Rock and roll
Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, boogie woogie, rhythm and blues, along with country music. While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954. According to Greg Kot, "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U. S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music, though the latter continued to be known as rock and roll." For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition. In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was the lead instrument, but these instruments were replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s; the beat is a dance rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, always provided by a snare drum.
Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, a drum kit. Beyond a musical style and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines, on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion and language. In addition and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teenagers enjoyed the music, it went on to spawn various genres without the characteristic backbeat, that are now more called "rock music" or "rock". The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage; the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music"; the phrase "rocking and rolling" described the movement of a ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals and as a sexual analogy.
Various gospel and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience. In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn" in South Merchantville, New Jersey, was established as a music venue. In 1951, Ohio, disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it; the origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music. There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States – a region that would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation.
The migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. Louis, New York City, Chicago and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than before, as a result heard each other's music and began to emulate each other's fashions. Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, African-American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision"; the immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues called "race music", country music of the 1940s and 1950s. Significant influences were jazz, gospel and folk. Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African-American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms. In the 1930s, swing, both in urban-based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, were among the first music to present African-American sounds for a predominantly white audience.
One noteworthy example of a jazz song with recognizably rock and roll elements is Big Joe Turner with pianist Pete Johnson's 1939 single Roll'Em Pete, regarded as an important precursor of rock and roll. The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz-based music. During and after World War II, with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars and drums. In the same period on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many developments. In the documentary film Hail! Hail! Rock'n' Roll, Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creatin
Västervik Municipality is a municipality in Kalmar County, south-eastern Sweden, with its seat in the city of Västervik. The present municipality was created in 1971, when the former City of Västervik was amalgamated with eight surrounding rural municipalities. There are 11 urban areas in Västervik Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2005; the municipal seat is in bold characters. Distribution of the 57 seats in the municipal council after the 2010 election: Moderate Party 21 Social Democratic Party 21 Centre Party 4 Green Party 2 Liberal People's Party 2 Left Party 2 Sweden Democrats 2 Socialisterna 1 Kommunpartiet VDM 1 Christian Democrats 1Results of the Swedish general election, 2010 in Västervik: Social Democratic Party 39.9% Moderate Party 25.8% Centre Party 7.3% Liberal People's Party 5.5% Green Party 5.4% Sweden Democrats 5.2% Left Party 5.1% Christian Democrats 4.7% The municipality is twinned with: Statistics Sweden Västervik Municipality - Official site Västervik Tourism Official site - In Swedish and German Article Västervik in Nordisk Familjebok Coat of arms
Småland is a historical province in southern Sweden. Småland borders Blekinge, Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland and the island Öland in the Baltic Sea; the name Småland means Small Lands. The Latinized form Smolandia has been used in other languages; the highest point in Småland is at 377 metres. The traditional provinces of Sweden no longer serve any governmental purpose, but they do remain important and culturally; the province of Småland today is divided entirely into the three administrative counties of Jönköping and Kronoberg. Some few small portions of historic Småland are situated in Östergötland Counties; the current coat of arms, granted in 1569, displays a rampant red lion carrying a crossbow, all on a golden background. The arms may be surmounted by a ducal coronet; the blazon in English would be, "Or, a lion rampant gules and armed azure, holding in its front paws a crossbow of the second and stringed Sable with a bolt argent." The population of Småland was 754,535 as of 31 December 2016, distributed over five counties as follows: The land is dominated by a forested high plain in which the soil is mixed with sand and small boulders, making it barren in all but the coastal areas and unsuited for agriculture except in certain locations, most notably the Kalmar plains.
The province is rich in bogs. The coast is marked by cultivated flatlands in the south. In total, cultivated land covers 14%, meadows cover 7%, forests cover 50% of the surface of the province. Other than lacking deep valleys, the landscape is similar to the Norrland terrain found further north in Sweden; the largest towns are Jönköping in the north-west, Växjö in the south, Kalmar on the east coast near Öland Island. Småland comprises the central and southern parts of the South Swedish highlands. In detail, the topography of Småland is a series of flat surfaces built upon or deformed by a geological dome; the elevated terrain thought to be a buckle formed as result of far-away forces transmitted to Sweden. The main surfaces are the Sub-Cambrian peneplain, the South Småland peneplain and the "200 m peneplain"; these surfaces and others are arranged in a stepped sequence called a piedmonttreppen. In eastern Småland, the Sub-Cambrian peneplain dips to the sea. To the West, this part of the Sub-Cambrian peneplain terminates along a North-South escarpment that separates it from other flat surfaces.
Central and northwestern Småland contains strings of isolated hills. The lakes and rivers of Småland are associated to zones of weak rock, either fractured, weathered, or both; the many lakes in Småland owe their existence to the creation of basins through the stripping of an irregular mantle of weathered rock by glacial erosion. The Lagan and the Nissan drain western Småland, following for most of their courses zones of weak rock associated with the Protogine Zone. Rusken, Möckeln lakes are aligned with a more eastern branch of the Protogine Zone. Canyons cut into the bedrock are common in central and northern Småland, with the area near Mörlunda containing various narrow canyons; the climate of Småland is divided between the oceanic climate of coastal areas such as Kalmar and the humid continental climate of the interior higher areas such as Jönköping. Southern interior areas such as Växjö have similar oceanic climates such as the coastline. However, temperature average differences between areas are small, since Småland lies in the continental/oceanic transition zone.
Summer daytime averages are similar throughout the province, since according to Weatherbase all three major urban areas are on average around 21 °C with daytime winter temperatures hovering around the freezing point. The colder nights averaging −5 °C in Jönköping are rendering its continental classification; the locality of Målilla has the Swedish and Scandinavian all-time highest-measured temperature with 38 °C on June 1, 1947. The area was populated in the Stone Age from the south, by people moving along the coast up to Kalmar. Småland was populated by Stone Age peoples by at least 6000 BC, since the Alby People are known to have crossed the ice bridge across the Kalmar Strait at that time, it is named Småland because it was an aggrupation of a dozen little territories: Kinda, Vista, Tjust, Aspeland, Handbörd, Möre, Värend and Njudung. Each "small land" had its own law in the Viking age and early Middle Ages and could declare itself neutral in wars that Sweden was involved in -- at least if the King had no army present at the parliamentary debate.
Around 1350, during the reign of Magnus Eriksson, the first national law code was introduced in Sweden and the historic provinces lost much of their old autonomy. The city of Kalmar is one of the oldest cities of Sweden. In the medieval period it was the southernmost and the third largest city in Sweden, when it was a center for export of iron, which, in many cases, was handled by German merchants. At that time and Blekinge were not part of Sweden. Småland was the center of several peasant rebellions; the most nearly successful was the Dackefejden led by Nils Dacke in 1542 and 1543. When officials of king Gustav Vasa were assaulted and murdered, the king sent small expeditions to pacify the area. Dacke was the virtual ruler of large parts of Småland during that Winter, though much troubled by a blockade of supplies, before being defeated by larger forces attacking
Emmaboda is a locality and the seat of Emmaboda Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden. It had 4,824 inhabitants in 2010; until 1875, Emmaboda was called Gantesbo. Back there were only two houses in Gantesbo, which both remain to this day; the houses are called Gantesbo A and Gantesbo B. One of the houses is located on Bökön located west of Emmaboda's sports ground; the second stands on a hill between Emmaboda parish the Bjurbäck school. In 1874, Emmaboda railway station was established for the Coast-to-Coast Line and in 1875 Karlskrona-Växjö railway was connected to the station in Emmaboda; the musical "Kristina från Duvemåla" written by former members of the Swedish music group ABBA. The Emigrants series was about people living in Dufvemåla homestead who emigrated to the United States. Moberg was born in Emmaboda Municipality, more at Moshultamåla in Algutsboda parish. Many of his novels were written about the people in the Emmaboda area. "Emmabodafestivalen" is an indie-pop festival annually held in Emmaboda.
This attracts pop fans from all over Sweden. Other events taking place in Emmaboda include the car race "A Day On the Strip" and "End of Summer Big Power Meet", a classic car show which attracts veteran cars from all over Sweden and other Nordic countries. Emmaboda is located in the middle of the tri-city region of Kalmar and Karlskrona. All three places are 60 kilometers from Emmaboda. Emmaboda Church was built in 1926 after drawings by architect Göran Pauli and was a parish home. In 1941, a remodeling was carried out, after drawings by architect Paul Boberg when the parish home was converted to church; the tower and the current choir party were added. The altarpiece is painted by artist Gunnar Theander in 1935; the bell tower houses two bells which were cast by Bergholtz klockgjuteri. There is a football club called Emmaboda IS, with women's and men's teams in the 2nd 3rd division; the three football brothers Viktor and Rasmus Elm are from the village Broakulla, located near Emmaboda. Badminton player Henri Hurskainen, who has represented Sweden in the Summer Olympics and won various international medals, was born in Emmaboda.
Emmaboda has two large companies, Xylem Water Solutions and Emmaboda Glass Works, founded in 1919. Emmaboda has many medium-sized businesses. Emmaboda Municipality
Borgholm Municipality is a municipality in Kalmar County, south-eastern Sweden, constituting the northern half of the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. The municipal seat is located in the city of Borgholm. Notable historic sites in this municipality are Halltorps Estate; the local government reform in the 1970s saw the creation of two municipalities on the island of Öland. Borgholm Municipality is the northern of the consists of sixteen original entities; the southern half of the island is made up of Mörbylånga Municipality. There are 5 urban areas in Borgholm Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2005; the municipal seat is in bold characters. Borgholm has four sister cities: Rockford, Illinois, U. S. Łeba, Poland Zelenogradsk, Russia Korsnäs, Finland These are the results of the elections to the Riksdag held in Borgholm since the first election after the municipal reform, held in 1973. The results only include parties that have won representation in the Riksdag assembly at least once during this timeframe.
The results of the Sweden Democrats were not listed at a municipal level by the SCB between 1988 and 1998 due to the party's small size at the time. Blocs This lists the relative strength of the socialist and centre-right blocs since 1973, but parties not elected to the Riksdag are inserted as "other", including the Sweden Democrats results from 1988 to 2006, but the Christian Democrats pre-1991 and the Greens in 1982, 1985 and 1991; the sources are identical to the table above. The coalition or government mandate marked in bold formed the government after the election. New Democracy got elected in 1991 but are still listed as "other" due to the short lifespan of the party. "Elected" is the total number of percentage points from the municipality that went to parties who were elected to the Riksdag. Statistics Sweden Borgholm Municipality - Official site
Torsås Municipality is the southernmost municipality of Kalmar County, Sweden. Its seat is located in the town Torsås; the present municipality was created in 1971. The geography consists of forest, not uncommon in Småland province. Located by the Baltic Sea, it has been somewhat cultivated too and there are some plains. Being sparsely populated, Torsås Municipality tries to attract people to settle there, boasting its nature and the advantages of a small municipality while being no more than 30 minutes away from the larger towns of Kalmar and Karlskrona. Points of interest in Torsås include a monument honouring the Treaty of Brömsebro between Denmark and Sweden in 1645, the Garpen lighthouse, located on a small islet off the coast, where one can spend the night at a hostel; those interested in curiosities might find it worthwhile to have a look at the world's largest wooden ladle, weighing 350 kg, located in Gullabo. There are localities, in Torsås Municipality. In the table the localities are listed according to the size of the population as of December 31, 2005.
The municipal seat is in bold characters. A part of the locality Brömsebro is in the municipality. Statistics Sweden Torsås Municipality - Official site
Virserum is a locality situated in Hultsfred Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden with 1,742 inhabitants in 2010. Prior to 1971 it was a köping; the history of Virserum goes back to the Middle Ages, in the 1950s the town was a centre for the furniture industry. In the village of Bösebo, 10 km east of Virserum you can find evidence of settlement from 2500 B. C