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Huldrych Zwingli

Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland, born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system. He attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly center of Renaissance humanism, he continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus and in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of Erasmus. In 1519, Zwingli became the pastor of the Grossmünster in Zürich where he began to preach ideas on reform of the Catholic Church. In his first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent. In his publications, he noted corruption in the ecclesiastical hierarchy, promoted clerical marriage, attacked the use of images in places of worship. In 1525, he introduced a new communion liturgy to replace the Mass, he clashed with the Anabaptists, which resulted in their persecution. Historians have debated; the Reformation spread to other parts of the Swiss Confederation, but several cantons resisted, preferring to remain Catholic.

Zwingli formed an alliance of Reformed cantons which divided the Confederation along religious lines. In 1529, a war was averted at the last moment between the two sides. Meanwhile, Zwingli's ideas came to the attention of other reformers, they met at the Marburg Colloquy and agreed on many points of doctrine, but they could not reach an accord on the doctrine of the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. In 1531, Zwingli's alliance applied an unsuccessful food blockade on the Catholic cantons; the cantons responded with an attack at a moment when Zürich was ill-prepared, Zwingli died on the battlefield. His legacy lives on in the confessions and church orders of the Reformed churches of today; the Swiss Confederation in Huldrych Zwingli's time consisted of thirteen states as well as affiliated areas and common lordships. Unlike the modern state of Switzerland, which operates under a federal government, each of the thirteen cantons was nearly independent, conducting its own domestic and foreign affairs.

Each canton formed its own alliances without the Confederation. This relative independence served as the basis for conflict during the time of the Reformation when the various cantons divided between different confessional camps. Military ambitions gained an additional impetus with the competition to acquire new territory and resources, as seen for example in the Old Zürich War of 1440–1446; the wider political environment in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries was volatile. For centuries the relationship with the Confederation's powerful neighbour, determined the foreign policies of the Swiss. Nominally, the Confederation formed a part of the Holy Roman Empire. However, through a succession of wars culminating in the Swabian War in 1499, the Confederation had become de facto independent; as the two continental powers and minor regional states such as the Duchy of Milan, the Duchy of Savoy, the Papal States competed and fought against each other, there were far-reaching political and social consequences for the Confederation.

During this time the mercenary pension system became a subject of disagreement. The religious factions of Zwingli's time debated vociferously the merits of sending young Swiss men to fight in foreign wars for the enrichment of the cantonal authorities; these internal and external factors contributed to the rise of a Confederation national consciousness, in which the term fatherland began to take on meaning beyond a reference to an individual canton. At the same time, Renaissance humanism, with its universal values and emphasis on scholarship, had taken root in the Confederation. Within this environment, defined by the confluence of Swiss patriotism and humanism, Zwingli was born in 1484. Huldrych Zwingli was born on 1 January 1484 in Wildhaus, in the Toggenburg valley of Switzerland, to a family of farmers, the third child of nine, his father, played a leading role in the administration of the community. Zwingli's primary schooling was provided by his uncle, Bartholomew, a cleric in Weesen, where he met Katharina von Zimmern.

At ten years old, Zwingli was sent to Basel to obtain his secondary education where he learned Latin under Magistrate Gregory Bünzli. After three years in Basel, he stayed a short time in Bern with the humanist, Henry Wölfflin; the Dominicans in Bern tried to persuade Zwingli to join their order and it is possible that he was received as a novice. However, his father and uncle disapproved of such a course and he left Bern without completing his Latin studies, he enrolled in the University of Vienna in the winter semester of 1498 but was expelled, according to the university's records. However, it is not certain that Zwingli was indeed expelled, he re-enrolled in the summer semester of 1500. Zwingli continued his studies in Vienna until 1502, after which he transferred to the University of Basel where he received the Master of Arts degree in 1506. Zwingli was ordained in Constance, the seat of the local diocese, he celebrated his first Mass in his hometown, Wildhaus, on 29 September 1506; as a young priest he had studied little theology.

His first ecclesiastical post was the pastorate of the town of Glarus, where he stayed for ten years. It was in Glarus, whose soldiers were used as mercenaries in Europe, that Zwingli became involved in politics; the Swiss Confederation was embroiled in various campaigns with its neighbours: the French, the Habsburgs, and

Paddy Wilson and Irene Andrews killings

The killings of Paddy Wilson and Irene Andrews took place in Belfast, Northern Ireland on the night of 25/26 June 1973. The victims, Roman Catholic Senator Paddy Wilson and his Protestant friend, Irene Andrews, were hacked and stabbed to death by members of the "Ulster Freedom Fighters"; this was a cover name for the Ulster Defence Association, a then-legal Ulster loyalist paramilitary organisation. John White, the UFF's commander, who used the pseudonym "Captain Black", was convicted of the sectarian double murder in 1978 and sentenced to life imprisonment. White, however maintained that the UFF's second-in-command Davy Payne helped him lead the assassination squad and played a major part in the attack. Although questioned by the Royal Ulster Constabulary after the killings, Payne admitted nothing and was never charged. Wilson was one of the founders and General Secretary of the Social Democratic and Labour Party and Irene Andrews was noted in Belfast as a popular ballroom dancer, their mutilated bodies were found lying in pools of blood on either side of Wilson's car, parked in a quarry off the Hightown Road near Cavehill.

Wilson had been stabbed 30 times and his throat cut from ear to ear. Andrews had received 20 knife wounds; the killings were described by the judge at White's trial as "a frenzied attack, a psychotic outburst". On the evening of 25 June 1973, Stormont Senator Paddy Wilson, a Roman Catholic native of Belfast's Sailortown, General Secretary and founder of the Social Democratic and Labour Party, had been drinking at the Old Vic Lounge inside McGlade's Bar, a fashionable pub located in Donegall Street, Belfast city centre, he was in the company of a Protestant friend, Irene Andrews, who worked as a clerk in the Department of Education and was one of Belfast's most popular ballroom dancers, a member of Northern Ireland's "Come Dancing" team. According to Peter McKenna, a journalist for the Irish Independent, socialising with Wilson and others on the night, an inebriated Andrews had spent much of the night making passes at Wilson but he had rejected her advances and had asked for McKenna to make an "urgent" phone call to the pub calling him away in an attempt to separate himself from Andrews.

The ruse was not successful and Wilson and Andrews left the pub together. He offered her a lift back to her home on the Crumlin Road and they drove away from the pub at about 11:30pm in Wilson's red mini; the couple never arrived at their destination. At 1:30am, the loyalist Ulster Freedom Fighters, using their codename "Captain Black", called the Belfast News Letter advising them that, " tonight we have got Senator Paddy Wilson and a lady friend, their bodies are lying in the Hightown Road." The UFF had been founded that same year by John White, who employed the pseudonym "Captain Black". The UFF was a cover name to claim attacks carried out by the then-legal Ulster Defence Association to avoid the latter's proscription by the British Government. "Captain Black" furthermore claimed that the killings were in retaliation for the shooting death of a mentally-disabled Protestant teenager the previous summer by the Provisional IRA. The mutilated bodies of Wilson and Andrews were discovered by the security forces at 4am.

They were lying in pools of blood on either side of Wilson's Mini at a quarry off the Hightown Road near Cavehill as described by the UFF caller. The Royal Ulster Constabulary and British Army had proceeded to the quarry in case the bodies had been booby-trapped. Wilson had been stabbed to his throat sliced from ear-to-ear. There was evidence. Andrews had received 20 knife wounds. A UFF Brigade Staff member described the killings to a journalist as ritualistic; the killings took place at the quarry and it was suggested by police that Wilson's Mini had been stopped on the road leading to Ballysillan and they were forced at gunpoint to drive out to the quarry. According to Martin Dillon forensic evidence indicated that Wilson had been dragged from the car and pinned to the ground where he was stabbed and Andrews was killed afterwards. Dillon speculated. There was widespread condemnation in the wake of the killings. Politicians, including Taoiseach Liam Cosgrave and SDLP leader Gerry Fitt, offered their condolences to the Wilson and Andrews' families, whilst Democratic Unionist Party leader Ian Paisley blamed the IRA.

According to Peter Taylor, there had never been a crime so brutal carried out in Northern Ireland before. Author Dervla Murphy in her travel book, A Place Apart, stated that nine months before the double killing, a loyalist community newspaper had published allegations regarding a possible relationship between a prominent member of the SDLP and a young Protestant woman from Belfast's Crumlin Road. UFF leader and self-styled "Captain Black" John White confessed to the killings during a police interrogation for other offences at the Castlereagh Holding Centre in 1976, he was given two life sentences. The trial judge described the killings as "a frenzied attack, a psychotic outburst". White maintained that the UFF's second-in-command Davy Payne known as "The Psychopath", was part of the assassination squad and played a leading role in the killings. Historian Ian S. Wood confirmed Payne's central involvement in the double killing. Although Payne had been questioned by the RUC after the killings, he admitted nothing and never faced any charges.

It was alleged that whenever Payne w

Celaenorrhinus pero

Celaenorrhinus pero, the Mussoorie pied flat, is a hesperiid butterfly, found in South Asia. The butterfly occurs in India, North Thailand and West China. In India, the butterfly ranges from Mussoorie to Sikkim and Nagaland and eastwards towards Myanmar. Rare. Hesperiidae List of butterflies of India List of butterflies of India Evans, W. H.. The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. Beccaloni, George. "The Global Lepidoptera Names Index". Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved 2016-10-15. "Markku Savela's website on Lepidoptera"