Hull House

Hull House was a settlement house in the United States, co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Located on the Near West Side of Chicago, Hull House opened to arrived European immigrants. By 1911, Hull House had grown to 13 buildings. In 1912 the Hull House complex was completed with the addition of a summer camp, the Bowen Country Club. With its innovative social and artistic programs, Hull House became the standard bearer for the movement that had grown, by 1920, to 500 settlement houses nationally; the Hull mansion and several subsequent acquisitions were continuously renovated to accommodate the changing demands of the association. In the mid-1960s, most of the Hull House buildings were demolished for the construction of the University of Illinois-Chicago; the original building and one additional building survive today. On June 12, 1974, the surviving Hull mansion was designated a Chicago Landmark. On June 23, 1965, it was designated as a U. S. National Historic Landmark. On October 15, 1966, the day that the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 was enacted, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Hull House was one of the four original members to be listed on both the Chicago Registered Historic Places and the National Register of Historic Places list. After moving out of the original buildings, The Hull House Association continued to provide social services in multiple locations throughout Chicago but ceased operations in January 2012; the Hull mansion and a related dining hall remain open as a museum. Addams followed the example of Toynbee Hall, founded in 1884 in the East End of London as a center for social reform, she described Toynbee Hall as "a community of university men" who, while living there, held their recreational clubs and social gatherings at the settlement house among the poor people and in the same style they would in their own circle. Addams and Starr established Hull House as a settlement house on September 18, 1889. In the 19th century a women's movement began to promote education and break into traditionally male dominated occupations for women. Organizations led by women, bonded by sisterhood, were formed for social reform, including settlement houses in working class and poor neighborhoods, like Hull House.

To develop "new roles for women, the first generation of New Women wove the traditional ways of their mothers into the heart of their brave new world. The social activists single, were led by educated New Women. Hull House became, at its inception in 1889, "a community of university women" whose main purpose was to provide social and educational opportunities for working class people in the surrounding neighborhood; the "residents" held classes in literature, art, domestic activities, many other subjects. Hull House held concerts that were free to everyone, offered free lectures on current issues, operated clubs for both children and adults. In 1892, Addams published her thoughts on what has been described as "the three R's" of the settlement house movement: residence and reform; these involved "close cooperation with the neighborhood people, scientific study of the causes of poverty and dependence, communication of these facts to the public, persistent pressure for reform..." Hull House conducted careful studies of the Near West Side, Chicago community, which became known as "The Hull House Neighborhood".

These studies enabled the Hull House residents to confront the establishment partnering with them in the design and implementation of programs intended to enhance and improve the opportunities for success by the immigrant population. According to Christie and Gauvreau, while the Christian settlement houses sought to Christianize, Jane Addams, "had come to epitomize the force of secular humanism." Her image was, however, "reinvented" by the Christian churches. According to the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, "Some social settlements were linked to religious institutions. Others, like Hull-House, were secular." One of the first newspaper articles written Hull House quotes the following invitation sent to the residents of the Hull House neighborhood. It begins with: "Mio Carissimo Amico"... and is signed, Jane Addams and Ellen Starr. That invitation to the community, written during the first year of Hull House's existence, suggests that the inner core of what Addams labeled "The Hull House Neighborhood" was overwhelmingly Italian at that time.

"10,000 Italians lived between the river and Halsted Street." By all accounts, the greater Hull House neighborhood was a mix of various ethnic groups that had immigrated to Chicago. There was no discrimination of race, creed, or tradition for those who entered the doors of the Hull House; every person was treated with respect. The Bethlehem-Howard Neighborhood Center records substantiate that, "Germans and Jews resided south of that inner core …The Greek delta formed by Harrison and Blue Island Streets served as a buffer to the Irish residing to the south and the Canadian–French to the northwest. From the river on the east end, on out to the western ends of what came to be known as "Little Italy", from Roosevelt Road on the south to the Harrison Street delta on the north, became the port-of-call for Italians who continued to immigrate to Chicago from the shores of southern Italy until a quota system was implemented in 192


Etzenricht is a municipality in the Upper Palatinate, ca. 6 km southeast of Weiden in the district of Neustadt an der Waldnaab in Bavaria in Germany. Etzenricht has various small industries. East of Etzenricht toward Rothenstadt is a transformer station of the E. ON AG with the GKK Etzenricht and a large compressor station for natural gas. Near Etzenricht are numerous fish-rich small waters, which can be used by anglers after obtaining a fishing license from the local fishery association. Etzenricht was mentioned for the first time in a written document in 1270. In 1283 it was mentioned in the Salbuch of Louis II ("Ludwig der Strenge" as "Aechswinreuth"; the inhabitants of Etzenricht lived at that time on honey agriculture. The Reformer Jan Huss visited Etzenricht in 1414, on his way to the council of Konstanz. During the war from 1618 to 1648 Etzenricht was destroyed in 1631. In 1875, a railway was built and the town got its own railway station in 1877; until the completion of the Catholic Church in 1932, Evangelical and Catholic services in Etzenricht took place in the same church.

A transformer station of the Bayernwerk AG was built near Etzenricht and was expanded several times in subsequent years. A HVDC back-to-back facility called GKK Etzenricht was installed there from 1991 to 1993, which made the name of the municipality Etzenricht supraregionally popular

Sama Layuca

Sama Layuca is a studio album by American jazz pianist McCoy Tyner, released in 1974 by Milestone Records. It was recorded on March 26, 27, 28, 1974, with sidemen John Stubblefield, Gary Bartz, Azar Lawrence, Bobby Hutcherson, Buster Williams, Billy Hart, Guilherme Franco and Mtume. Reviewing for The Village Voice in 1974, Robert Christgau said the album's best music "breathes with a lushness and lyricism that never cloys", he found the melodies and polyrhythms to be "sensuous without coming on about it" and felt that Tyner's minor flaws as a pianist, including "Tatumesque flourishes", are "less egregious in an ensemble setting like this one." In a retrospective review for AllMusic, Scott Yanow said that Tyner is "heard at the height of his powers throughout this rewarding set", which serves as "a strong example of McCoy Tyner's music". All songs composed by McCoy Tyner. "Sama Layuca" - 8:37 "Above the Rainbow" - 3:02 "La Cubaña" - 10:26 "Desert Cry" - 4:57 "Paradox" - 16:27 McCoy Tyner: piano John Stubblefield: oboe, flute Gary Bartz: alto saxophone Azar Lawrence: tenor saxophone, soprano saxophone Bobby Hutcherson: vibes, marimba Buster Williams: bass Billy Hart: drums Guilherme Franco: percussion James Mtume: percussion Sama Layuca at Discogs