Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré
The Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré Siege of St. Martin's, was an attempt by English forces under George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham to capture the French fortress-city of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, on the isle of Ré, in 1627. After three months of siege the Marquis de Toiras and a relief force of French ships and troops managed to repel the Duke, forced to withdraw in defeat; this encounter followed another defeat for Buckingham, the 1625 Cádiz Expedition, is considered to be the opening conflict of the Anglo-French War of 1627-1629, itself a part of the Thirty Years' War. On 12 July 1627, an English force of 100 ships and 6,000 soldiers under the command of the Duke of Buckingham invaded the Île de Ré, landing at the beach of Sablanceau, with the objective of controlling the approaches to La Rochelle and encouraging rebellion in the city. Buckingham hoped to capture the Fort of La Prée and the fortified city of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. A Royal French force of 1,200 infantry and 200 horsemen under the Marquis de Toiras, the island's Governor, resisted the landing from behind the dunes, but the English beachhead was maintained, with over 12 officers and 100 men killed.
During a period of three days in which Buckingham consolidated his beachhead, Toiras took all available provisions on the island and fortified himself in the citadel of Saint Martin. Buckingham endeavoured to establish a siege around the citadel; the siege continued until October. Requested supplies from England proved insufficient. Two thousand Irish troops arrived under Sir Ralph Bingley on 3 September 1627. A small supply fleet under Sir William Beecher arrived with only 400 raw troops. A Scottish fleet composed of 30 ships, with 5,000 men, was on its way in October 1627, but was broken up by a storm on the coast of Norfolk. A strong relief fleet under the Earl of Holland only departed on 6 November 1627, which proved to be too late; the French, despite difficulties, managed to get small amounts of supplies through to the defenders throughout the siege - in August, Cardinal Richelieu offered a reward of 30,000 livres to the first ship captain to deliver 50 barrels of corn, flour or biscuits to the citadel.
A large supply fleet arrived on 7–8 October, with 29 out of 35 ships eluding the English naval blockade. This was in the nick of time as Toiras had declared he would be unable to hold out after this date of not being resupplied. From the mainland, 4,000 additional troops were landed on the southern end of the island on October 20; the rescue troops were under the Marshal of France Henri de Schomberg. On October 27 Buckingham attempted a last desperate attack on Saint Martin, but the English ladders turned out to be too short to scale the walls, the fortress again proved impregnable. Although there were indications that the Saint Martin French garrison was close to exhaustion, Buckingham retreated with his troops towards the northern part of the island, with the objective of embarking from the area of Loix, he was harassed by pursuing French troops, with heavy casualties. Altogether, Buckingham lost more than 5,000 men in the campaign, out of a force of 7,000. Two months into the siege, the people of La Rochelle started open hostilities against the central government of France in September, initiating the Siege of La Rochelle.
Following the defeat of Buckingham in October, England attempted to send two fleets to relieve La Rochelle. The first one, led by William Feilding, Earl of Denbigh, left in April 1628, but returned without a fight to Portsmouth, as Denbigh "said that he had no commission to hazard the king's ship in a fight and returned shamefully to Portsmouth". After returning to England, Buckingham tried to organise a second campaign to relieve the Siege of La Rochelle, but he was stabbed and killed at Portsmouth on 23 August 1628 by John Felton, an army officer, wounded in the earlier military adventure and believed he had been passed over for promotion by Buckingham. Felton was hanged in November and Buckingham was buried in Westminster Abbey; however at the time of his death, Buckingham was a hated figure amongst the public. The second fleet was dispatched soon after Buckingham's death, under the Admiral of the Fleet, the Earl of Lindsey in August, but remained blocked by the seawall in front of La Rochelle.
Exhausted and without hope of outside support anymore, La Rochelle surrendered to French Royal forces on 28 October. Following these defeats, England would end its involvement with the Thirty Years War by negotiating peace treaties with France in 1629 and with Spain in 1630, to the dismay of Protestant forces on the continent. Following these conflicts, the main port of Saint Martin, was further fortified by Vauban in 1681. Battle of Pont du Feneau Mark Charles Fissel War and government in Britain, 1598-1650 Manchester University Press ND, 1991 ISBN 0-7190-2887-6 Samuel Rawson Gardiner A History of England Under the Duke of Buckingham and Charles I. 1624-1628 BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008 ISBN 0-559-03824-0 "The expedition to Rhé" p. 111-134 "The Siege of St. Martin's" p. 135-166 Markku Peltonen Classical humanism and republicanism in English political thought, 1570-1640 Cambridge University Press, 2004 ISBN 0-521-61716-2
Siege of La Rochelle
The Siege of La Rochelle was a result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28. The siege marked the height of the struggle between the Catholics and the Protestants in France, ended with a complete victory for King Louis XIII and the Catholics. In the Edict of Nantes, Henry IV of France had given the French Huguenots extensive rights. La Rochelle had become their stronghold, under its own governance, it was the main port for Huguenot seapower, the strongest centre of resistance against the Catholic royal government. The city was, with over 30,000 inhabitants; the assassination of Henry IV in 1610, the advent of Louis XIII under the regency of Marie de' Medici, marked a return to pro-Catholic politics and a weakening of the position of the Protestants. The Duke Henri de Rohan and his brother Soubise started to organize Protestant resistance from that time, which exploded into a Huguenot rebellion. In 1621, Louis XIII besieged and captured Saint-Jean d'Angély, a blockade of La Rochelle was attempted in 1621-1622, ending with a stalemate and the Treaty of Montpellier.
Again and Soubise would take arms in 1625, ending with the capture of the Île de Ré in 1625 by Louis XIII. After these events, Louis XIII resolved to subdue the Huguenots, Louis' Chief Minister Cardinal Richelieu declared this his first priority; the Anglo-French conflict followed the failure of the Anglo-French alliance of 1624, in which England had tried to find an ally in France against the power of the Habsburgs. In 1626, France under Richelieu concluded a secret peace with Spain, disputes arose around Henrietta Maria's household. Furthermore, France was building the power of its Navy, leading the English to be convinced that France must be opposed "for reasons of state". In June 1626, Walter Montagu was sent to France to contact dissident noblemen, from March 1627 attempted to organize a French rebellion; the plan was to send an English fleet to encourage rebellion, triggering a new Huguenot revolt by Duke Henri de Rohan and his brother Soubise. On the first expedition, the English king Charles I sent a fleet of 80 ships, under his favourite George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, to encourage a major rebellion in La Rochelle.
In June 1627 Buckingham organised a landing on the nearby island of Île de Ré with 6,000 men in order to help the Huguenots, thus starting the Anglo-French War of 1627, with the objective of controlling the approaches to La Rochelle, of encouraging the rebellion in the city. The city of La Rochelle refused to declare itself an ally of Buckingham against the crown of France, denied access to its harbour to Buckingham's fleet. An open alliance would only be declared in September at the time of the first fights between La Rochelle and royal troops. Although a Protestant stronghold, Île de Ré had not directly joined the rebellion against the king. On Île de Ré, the English under Buckingham tried to take the fortified city of Saint-Martin in the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, but were repulsed after three months. Small French royal boats managed to supply St Martin in spite of the English blockade. Buckingham ran out of money and support, his army was weakened by disease. After a last attack on Saint-Martin they were repulsed with heavy casualties, left with their ships.
Meanwhile, in August 1627 French royal forces started to surround La Rochelle, with an army of 7,000 soldiers, 600 horses and 24 cannons, led by Charles of Angoulême. They started to reinforce fortifications at Bongraine, at the Fort Louis. On September 10, the first cannon shots were fired by La Rochelle against royal troops at Fort Louis, starting the third Huguenot rebellion. La Rochelle was the greatest stronghold among the Huguenot cities of France, the centre of Huguenot resistance. Cardinal Richelieu acted as commander of the besiegers. Once hostilities started, French engineers isolated the city with entrenchments 12 kilometres long, fortified by 11 forts and 18 redoubts; the surrounding fortifications were completed in April 1628, manned with an army of 30,000. Four thousand workmen built a 1,400-metre-long seawall to block the seaward access between the city and harbor, stopping all supplies; the initial idea for blocking the channel came from the Italian engineer Pompeo Targone, but his structure was broken by winter weather, before the idea was taken up by the royal architect Clément Métezeau in November 1627.
The wall was built on a foundation of sunken hulks filled with rubble. French artillery battered English ships trying to supply the city. Meanwhile, in southern France, Henri de Rohan vainly attempted to raise a rebellion to relieve La Rochelle; until February, some ships were able to go through the seawall under construction, but after March this became impossible. The city was blockaded, with the only hope coming from possible intervention by an English fleet. Altogether, the Roman Catholic government of France rented ships from the Protestant city of Amsterdam to conquer the Protestant city of La Rochelle; this resulted in a debate in the city council of Amsterdam as to whether the French soldiers should be allowed to have a Roman Catholic sermon on board of the Protestant Dutch ships. The result of the debate was; the Dutch ships transported the French soldiers to La Rochelle. France was a Dutch ally in the war against the Habsburgs. In the occasion of the Siege of La Rochelle, Spain manoeuvered towards the formation of a Franco-Spanish alliance against the common enemies that were the English, the Huguenots
Siege of Alès
The Siege of Alès was undertaken by Louis XIII of France, the city captured on 17 June 1629. The Siege of Alès followed the disastrous capitulation of the main Protestant stronghold of La Rochelle, in the Siege of La Rochelle. Huguenot resistance persisted in the south of France though, Louis XIII endeavoured to eliminate it as well. With Privas and Anduze, the city of Alès was at the center of a string of Protestants strongholds in the Languedoc, stretching from Nîmes and Uzes in the east, to Castres and Montauban in the west. Ales was selected by Antoine Hercule de Budos, Marquis des Portes, as a strategic target to severe Huguenot defenses in two and disconnect their main centers of Nîmes and Montauban. After Privas fell on 28 May 1629, in which the Marquis des Portes was killed, French attention turned to Alès. After an intense siege, the city surrendered on 17 June. At the end of the siege, Duke of Rohan, the leader of the Huguenot rebellion, submitted; the remaining Huguenot cities fell, Montauban surrendered without resistance.
This was one of the last events in the repression of the Huguenot rebellions in France. The siege was followed by the Peace of Alès, which settled the revolt by garantying the practice of the Huguenot religion and judicial protection, but requiring Huguenot strongholds as well as political assemblies to be dismantled. French Wars of Religion Huguenot rebellions
Siege of Privas
The Siege of Privas was undertaken by Louis XIII of France from 14 May 1629, the city of Privas was captured on 28 May 1629. It was one of the last events of the Huguenot rebellions; the Siege of Privas followed the disastrous capitulation of the main Protestant stronghold of La Rochelle. Louis XIII moved to eliminate the remaining Huguenot resistance in the south of France. With Alès and Anduze, the city of Privas was at the center of a string of Protestant strongholds in the Languedoc, stretching from Nîmes and Uzes in the east, to Castres and Montauban in the west. Privas was selected by marquis des Portes, as a strategic target; the city was defended by Alexander du Puy, a leading Protestant from Montbrun-les-Bains in the Dauphiné active in Montauban. Privas was captured on 28 May 1629 after a siege of 15 days. 500 to 600 Huguenot men who had barricaded themselves in a fort surrendered, but some attempted to blow up themselves with Royal troops, leading to a massacre. The city was destroyed by burning.
In a letter to the Queen, Richelieu reported the destruction in wording that minimized active responsibility on the part of royal Catholic forces: There was no intention of giving up the place to pillage, but in the night it was abandoned, the gates thrown open for the soldiers to enter in crowds to plunder. Everything possible was done to prevent it being burned. Orders were given to prevent those in the fort from being molested by the troops, but they violently exposed themselves to destruction, leaping down from their fortifications, incensing the soldiers against them, by their desperate attempts to destroy themselves with the King's followers. One girl who escaped the massacre was adopted by Richelieu, was nicknamed "La Fortunée de Privas"; the Marquis des Portes was killed in the siege. After Privas, Alès soon fell in the Siege of Alès in June 1629; the remaining Huguenot cities fell too, Montauban surrendered after a short siege led by Bassompierre. These last sieges of the Huguenot rebellion were followed by the Peace of Alès, which settled the revolt by guaranteeing the practice of the Huguenot religion and judicial protection, but requiring Huguenot strongholds as well as political assemblies to be dismantled.
In 1640, Richelieu commissioned painter Nicolas Prévost to paint the siege, based on the engraving by Abraham Bosse. The painting is now located at the Château de Richelieu. French Wars of Religion Huguenot rebellions
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, the use of God's law for believers, among other things; as declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich, his followers were labeled Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers.
The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was being developed. The movement was first called referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead; some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, Gordon Clark, R. C. Sproul were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.
Calvinism is represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Calvinism is named after John Calvin, it was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name; the term first came out of Lutheran circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself: They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism, it is not hard to guess. Despite its negative connotation, this designation became popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later; the vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more accepted and preferred in the English-speaking world.
Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians and Calvinists. However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism; some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, Guillaume Farel; these reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but distinctions within Reformed theology can be detected in their thought the priority of scripture as a source of authority.
Scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ in the Lord's supper; each of these theologians understood salvation to be by grace alone, affirmed a doctrine of particular election. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, to a larger extent Reformed theologians; the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther. John Calvin, Heinrich Bullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Andreas Hyperius belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion was one of the most influential theologies of the era. Toward the middle of the 16th
Blockade of La Rochelle
The Blockade of La Rochelle took place in 1621-1622 during the repression of the Huguenot rebellion by the French king Louis XIII. In June 1621, Louis XIII besieged and captured Saint-Jean d'Angély, a strategic city controlling the approaches to the Huguenot stronghold of La Rochelle. Louis XIII chose however to move south with his main force for the Siege of Montauban. Meanwhile, Louis XIII ordered the Duke of Épernon to blockade La Rochelle by sea as well as by land. On the sea, efforts were ineffective, as many small ships could go through ships of the Royal Navy and the Huguenots had mastery of the sea. At one point they attacked the harbour of Brouage and attempted to block it by sinking ships filled with stones at its entrance. In July 1621, d'Épernon established his headquarters on land in La Jarrie, in the vicinity of La Rochelle. In August, the shipowner Jean Guiton was named by the City Council as Admiral of the fleet of La Rochelle, with 16 sails and 90 cannons; the fleet of La Rochelle under Guiton made at least four sorties against the Royal fleet, commanded by the Count of Soissons, the Duke of Guise, M. de Saint-Luc and Isaac de Razilly, somewhat managed to hold its own.
In October, leading a French fleet of 13 ships with 124 cannons, stationed seaward in the Pertuis Breton, Jean Guiton managed to force them to disengage in two encounters on 6 October. Jean Guiton managed to capture the Island of Oléron. On 6 November Jean Guiton attacked Brouage, where 25 royal ships were stationed, blocked the entrance of the harbour by sinking ships in it; the Huguenots met with defeat however when Soubise was vanquished by Royal troops at the Riez marches on 16 April 1622. By that time the nearby Siege of Royan was going on; the blockade of La Rochelle was strengthened under the leadership of the Count of Soissons. He started the building of the Fort Louis just outside La Rochelle in order to obtain a commanding position over the approaches to La Rochelle. Another major encounter was the Naval battle of Saint-Martin-de-Ré in October 1622; as the conflict lengthened into a stalemate, the King and the Huguenots agreed to the 1622 Treaty of Montpellier, which maintained Huguenot privileges.
Although La Rochelle demanded the destruction of Fort Louis, Louis XIII temporized and managed to maintain it. This constant threat to the city would be instrumental in encouraging conflicts the Capture of Ré island by Royal troops in 1625, the 1627-1628 Siege of La Rochelle. French Wars of Religion Huguenot rebellions
Saumur is a commune in the Maine-et-Loire department in western France. The historic town is located between the Loire and Thouet rivers, is surrounded by the vineyards of Saumur itself, Bourgueil, Coteaux du Layon, etc. which produce some of France's finest wines. Early settlement of the region goes back many thousands of years; the Dolmen de Bagneux on the south of the town, is 23 meters long and is built from 15 large slabs of the local stone, weighing over 500 tons. It is the largest in France; the Château de Saumur was constructed in the 10th century to protect the Loire river crossing from Norman attacks after the settlement of Saumur was sacked in 845. The castle, destroyed in 1067 and inherited by the House of Plantagenet, was rebuilt by Henry II of England in the 12th century, it changed hands several times between Anjou and France until 1589. Houses in Saumur are constructed exclusively of the Tuffeau stone; the caves dug to excavate the stone have become tunnels and have been used by the local vineyards as locations to store their wines.
Amyraldism, or the School of Saumur, is the name used to denote a distinctive form of Reformed theology taught by Moses Amyraut at the University of Saumur in the 17th century. Saumur is the scene for Balzac's novel Eugénie Grandet, written by the French author in 1833. Prior to the French Revolution Saumur was the capital of the Sénéchaussée de Saumur, a bailiwick, which existed until 1793. Saumur was the location of the Battle of Saumur during the Revolt in the Vendée, becoming a state prison under Napoleon Bonaparte; the town was an equestrian centre with both the military cavalry school from 1783 and the Cadre Noir based there. During the Battle of France, in World War II, Saumur was the site of the Battle of Saumur where the town and south bank of the Loire was defended by the teenage cadets of the cavalry school, to their great credit and for the Honour of France. In 1944 it was the target of Azon bombing raids by Allied planes; the first raid, on 8/9 June 1944, was against a railway tunnel near Saumur, seeing the first use of the 12,000 lb Tallboy "earthquake" bombs.
The hastily organized night raid was to stop a planned German Panzer Division, travelling to engage the newly landed allied forces in Normandy. The panzers were expected to use the railway to cross the Loire. No. 83 Squadron RAF illuminated the area with flares by four Avro Lancasters and marked the target at low level by three de Havilland Mosquitos. 25 Lancasters of No. 617 Squadron RAF, the "Dambusters" dropped their Tallboys from 18,000 ft with great accuracy. They hit the approaches to the bridge, blocked the railway cutting and one pierced the roof of the tunnel, bringing down a huge quantity of rock and soil which blocked the tunnel, badly delaying the German reinforcements moving towards Normandy 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich; the damaged tunnel was dug out to make a deeper cutting, resulting in the need for a second attack. On 22 June, nine Consolidated B-24 Liberators of the United States Army Air Forces used the new Azon 1,000 lb glide bombs against the Saumur rail bridge, they failed to destroy the bridge.
During the morning of 24 June, 38 American Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses with conventional bombs attacked the bridge. The bridge was damaged; the town of Saumur was awarded the Croix de Guerre with palm for its resistance and display of French patriotism during the war. Saumur is home to the Cadre Noir, the École Nationale d'Équitation, known for its annual horse shows, as well as the Armoured Branch and Cavalry Training School, the officer school for armored forces. There is the national tank museum, the Musée des Blindés, with more than 850 armored vehicles, wheeled or tracked. Most of them are from France, though some come from other countries such as Brazil and the Soviet Union, as well as axis and allied vehicles of World War Two; the annual military Carrousel takes place in July each year, as it has done for over 160 years, with displays of horse cavalry skills and modern military vehicles. Amongst the most important monuments of Saumur are the great Château de Saumur itself which stands high above the town, the nearby Château de Beaulieu which stands just 200 metres from the south bank of the Loire river and, designed by the architect Jean Drapeau.
A giant sequoia tree stands in the grounds of Château de Beaulieu. The Dolmen de Bagneux is on the old road going south; the architectural character of the town owes much to the fact that it is constructed exclusively of the beautiful, but fragile, Tuffeau stone. The wine industry surrounds Saumur, many utilising the tunnels as cellars with the hundreds of domaines producing white, rosé and sparkling wines. Visits to producers and the annual Grandes Tablées du Saumur-Champigny is a popular annual event held in early August with over 1 km of tables set up in Saumur so people can sample the local foods and wine. Saumur has a famous weekly market; every Saturday morning with hundreds of stalls open for business in the streets and squares of the old town, from before 8am. Its skyline has been compared with that of the capital of Slovakia. Saumur was the birthplace of: Anne Le Fèvre Dacier and translator of classics Jeanne Delanoue, made a Roman Catholic Saint in 1982 François Bontemps, General of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Charles Ernest Beulé, archeologist Coco Chanel, fashion designer Yves Robert, composer, writer, producer Jack le Goff, equestrian Fanny Ardant, actr