution".

He received the Bijvoet Medal of the Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research of Utrecht University in 2008. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 2010. On April 2, 2018, Dr. Wüthrich established permanent residency in Shanghai, after obtaining a Chinese permanent residence card

Chili grenade

A chili grenade is a type of non-lethal weapon developed by Indian military scientists at the Defence Research and Development Organisation for use by the Indian Armed Forces. The weapon is similar to tear gas. "civilian variants" are being used for crowd control in Jammu and Kashmir. The grenades use one of the world's spiciest chili pepper, bhut jolokia, species in weaponized form; the weapon emits a powerful skin and eye irritant as well as pungent smell that causes enemies to leave their cover or become physically incapacitated by the grenade's load. The pepper being used is the thumb-sized "bhut jolokia," or "ghost chili,", recognized by Guinness World Records as the hottest pepper in the world, but was superseded by two other pepper cultivars, the Carolina Reaper and the Trinidad moruga scorpion. One bhut jolokia is more than 1,000,000 Scoville units. Riot control Pepper spray Race to grow the hottest pepper