Human cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings. A person who practices cannibalism is called a cannibal; the expression cannibalism has been extended into zoology to mean one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food, including sexual cannibalism. The Island Carib people of the Lesser Antilles, from whom the word "cannibalism" is derived, acquired a long-standing reputation as cannibals after their legends were recorded in the 17th century; some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture. Cannibalism was practiced in New Guinea and in parts of the Solomon Islands, flesh markets existed in some parts of Melanesia. Fiji was once known as the "Cannibal Isles". Cannibalism has been well documented around the world, from Fiji to the Amazon Basin to the Congo to the Māori people of New Zealand. Neanderthals are believed to have practiced cannibalism, Neanderthals may have been eaten by anatomically modern humans.
Cannibalism was practiced in the past in Egypt during ancient Egypt, Roman Egypt and during famines such as the great famine in the year 1201. Cannibalism has been both practiced and fiercely condemned in several wars in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, it was still practiced in Papua New Guinea as of 2012, for cultural reasons and in ritual and in war in various Melanesian tribes. Cannibalism has been said to test the bounds of cultural relativism because it challenges anthropologists "to define what is or is not beyond the pale of acceptable human behavior"; some scholars argue that no firm evidence exists that cannibalism has been a acceptable practice anywhere in the world, at any time in history, although this has been debated against. Cannibalism has been practiced as a last resort by people suffering from famine in modern times. Famous examples include the ill-fated Donner Party and, more the crash of Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, after which some survivors ate the bodies of dead passengers.
Additionally, there are cases of people suffering from mental illness engaging in cannibalism for sexual pleasure, such as Jeffrey Dahmer and Albert Fish. There is resistance to formally labeling cannibalism a mental disorder; the word "cannibalism" is derived from Caníbales, the Spanish name for the Caribs, a West Indies tribe that may have practiced cannibalism, from Spanish canibal or caribal, "a savage". It is called anthropophagy. In some societies tribal societies, cannibalism is a cultural norm. Consumption of a person from within the same community is called endocannibalism. Exocannibalism is the consumption of a person from outside the community as a celebration of victory against a rival tribe. Both types of cannibalism can be fueled by the belief that eating a person's flesh or internal organs will endow the cannibal with some of the characteristics of the deceased. In most parts of the world, cannibalism is not a societal norm, but is sometimes resorted to in situations of extreme necessity.
The survivors of the shipwrecks of the Essex and Méduse in the 19th century are said to have engaged in cannibalism, as did the members of Franklin's lost expedition and the Donner Party. Such cases involve necro-cannibalism as opposed to homicidal cannibalism. In English law, the latter is always considered a crime in the most trying circumstances; the case of R v Dudley and Stephens, in which two men were found guilty of murder for killing and eating a cabin boy while adrift at sea in a lifeboat, set the precedent that necessity is no defence to a charge of murder. In pre-modern medicine, the explanation given by the now-discredited theory of humorism for cannibalism was that it came about within a black acrimonious humor, being lodged in the linings of the ventricle, produced the voracity for human flesh. A well-known case of mortuary cannibalism is that of the Fore tribe in New Guinea, which resulted in the spread of the prion disease kuru. Although the Fore's mortuary cannibalism was well documented, the practice had ceased before the cause of the disease was recognized.
However, some scholars argue that although post-mortem dismemberment was the practice during funeral rites, cannibalism was not. Marvin Harris theorizes that it happened during a famine period coincident with the arrival of Europeans and was rationalized as a religious rite. In 2003, a publication in Science received a large amount of press attention when it suggested that early humans may have practiced extensive cannibalism. According to this research, genetic markers found in modern humans worldwide suggest that today many people carry a gene that evolved as protection against the brain diseases that can be spread by consuming human brain tissue. A 2006 reanalysis of the data questioned this hypothesis, because it claimed to have found a data collection bias, which led to an erroneous conclusion; this claimed bias came from incidents of cannibalism used in the analysis not being due to local cultures, but having been carried out by explorers, stranded seafarers or escaped convicts. The original authors published a subsequent paper in 2008 defending their conclusions.
Cannibalism features in the folklore and legends of many cultures and is most attributed to evil characters or as extreme retribution for some wrongdoing. Examples include the witch in "Hansel and Gretel", Lamia of Greek mythology and Ba
Du-par's is a diner-style restaurant chain based in Los Angeles, California. The first Du-par's was founded in 1938 at the Los Angeles Farmers Market by James Dunn and Edward Parsons, who combined their surnames to create the restaurant's name. After 20 years of ownership, the Oberst family sold the chain in 2004 to an investor group led by W. W. "Biff" Naylor, the son of noted California restaurateur Tiny Naylor, for an undisclosed amount. At the time of the sale, there were three locations, the original location at the Farmers Market, Studio City, Thousand Oaks. After 31 years, the Du-par's location in Thousand Oaks was closed and was slated to be replaced by a shopping center, it houses a The Pizza Cookery restaurant. Du-par's expanded in 2009 to include several locations from the bankrupt Bakers Square chain. A Bakers Square location in Oxnard was converted into a Du-par's in February 2009; the Oxnard location closed in August 2012. Du-par's expanded into San Diego by converting a former Bakers Square location in the Midway district in 2009.
The San Diego location was closed in September 2015 and reopened in the Gaslamp Quarter in August 2016. The Gaslamp location was closed six months in February 2017. In 2014, it was announced that Du-par's was taking over a former Hamburger Hamlet location in Pasadena. In 2010, Du-par's expanded for the first time outside California by opening a restaurant-bakery in the Golden Gate Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. A second Las Vegas-area location was opened in the Suncoast Hotel and Casino in April 2016; the Du-par's Restaurant & Bakery inside the Golden Gate Casino closed for financial reasons on February 7, 2017. In March 2017, Boyd Gaming, the owners of the Suncoast Hotel and Casino, signed a licensing agreement with Du-par's to take over the management of the Du-par's restaurant inside their casino while still continuing the use of the Du-par's name and recipes. In May 2015, a new was location opened in Encino and closed just 18 months in November 2016; the Studio City location closed its doors for good on December 31, 2017.
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Campo de Altabix was a multi-use stadium in Elche, Spain. It was used as the stadium of Elche CF matches, it was replaced by the current Estadio Manuel Martínez Valero in 1976. The capacity of the stadium was 15,000 spectators. Campo de Altabix was located in the neighborhood of Elche called Altabix, which served as the name of the stadium. On 17 October 1926 the stadium was inaugurated with a friendly game between Elche and Levante that ended with a 2:2 draw, it was the official stadium of Elche CF until 8 September 1976, when the Estadio Manuel Martínez Valero was opened. The last match at the Campo de Altabix was played against a Portuguese club C. F. Os Belenenses, it took place on 18 August 1978. On 15 September 1981, the demolition works of the stadium began. Stadium history Estadios de Espana
Time Crisis is a first-person on-rails light gun shooter series of arcade video games by Namco. The first installment of the series was released in the arcades in 1995 and ported to the PlayStation consoles; the setting of each Time Crisis revolves around a serious threat to one nation. However, some games have involved a threat to either the protagonist; the V. S. S. E. A covert organization, must send in its skilled agents to eliminate any security threats; the first Time Crisis had three stages with four areas each. The second and third installments have each with three areas; the fourth installment adds a prologue for a total of 4 stages each with three areas. The fifth installment has an exclusive upgrade kit version of to double the stages from 3 to 6, with 3 areas that were interconnected with each other, thus there would be no breaks/loadings after clearing an area. Many of the fighting areas are dangerous situations, such as a capsizing ship or a train dangling off a damaged bridge. In the third and fourth installments, supporters from various organizations come in to assist the V.
S. S. E. Agents, sometimes to aid them in their mission, sometimes to protect their own reputations. Crisis Zone has a different plot, it takes place in the United Kingdom and concerns the S. T. F.'s attempt to destroy the U. R. D. A. A terrorist organization. Razing Storm and Time Crisis: Razing Storm, which take place in the near-future, involve an elite task force known as S. C. A. R. Being sent to a South America country during a revolution to capture and defeat the mastermind who has orchestrated an attack on the United States together with several international military organizations, while battling terrorists and other renegade soldiers; the first Time Crisis was released for arcades in 1995 and ported to the PlayStation in 1997. It was the first game to support the GunCon light gun peripheral. A two-player sequel, titled Time Crisis II, featured two machines linked together, allowing players to cover each other; each player dispatches enemies on different routes, creating unique environments to defend themselves on.
It was released for the arcades in 1998 and for the PlayStation 2 in 2001. It was the first game to support the GunCon 2 light gun peripheral. In 2003, Namco released Time Crisis 3 for arcades and the PlayStation 2, it granted four different weapons available at the start. The ammo of the latter three had to be recharged during play; the home version, released for the PlayStation 2 featured a new side story in which the player can use a sniper rifle during certain scenes. In 2006, Time Crisis 4 was released and introduced a refined multi-hiding system where the player can move the gun in a certain direction to move the character's position in certain areas of the game regardless whether or not the player may hiding or attacking the enemy. A PlayStation 3 version was released in 2007 in the United States and Japan, in 2008 in Europe and Australia, bundled with the GunCon 3 light gun peripheral, it was notable for introducing a first-person shooter mode to the series. Time Crisis 5 was released by Namco in March 2015 in the arcades.
It is the first entry in the Time Crisis series to use Epic Games' Unreal Engine. Unlike its predecessors, the game uses two pedals. Namco announced a True Mastermind edition of the game, released near the end of August 2015, includes the second half of the game, consisting of three new stages, for a total of six stages, the largest in the series. Crisis Zone was released in 1999 in the Arcades. While Crisis Zone had similar play mechanics as with Time Crisis, Crisis Zone featured solo play with a automatic machine gun, interactive backgrounds, a different storyline centering on the anti-terrorist tasks of elite S. T. F. Trooper Claude McGarren. A PlayStation 2 remake of the title was released in 2004 and turns it into a subtitle of its full name, Time Crisis: Crisis Zone. A side story to the first Time Crisis game Time Crisis: Project Titan, was released in 2001 for the PlayStation, featuring a new multi-hiding system. Cobra the Arcade is a Japanese exclusive spin-off based on the Cobra manga and anime franchise, released for arcades in 2005.
The game uses the same gameplay engine as the main Time Crisis series, adding elements such as the "Psycho Shot" which allows players to lock-on to multiple targets. In 2009, another spin-off game, Razing Storm, was released in the Arcades, it was re-released in October 2010 with the title Time Crisis: Razing Storm, for the PS3. This version is known in Japan as Big 3 Gun Shooting and comes packaged with Deadstorm Pirates and the arcade version of Time Crisis 4. All games feature GunCon 3 support. Time Crisis Strike was released by Namco in January 2009 for iOS, it is a spin-off of Time Crisis 3, with a different story. A spin-off mobile game, Time Crisis Elite, was developed by Electronic Arts and published by Namco for Java-based mobile phones in 2009; the game divides the screen to sections, each relating to a key in non touch screen versions. Time Crisis 2nd Strike was released by Namco in September 2010 for iOS, it is the sequel
Tempo Beer Industries is Israel's largest brewer and the country's second-largest beverage company. Tempo produces three brands of pale lager: Goldstar, acquired in a 1985 merger Maccabee marketed in the United States and Europe Nesher Malt, brewed in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic versionsGoldstar is a 4.9% ABV pale lager, produced since the 1950s. It is marketed as a dark lager beer. In January 2007, Tempo introduced 4% Goldstar Light with a commercial starring Moshe Datz, from the Israeli duet Duo Datz; the beer is certified kosher by the Chief Rabbi of Israel. Maccabee is a 4.9% ABV pale lager, first brewed in 1968. It is distributed in Israel and is marketed in the United States and Europe. Nesher Malt was the first commercial beer to be brewed in Israel, it is produced in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic styles, has been brewed since 1935. Tempo produces juice-based drinks under the Jump brand and is the local bottler of PepsiCo soft drinks. Since 1992, Tempo has been an importer of Heineken lager, in 2005 they became the sole distributor in Israel for Samuel Adams lager.
Heineken International owns a 40 % share of Tempo. In September 2004, Tempo acquired a 39% controlling interest in Barkan Wine Cellars, Israel's second-largest winery. Barkan produces the Segal brand of wine. Goldstar beer was referred to in the song "Tel Aviv" by Duran Duran in their 1981 album Duran Duran. For some reason, at many American Reform Jewish summer camps an old Tempo commercial jingle is sung. Tempo was once one of Israel's largest soft drink brands, with a line of drinks called Tempo Kan-Kan, which featured several flavors, such as orange and cola. Today, Tempo is Pepsi's Israeli bottler. Beer in Israel Malt beer Company web page
Braeside known as Lake Cook Road, is a railroad station in Highland Park, Illinois serving Metra's Union Pacific/North Line, in the Braeside neighborhood of Highland Park. It is located at 10 North St. Johns Avenue, just off Lake Cook Road. In Metra's zone-based fare schedule, Braeside is located in "Zone E". Cook County Forest Preserves' Turnbull Woods and William N. Erickson Preserve are adjacent to the station, the Chicago Botanic Garden is a mile away. Braeside Station has a warming hut on the inbound side of the track, but not on the outbound side; the station is named after a nearby school. The station consists of two platforms and a waiting room/warming hut, but does not contain a ticket agent booth or restroom facilities; the closest restroom facilities are located at Deli. Northbound trains stop on the west platform and southbound trains stop on the east platform. Trains go south to Chicago's Ogilvie Transportation Center, as far north as Kenosha, Wisconsin; as of 2018, Braeside is the 117th busiest of Metra's 236 non-downtown stations, with an average of 410 weekday boardings.