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Human-powered transport

Human-powered transport is the transport of person and/or goods using human muscle power. Like animal-powered transport, human-powered transport has existed since time immemorial in the form of walking and swimming. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human-power. Although motorization has increased speed and load capacity, many forms of human-powered transport remain popular for reasons of lower cost, physical exercise and environmentalism. Human-powered transport is sometimes the only type available in underdeveloped or inaccessible regions. In the 1989 Race Across America, one team used an experimental device comprising a rear wheel hub, a sensor, a handlebar mounted processor, to measure each cyclist's power output. In lab experiments an average "in-shape" cyclist can produce about 3 watts/kg for more than an hour, with top amateurs producing 5 watts/kg and elite athletes achieving 6 watts/kg for similar lengths of time. Elite track sprint cyclists are able to attain an instantaneous maximum output of around 2,000 watts, or in excess of 25 watts/kg.

Crawling Walking Walking bus Running Sprinting Swimming Climbing and mountaineering Ice skating, roller skating, inline skating Cross-country skiing Skateboards have the advantage of being so small and light that users can carry them when not skating. The most efficient human-powered land vehicle is the bicycle. Compared to the much more common upright bicycle, the recumbent bicycle may be faster on level ground or down hills due to better aerodynamics while having similar power transfer efficiency. Velomobiles are popular in colder and/or wetter countries due to the protection they offer against the environment. Freight bicycles are used to transport cargo. Cycle rickshaws can be used as taxicabs. In 2016, AeroVelo cyclist Todd Reichert achieved the human-powered speed record of 142.04 km/h with a velomobile at Battle Mountain, Nevada. Dutch cyclist Fred Rompelberg set a 268.8 km/h speed record at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah on October 3, 1995 while cycling in the wake of a motor dragster pace-car.

The wake of the pace-car reduced the aerodynamic drag against which Rompelberg pedalled to zero. Greg Kolodziejzyk set two world records recognized by both the International Human Powered Vehicle Association and Guinness World Records on July 17, 2006 on a race track in Eureka, California; the first record is for the most distance traveled in 24 hours by human power 1,041 km, the second for the world's fastest 1,000 km time trial. Both records were broken on August 6, 2010 by Christian von Ascheberg who drove 1,000 km in 19 hours, 27 minutes and managed to go 1,219 km in 24 hours with his Milan SL Velomobile. In the same race he raised the 12-hour record to 664.97 km, an average of 55.41 km/h. In 1969, artists in a small Northern California town began the Kinetic sculpture race which has grown to a 42 mi, three-day all terrain, human-powered sculpture race and county wide event, it is held every year on the last weekend in May. The Pedaliante flew short distances under human power in 1936, but the distances were not significant enough to win the prize of the Italian competition for which it was built.

The flights were deemed to be a result of the pilot's significant strength and endurance, not attainable by a typical human. Additional attempts were made in 1937 and 1938 using a catapult system, launching the plane to a height of 9 m. With the catapult launch, the plane traveled the 1 km distance outlined by the competition, but was declined the prize due to the takeoff method; the first authenticated feasible take-off and landing of a human-powered aircraft was made on 9 November 1961 by Derek Piggott in Southampton University's Man Powered Aircraft. The best-known human-powered plane is the Gossamer Albatross, which flew across the English Channel in 1979; the current distance and duration record recognised by the FAI, a straight distance of 115.11 km in 3 hours and 54 minutes, was achieved on 23 April 1988 from Heraklion on Crete to Santorini in a MIT Daedalus 88 piloted by Kanellos Kanellopoulos. The current speed record is held by the Monarch B, built by a team at MIT in 1983, which won a Kremer Prize of £20,000 for sustaining a speed of over 30 km/h over a 1.5 km triangular course.

The first observed human-powered helicopter to have left the ground was the Da Vinci III in 1989. It was designed and built by students at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in California, USA, it reached a height of 8 in. The second was the Yuri I in 1994, built by students at Nihon University in Japan, it reached an altitude of 20 cm. On 13 June 2013, the AeroVelo Atlas was the first to complete a flight that lasted 64 seconds and reached an altitude of 3.3 meters, thus winning the Sikorsky Prize. French inventors have built man-powered balloons. Solar balloons and solar airships are new types of airships; because lift is supplied through buoyancy, human power can be devoted to thrust. Human-powered watercraft include prehistoric and well-known traditional and sporting craft such as canoes, rowing boats and galleys; the term human-powered boat is used for more modern craft using propel

1905 Elgin Burghs by-election

The Elgin Burghs by-election was a Parliamentary by-election. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post voting system. Alexander Asher had been Liberal MP for the seat of Elgin Burghs since the 1881 Elgin Burghs by-election, he died on 5 August 1905. The seat had been Liberal since the party was founded in 1859, they held the seat at the last election, with a comfortable majority. He had not stood for parliament before, he was born in nearby Lossiemouth. He was educated at Aberdeen University, he was a partner in the firm of fish curers of Portsoy. The local Conservative Association selected 52-year-old Patrick Rose-Innes as their candidate to gain the seat, he had not stood for parliament before. He was educated at Aberdeen University, he had been a barrister since 1878. Polling Day was fixed for the 8 September 1905, 34 days after the death of the previous MP. There was a large swing of over 11% to the Liberals who comfortably held the seat: The result was the biggest victory that the Liberals had had in the constituency.

Sutherland was re-elected at the following General Election. The result was: Rose-Innes was not his opponent and instead contested West Lothian in 1906, the 1907 Jarrow by-election and Middleton in 1910 without success. Sutherland remained as the MP until his death in 1918

Fort Amsterdam

Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan at the confluence of the Hudson and East Rivers. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and English/British rule of the colony of New Netherland and subsequently the Province of New York from 1625 or 1626, until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution, it was the nucleus of the settlement in the area that became New Amsterdam and New York City. In its subsequent history it was known under various such names as Fort James, Fort Willem Hendrick and its anglicized Fort William Henry, Fort Anne, Fort George; the fort changed hands eight times in various battles including the Battle of Long Island in the American Revolution, when volleys were exchanged between the fort and British emplacements on Governor's Island. After the fort's demolition Government House was constructed on the site as a possible house for the United States President; the site is now occupied by the Alexander Hamilton U. S. Custom House, which houses the National Museum of the American Indian.

The construction of the fort marked the official founding date of New York City as recognized by the its seal. In October 1683 what would become the first session of the New York legislature convened at the fort. Guns at the fort formed a battery that would be the namesake of nearby Battery Park. Fort Amsterdam was designed by chief engineer of the New Netherland colony. Seventeenth-century Dutch forts all followed a similar design. Intended as a standard star-shaped fort, Fort Amsterdam had four sides with a bastion at each corner to better protect the walls; the fort was built of hard-packed earth or rubble because earthworks would absorb cannon fire without collapsing as stone walls might. Much of the construction was done by enslaved Africans held by the Dutch West India Company; the fort was constructed at the southern tip of Manhattan Island, at the junction of the East and North rivers. Building commenced in 1625 under the direction of Willem Verhulst, the second director of the New Netherland colony.

The elevation of the site was somewhat higher than it is today. The fort stood on a hill that sloped down to Bowling Green. At the time, Manhattan was sparsely settled, as most of the Dutch West India Company operations were upriver along the Hudson in order to conduct trading operation for beaver pelts. According to John Romeyn Brodhead, while the fort was under construction, three Wechquaesgeek individuals traveled south from the area of present-day Westchester County to barter beaver skins; when they reached the Kolck, a pond near what is now Chinatown, they were set upon by three farmhands, one of the two adults was killed. When the young boy, with them grew older, he took his revenge for the murder of his uncle, which act served as a pretext for Kieft's War; the fort was the nucleus of the New Amsterdam settlement and its mission was protecting New Netherland colony operations in the Hudson River against attack from the English and the French. Although its main function was military, it served as the center of trading activity.

It contained a barracks, a church, a house for the West India Company director, a warehouse for the storage of company goods. Troops from the fort used the triangle between the Heerestraat and what came to be known as Whitehall Street for marching drills, it is sometimes asserted that around 1620, the Dutch East India Company contacted the English architect Inigo Jones asking him to design a fortification for the harbor. Jones responded in a letter with a plan for a star-shaped fortification made of stone and lime, surrounded by a moat, defended with cannon. Jones advised the company against constructing a timber fort out of haste; the involvement of Jones cannot be corroborated with reliable documentary evidence. In autumn 1664, four English warships with several hundred soldiers onboard arrived in New Amsterdam’s harbor and demanded the Dutch surrender. Although Peter Stuyvesant at least outwardly prepared to fight, prominent city residents persuaded him to stand down, on September 8 he signed the colony over without any blood being shed in one of the skirmishes of the larger Second Anglo–Dutch War.

The English renamed the fort Fort James, in honour of James II of England, New Amsterdam was renamed New York in recognition of James's title as Duke of York. In August 1673, the Dutch recaptured Manhattan; the Dutch attack was part of the bigger Third Anglo-Dutch War. The fort was renamed Fort Willem Hendrick in honor of William III of England, Stadtholder and Prince of Orange, New York was renamed New Orange. In 1674, the fort and New Orange were turned back over to the English in the Treaty of Westminster which ended the war; the English once returned the Fort James name. During this period, Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick, the royal governor of New York, convened the first legislature of New York in October 1683 for a meeting at the fort. Dongan was the first to establish batteries of cannon to the south of the fort. In 1689, following the Glorious Revolution, in which William and Mary acceded to the throne, German-born colonist Jacob Leisler seized the fort in what was called Leisler's Rebellion.

He represented the common people against a group of wealthy leaders represented by Pieter Stuyvesant and others and enacted a government of direct popular representation. By some accounts, he acted to redistribute wealth to the poor. Leisler's rule ended in 169

Genista linifolia

Genista linifolia is a species of broom known by the common names Mediterranean broom, needle-leaved broom and flax broom. It is native to southwestern Europe, North Africa, the Canary Islands; this is a shrub with hairy green branches which can exceed two meters in height. Its leaves are made up of tough, lance-shaped leaflets with woolly undersides. Flowers appear in dense raceme inflorescences toward the ends of the branches; the flowers are pealike. The fruit is a hairy legume pod one to four centimeters long containing several seeds, it can be found on other continents in areas of similar Mediterranean climate, such as California in the United States and New Zealand. It has become an invasive species in those regions. Media related to Genista linifolia at Wikimedia Commons Jepson Manual Treatment Photo gallery

The Postman Always Rings Twice (novel)

The Postman Always Rings Twice is a 1934 crime novel by James M. Cain; the novel was notorious upon publication. It is regarded as one of the more important crime novels of the 20th century; the novel's mix of sexuality and violence was startling in its time and caused it to be banned in Boston. It is included in Modern Library's list of 100 best novels, it was published as an Armed Services Edition during WWII; the novel has been adapted as a motion picture eight times. The 1946 version is the best known and is regarded as an important film noir; the story is narrated in the first person by Frank Chambers, a young drifter who stops at a rural California diner for a meal and ends up working there. The diner is operated by a beautiful young woman and her much older husband, Nick Papadakis, sometimes called "the Greek". Frank and Cora feel an immediate attraction to each other and begin a passionate affair with sadomasochistic qualities. Cora is tired of her situation, married to a man she does not love and working at a diner that she wants to own and improve.

Frank and Cora scheme to murder the Greek in order to start a new life together without Cora losing the diner. They plan on making it seem he fell and drowned in the bathtub. Cora fells Nick with a solid blow, but a sudden power outage and the appearance of a policeman make the scheme fail. Nick recovers and because of retrograde amnesia does not suspect that he narrowly avoided being killed. Determined to kill Nick and Cora fake a car accident, they ply Nick with wine, strike him on the head, crash the car. Frank and Cora are injured; the local prosecutor suspects what has occurred but does not have enough evidence to prove it. As a tactic intended to get Cora and Frank to turn on each other, he charges only Cora with the crime of Nick's murder, coercing Frank to sign a complaint against her. Cora and indignant, insists on offering a full confession detailing both their roles, her lawyer tricks her into dictating that confession to a member of his own staff. Cora, believing her confession made, returns to prison.

Though Cora would be sure to learn of the trickery, a few valuable hours are gained. The lawyer uses the time to manipulate those financially interested in the trial to have their private detective recant his testimony, the final remaining weapon in the prosecution's arsenal; the state is forced to grant Cora a plea agreement under which she is given a suspended sentence and no jail time. Frank and Cora plan a happy future and a family. Cora is killed in a car crash while Frank is driving; the book ends with Frank, from death row, summarizing the events that followed, explaining that he was wrongly convicted of having murdered Cora. The text, will be published after his execution; the title is a red herring in that no postman appears or is alluded to. The meaning of the title has therefore been the subject of speculation. William Marling, for instance, suggested that Cain may have taken the title from the sensational 1927 case of Ruth Snyder, like Cora in Postman, had conspired with her lover to murder her husband.

Cain used the Snyder case as an inspiration for his 1943 novel Double Indemnity. In the real-life case, Snyder said she had prevented her husband from discovering the changes she had made to his life insurance policy by telling the postman to deliver the policy's payment notices only to her and instructing him to ring the doorbell twice as a signal indicating he had such a delivery for her; the historian Judith Flanders, has interpreted the title as a reference to postal customs in the Victorian era. When mail was delivered, the postman knocked once to let the household know it was there: no reply was needed; when there was a telegram, which had to be handed over he knocked twice so that the household would know to answer the door. Telegrams were expensive and the bringers of bad news: so a postman knocking twice signaled trouble was on the way. In the preface to Double Indemnity, Cain wrote that the title of The Postman Always Rings Twice came from a discussion he had with the screenwriter Vincent Lawrence.

According to Cain, Lawrence spoke of the anxiety he felt when waiting for the postman to bring him news on a submitted manuscript, noting that he would know when the postman had arrived because he always rang twice. In his biography of Cain, Roy Hoopes recounted the conversation between Cain and Lawrence, noting that Lawrence did not say that the postman always rang twice but that he was sometimes so anxious waiting for the postman that he would go into his backyard to avoid hearing his ring; the tactic failed, Lawrence continued, because if the postman's first ring was not noticed, his second one from the backyard, would be. As a result of the conversation, Cain decided upon that phrase as a title for his novel. Upon discussing it further, the two men agreed such a phrase was metaphorically suited to Frank's situation at the end of the novel. With the "postman" being God or fate, the "delivery" meant for Frank was his own death as just retribution for murdering Nick. Frank had missed the first "ring" when he got away with that killing.

However, the postman rang again and this time the ring was heard. The theme of an inescapable fate is further underscored by the Greek's escape from death in the lovers' first murder attempt, only to be done in by their second one; the Postman Always

2006 ball-tampering controversy

In 2006, during the fourth day of the fourth Test between England and Pakistan at The Oval, umpires Darrell Hair and Billy Doctrove ruled that the Pakistani team had been involved in ball tampering. The Pakistani players refused to take the field after the tea break in protest of the decision. After waiting two more minutes the umpires removed the bails and declared England winners by forfeiture; this was the first such end to a Test match in over 1000 Tests. The International Cricket Council and Wales Cricket Board and Pakistan Cricket Board affirmed that the decision to award the match to England was in accordance with the Laws of Cricket. After the game, an email was leaked showing that Hair had offered his resignation from the ICC Elite Umpire Panel in return for a non-negotiable one-off payment of US$500,000. Hair said; the ICC match referee Ranjan Madugalle acquitted Pakistan captain Inzamam-ul-Haq of a ball-tampering charge, but banned him for four one day internationals for bringing the game into disrepute.

After the hearing the ICC announced that Hair would not be umpiring at the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy because of security concerns. Hair was banned from officiating in international matches by the ICC: they stated that although Hair had been banned from Tests, there is "no issue" with the result of the Oval Test match. In the aftermath of the Oval incident, Hair was voted Umpire of the Season in a poll carried out by The Wisden Cricketer, with more than a third of the votes. A leaked ICC report showed that before the Oval incident, Hair was ranked the second-best umpire in the world overall behind Simon Taufel and number one in terms of decision-making statistics. In 2007 Hair announced he was suing the ICC and PCB on grounds of racial discrimination, alleging that he was made a scapegoat when he was barred from officiating Test matches after the Oval Test, as no action was taken against his fellow umpire Billy Doctrove, he dropped the discrimination case. The ICC restored Hair to the Elite Umpiring Panel in 2008 but he resigned five months having officiated in only two further Tests.

On 20 August 2006, during the fourth day of the fourth Test between England and Pakistan at The Oval, umpires Darrell Hair and Billy Doctrove ruled that the Pakistani team had been involved in ball tampering. They offered them a replacement ball; the Pakistani players refused to take the field after the tea break in protest at the decision. The umpires left the field, directed the Pakistani players to resume play and returned once more 15 minutes later. After waiting two more minutes the umpires removed the bails and declared England winners by forfeiture; this was the first such end to a Test match in over 1000 Tests. The Pakistani team did take to the field 25 minutes – 55 minutes after the umpires first took to the field for a resumption of play – but Hair and Doctrove pointed out that the game had ended with a Pakistani forfeiture the moment the bails were removed though both teams were willing to continue the match; the Test was abandoned, with the match awarded to England. The International Cricket Council and Wales Cricket Board and Pakistan Cricket Board affirmed that the decision to award the match to England was in accordance with the laws of cricket.

However, it caused much debate in the cricketing world, with former cricketer Michael Atherton criticising Hair for not continuing the game. Nasser Hussain sided with Pakistan captain Inzamam-ul-Haq, saying that he would have done what Inzamam did, while Steve Waugh backed the umpires' decision, saying "No-one is bigger than the game; the laws are there for a reason." Michael Holding described the umpires' initial penalty for ball tampering as "insensitive" and said that every law has room for flexibility. Imran Khan called Hair an "umpiring fundamentalist", commented that "Such characters court controversy", while Wasim Akram called for Hair to be sacked, it was revealed in an ICC news conference on 25 August that after the game, Hair had offered his resignation from the ICC Elite Umpire Panel. In an e-mail entitled "The Way Forward" addressed to Doug Cowie, the ICC's umpire manager, with apparent reference to an earlier conversation between the two which had not been made public by the ICC, Hair stated he would resign from his position in return for a non-negotiable one-off payment of US$500,000 directly into Hair's bank account.

This was to be kept confidential by both sides. Hair was in contract with the ICC until March 2008, the payment was said to compensate for the loss of future earnings and retainer payments, he subsequently revoked this offer. Hair had stated that the suggested sum was to be compensation for the four or more years he would have umpired for had the controversy not happened, which he claimed would be "the best years he had to offer international umpiring". Hair had suggested, however, in an April 2006 interview that he might give up umpiring at the end of the World Cup saying "I'm not so sure that after another 12 months I'll have the passion to keep enjoying it." In the press conference, the ICC's chairman Malcolm Speed did not offer any assurances about Hair's future. On 27 August, Hair responded to the release of the e-mails by stating that the ICC had been in negotiations with him prior to him sending them, he was quoted as saying: "During an extended conversation with Mr. Cowie, I was invited to make a written offer.

The figure in the e-mail correspondence was in line with those canvassed with the ICC." The ICC however denied. In a press conference on 28 September 2006 Hair reiterated. On 28 Se