Hugo Gernsback was a Luxembourgish-American inventor, writer and magazine publisher, best known for publications including the first science fiction magazine. His contributions to the genre as publisher—although not as a writer—were so significant that, along with the novelists H. G. Wells and Jules Verne, he is sometimes called "The Father of Science Fiction". In his honour, annual awards presented at the World Science Fiction Convention are named the "Hugos". Gernsback was born in 1884 in Luxembourg City, to Berta, a housewife, Moritz Gernsbacher, a winemaker, his family was Jewish. Gernsback emigrated to the United States in 1904 and became a naturalized citizen, he married three times: to Rose Harvey in 1906, Dorothy Kantrowitz in 1921, Mary Hancher in 1951. In 1925, he founded radio station WRNY, broadcast from the 18th floor of the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City. In 1928, WRNY aired some of the first television broadcasts. During the show, audio stopped and each artist waved or bowed onscreen.
When audio resumed, they performed. Gernsback is considered a pioneer in amateur radio. Before helping to create science fiction, Gernsback was an entrepreneur in the electronics industry, importing radio parts from Europe to the United States and helping to popularize amateur "wireless". In April 1908 he founded Modern Electrics, the world's first magazine about both electronics and radio, called "wireless" at the time. While the cover of the magazine itself states it was a catalog, most historians note that it contained articles and plotlines, qualifying it as a magazine. Under its auspices, in January 1909, he founded the Wireless Association of America, which had 10,000 members within a year. In 1912, Gernsback said that he estimated 400,000 people in the U. S. were involved in amateur radio. In 1913, he founded a similar magazine, The Electrical Experimenter, which became Science and Invention in 1920, it was in these magazines that he began including scientific fiction stories alongside science journalism—including his novel Ralph 124C 41+ which he ran for 12 months from April 1911 in Modern Electrics.
He died at Roosevelt Hospital in New York City on August 19, 1967. Gernsback provided a forum for the modern genre of science fiction in 1926 by founding the first magazine dedicated to it, Amazing Stories; the inaugural April issue comprised a one-page editorial and reissues of six stories, three less than ten years old and three by Poe and Wells. He said he became interested in the concept after reading a translation of the work of Percival Lowell as a child, his idea of a perfect science fiction story was "75 percent literature interwoven with 25 percent science". He played an important role in starting science fiction fandom, by organizing the Science Fiction League and by publishing the addresses of people who wrote letters to his magazines. Fans began to organize, became aware of themselves as a movement, a social force, he created the term "science fiction", though he preferred the term "scientifiction". In 1929, he lost ownership of his first magazines after a bankruptcy lawsuit. There is some debate about whether this process was genuine, manipulated by publisher Bernarr Macfadden, or was a Gernsback scheme to begin another company.
After losing control of Amazing Stories, Gernsback founded two new science fiction magazines, Science Wonder Stories and Air Wonder Stories. A year due to Depression-era financial troubles, the two were merged into Wonder Stories, which Gernsback continued to publish until 1936, when it was sold to Thrilling Publications and renamed Thrilling Wonder Stories. Gernsback returned in 1952–53 with Science-Fiction Plus. Gernsback was noted for sharp business practices, for paying his writers low fees or not paying them at all. H. P. Lovecraft and Clark Ashton Smith referred to him as "Hugo the Rat"; as Barry Malzberg has said: Gernsback's venality and corruption, his sleaziness and his utter disregard for the financial rights of authors, have been well documented and discussed in critical and fan literature. That the founder of genre science fiction who gave his name to the field's most prestigious award and, the Guest of Honor at the 1952 Worldcon was pretty much a crook has been established. Jack Williamson, who had to hire an attorney associated with the American Fiction Guild to force Gernsback to pay him, summed up his importance for the genre: At any rate, his main influence in the field was to start Amazing and Wonder Stories and get SF out to the public newsstands—and to name the genre he had earlier called "scientifiction."
Frederik Pohl said in 1965 that Gernsback's Amazing Stories published "the kind of stories Gernsback himself used to write: a sort of animated catalogue of gadgets". Gernsback's fiction includes the novel Ralph 124C 41+. Though Ralph 124C 41+ has been described as pioneering many ideas and themes found in SF work, it has been neglected due to what most critics deem poor artistic quality. Author Brian Aldiss called the story a "tawdry illiterate tale" and a "sorry concoction", while author and editor Lester del Rey called it "simply dreadful." While most other modern critics have little positive to say about the story's writing, Ralph 124C 41+ is considered by science fiction critic Gary Westfahl as "essential text for all studies of science fiction."Gernsback's second novel, Baron Münchausen's Scientific Adventures, was ser
Ponder is a town in Denton County, United States. The population was 1,395 at the 2010 census; the community has the name of the local Ponder family. Local legend holds that Bonnie and Clyde either robbed the Ponder State Bank or attempted to rob it, only to discover it had gone broke the week before. However, this is not listed in the Barrow Gang's activities; the robbery in question may have been committed by the more successful Eddie Bentz. Ponder is located at 33°10′47″N 97°17′9″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 507 people, 191 households, 148 families residing in the town; the population density was 159.7 people per square mile. There were 205 housing units at an average density of 64.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.08% White, 0.99% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 2.37% from other races, 1.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.52% of the population.
There were 191 households out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.2% were married couples living together, 6.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.0% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.03. In the town the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 35.9% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 8.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $54,107, the median income for a family was $61,250. Males had a median income of $47,750 versus $29,545 for females; the per capita income for the town was $23,922. About 1.4% of families and 0.9% of the population were below the poverty line, not including those under the age of 18 or 65 or over.
Viscount Torrington is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1721 for the statesman Sir George Byng, 1st Baronet, along with the subsidiary title Baron Byng, of Southill in the County of Bedford in the Peerage of Great Britain, he had been created a baronet, of Wrotham in the County of Kent, in the Baronetage of Great Britain in 1715. His eldest son, the second Viscount, represented Plymouth and Bedfordshire in the House of Commons and served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard from 1746 to 1747, his younger brother, the third Viscount, was a major-general in the Army. His grandson, the sixth Viscount, was a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy, his son, the seventh Viscount, served as Governor of Ceylon between 1847 and 1850. On his death the titles passed to his nephew, the eighth Viscount, the son of Honourable Robert Barlow Palmer Byng, third son of the sixth Viscount, he was succeeded by the ninth Viscount. However, this line of the family failed on his death in 1944 and the titles passed to the late Viscount's first cousin, the tenth Viscount.
As of 2013 the titles are held by the latter's grandson, the eleventh Viscount, who succeeded on his grandfather's death in 1961. Several other members of the Byng family have gained distinction; the Hon. Robert Byng, third son of the first Viscount, was Member of Parliament for Plymouth, he was the father of George Byng, radical Member of Parliament for Middlesex. He was the father of George Byng, Father of the House of Commons, John Byng, 1st Earl of Strafford; the soldier Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, was the youngest son of the second Earl of Strafford. Admiral the Hon. John Byng, controversially court-martialled and shot in 1757, was the fourth son of the first Viscount Torrington, he was the only British admiral executed after a court-martial. The family seat is Great Hunts Place, near Hampshire; the traditional burial place of the Viscounts Torrington is the Byng Vault at the Church of All Saints, Bedfordshire. Another notable member of the family was Captain Launcelot Alfred Cranmer-Byng whose translations of Tang Dynasty poets provided the texts for most of 25 Songs from the Chinese Poets by Granville Bantock.
George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington Pattee Byng, 2nd Viscount Torrington George Byng, 3rd Viscount Torrington George Byng, 4th Viscount Torrington John Byng, 5th Viscount Torrington George Byng, 6th Viscount Torrington George Byng, 7th Viscount Torrington George Stanley Byng, 8th Viscount Torrington George Master Byng, 9th Viscount Torrington Arthur Stanley Byng, 10th Viscount Torrington Timothy Howard St George Byng, 11th Viscount Torrington The heir presumptive is the present holder's fifth cousin Colin Hugh Cranmer-Byng. The heir presumptive's heir apparent is his son eldest John Nicholas Cranmer-Byng. Earl of Strafford Viscount Byng of Vimy Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Timothy Howard St George Byng, 11th Viscount Torrington
The Neugrabenflöße, was a 18 km long Kunstgraben dating to the 17th century. It enabled the rafting of timber for the mining and smelting industries in the Ore Mountains of eastern Germany, it ran from the River Flöha near Fleyh to the Freiberger Mulde near Clausnitz in the Ore Mountains. Starting at Fleyh this artificial water channel ran for about 3.5 km in a northwesterly direction to the eastern end of Bohemian Georgenthal. Here it changed direction by 180° and ran for about 3 km eastwards into the Rauschenbach valley. After crossing the Rauschenbach stream and the Bohemian-German border it continued towards the west. North of Cämmerswalde it crossed the watershed between the Freiberger Mulde rivers. From there on the ditch ran in a northerly direction through Clausnitz and discharged after about 18 km at the southeastern end of Clausnitz into the River Rachel. Shortly behind Fláje the ditch crosses the channel is hewn out of the rock; the channel crosses several streams en route to Clausnitz, for example, it crosses the Rauschenbach after about 6.5 km and the Czech-German border that runs along it here.
The channel was dug in the years 1624–1629 at the instigation of the lords of Lobkowicz in Bohemia and Schönberg in Saxony. It was commissioned by the Saxon prince-elector, John George I. By 1569 the Saxon chief mining engineer, Martin Planer, had produced the first plans for a rafting channel from the source region of the River Flöha to the Freiberger Mulde, which had to cross the watershed of both river catchment areas, but the Neugrabenflöße was not built until the 17th century to new plans by chief smelting officer, Friedrich Lingke. The rafting channel was used for 250 years to transport logs from Fleyh in the Freiberg mining region. With the construction of the railway link from Freiberg to Rechenberg-Bienenmühle, timber rafting on the channel ceased. Following the closure of the mines the channel continued to be used until the 1940s to supply water for the Georgendorf Paper Factory. After the factory shut the Neugrabenflöße was forgotten. Today many parts of the channel are levelled. Zdeněk Bárta: Plavební kanál Fláje-Clausnitz v Krušných horách / Der Floßgraben Fláje - Clausnitz im Erzgebirge.
Verlag Krušnohorská iniciativa, Mariánské Radčice, 1999, Vít Joza: Plavební kanál Fláje-Clausnitz v Krusných horách. Strucný pruvodce historií a soucasností významé technické památky. Verlag Krusnohorská Iniciativa, Mariánské Radcice, 2002, ISBN 80-238-8518-9 G. Müller: Zur Forst- und Wirtschafts-Geschichte des Forstbezirkes Marienberg im Erzgebirge. Tharandter Forstliche Jahrbücher, Vol. 86. Tharandter Forstliche Jahrbücher Vol. 78. Freiberger Forschungshefte, Berlin, 1960 J. Winkler: Die Neugrabenflöße zwischen Flöha und der Freiberger Mulde. Mitteilungen des Landesvereines Sächsischer Heimatschutz, Vol. 24, Ed. 1/4. In: Historischer Schauplatz derer natürlichen Merkwürdigkeiten in dem Meißnischen Ober-Ertzgebirge. Leipzig, 1699, p. 196 Information about the Neugrabenflöße Rafting in the region of the upper Freiberger Mulde, accessed on 8 August 2009 Photographs at Panoramio.com: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
The Gibeau Orange Julep restaurant is a roadside attraction and fast food restaurant in Montreal, Canada. The building is in the shape of an orange, three stories high, with a diameter of forty feet; the restaurant was started by Hermas Gibeau in 1932 to serve his trademark drink the Gibeau Orange Julep based on a Gibeau family recipe. Before founding the first location, Gibeau sold his drinks at Belmont Park, a popular amusement park at the time; the original storefront he opened, located on rue Sherbrooke Est, was not shaped like an orange. The cult following that developed revolved around his second location, the Big Orange, located on Decarie Blvd. For a time, the Julep was noted for rollerskating waitresses, who brought food orders out to cars, but customers today order and receive their food at the counter. Food can be taken away or eaten at one of a number of picnic tables; the restaurant opens at 8 am and operates until 3am on Fridays and Saturdays, until 2 am the rest of the week. An August 9th, 2019 article by the Montreal Gazette cited an earlier article on the restaurant “At Gibeau’s Julep, the 1950s never left.
It’s a scene that has outlasted LSD, the Vietnam war and thus far pollution,” Juan Rodriguez reported, in an Aug. 9, 1977 feature on the Décarie Blvd. landmark.” Rodriguez, the original author, emphasized the importance of the restaurant as a social hub, separate from it’s food or drink. ““It is the ultimate hang out, the local epitome of the modern American pastime of the automotive pick-up, the great asphalt drama,” Rodriguez wrote.” In 1945, Gibeau built an orange concrete sphere two stories high to house his restaurant. It is believed Gibeau intended to live there with his wife and children; the Big Orange, the last standing operating Orange Julep, was once one of several Gibeau Orange Julep restaurants in the Montreal area and beyond, many shaped like a giant orange. A 1969 Montreal Gazette article by Peter Lanken reported “The original Orange Julep was conceived, in 1945… It was on Decarie Boulevard, it was round, it was concrete, it was orange, it had a small square window on the second floor, which made it look like something out of a children’s book...”
Though Lanken refers to The Big Orange as the original restaurant, it was in fact the second location, though the first orange-shaped one. The restaurant and its orange sphere were rebuilt, from a design by architect Olius P. Bois, to be larger and further back from the roadway when it was widened to become the Décarie Expressway in 1966, its shell consists of fiberglass segments that were ordered from a local pool manufacturer, covering a laminated wood shell frame. The whole building is illuminated from the outside in the evenings; this style of building is called mimetic architecture, where a building is shaped in such a way that it references the purpose of the building. The famous drink, the Gibeau Orange Julep, was first marketed in 1932. In addition to the storefront, The Orange Julep juice is retailed, there are recipes available online. Propos Montreal claims to have found the patent for the recipe. However, it was patented by the current owner in 1993; as outlined in the patent, No. 2083584, filed in English by Gibeau, the recipe explains that the fruit juice is deacidified by the mixture of skimmed milk powder and pectin before adding the juice concentrate and the natural vanilla flavor.
This gives the drink a sweet mouthfeel without the acidity of traditional juice. Orange Juleps go for $2.70-$6.90 within the normal cup size range, or by the jug for $11.20. The drink is sold alongside fast-food items like hot dogs, burgers and poutine. Orange Julep offers spaghetti and meat sauce for $6.65. George St-Pierre, a Canadian mixed martial artist, spoke of it in a 2014 documentary about his life, claiming it as one of the city's best kept secrets: “I think it’s important to remember where you come from; as for the Orange Julep…I’ve been going there for like fifteen years I like the spaghetti there, I love it!”. There are vegetarian options: the veggie burger, veggie hot dogs, veggie pogos. Today, the Orange Julep hosts classic car and motorbike enthusiasts on Wednesday nights, between May and October - if the weather permits, as early as April and as late as November - between 19:00 and 22:00; this event is on Tuesdays and Thursdays as well. The restaurant appears, along with other Montreal landmarks, in the music video for the Men Without Hats song "Where Do the Boys Go?".
The Orange Julep has a presence on many social media platforms, such as Instagram and Facebook. On Instagram, they do not have a personal page, but they have a heavily influenced hashtag presence as well as location tags; the restaurant's Twitter is not as active as their location tags on Instagram but has been used in the past to do updates on the restaurant as well as engaging with other popular Montreal Twitter accounts, such as MTL Blog. The Facebook page has been more active in the past, sharing reviews of the restaurant; the Orange Julep is one of the original landmarks in Montreal, making it one of the many sought at tourist locations on the island. The restaurant has been mentioned on Tripadvisor, Trip Savvy, Daily Hive, Propos Montreal, MTL Blog, the Montreal Gazette
Clément Mouhot is a French mathematician and academic. He is Professor of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Cambridge, a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, his research is in partial differential equations and mathematical physics. Mouhot obtained his PhD in 2004 under the supervision of Cedric Villani at the École normale supérieure de Lyon. Since 2011, he is Associate editor of Acta Applicandae Mathematicae and of the Journal of Statistical Physics. Since 2012, he is Co-Editor-in-chief of the ESAIM Proceedings. Since 2014 he is Associate editor of Communications in Mathematical Physics, his work "On Landau damping" with Villani was quoted in the Fields Medal laudation of Villani in 2010. In 2013, his work “Kac’s program in kinetic theory” with Mischler was the subject of a Séminaire Bourbaki. In 2014 he was awarded the Whitehead Prize. and the "Grand Prix Madame Victor Noury" of the French "Académie des sciences". He has won the 2015/2016 Adams Prize writing on the subject Applied Analysis