The human leg, in the general word sense, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot and the hip or gluteal region. However, the definition in human anatomy refers only to the section of the lower limb extending from the knee to the ankle known as the crus. Legs are used for standing, all forms of locomotion including recreational such as dancing, constitute a significant portion of a person's mass. Female legs have greater hip anteversion and tibiofemoral angles, but shorter femur and tibial lengths than those in males. In human anatomy, the lower leg is the part of the lower limb that lies between the knee and the ankle; the thigh makes up the rest of the lower limb. The term lower limb or "lower extremity" is used to describe all of the leg; this article follows the common usage. The leg from the knee to the ankle is called the cnemis; the calf is the back portion, the tibia or shinbone together with the smaller fibula make up the front of the lower leg. Evolution has provided the human body with two distinct features: the specialization of the upper limb for visually guided manipulation and the lower limb's development into a mechanism adapted for efficient bipedal gait.
While the capacity to walk upright is not unique to humans, other primates can only achieve this for short periods and at a great expenditure of energy. The human adaption to bipedalism is not limited to the leg, but has affected the location of the body's center of gravity, the reorganisation of internal organs, the form and biomechanism of the trunk. In humans, the double S-shaped vertebral column acts as a great shock-absorber which shifts the weight from the trunk over the load-bearing surface of the feet; the human legs are exceptionally long and powerful as a result of their exclusive specialization for support and locomotion—in orangutans the leg length is 111% of the trunk. Many of the leg's muscles are adapted to bipedalism, most the gluteal muscles, the extensors of the knee joint, the calf muscles; the major bones of the leg are the femur and adjacent fibula, these are all long bones. The patella is the sesamoid bone in front of the knee. Most of the leg skeleton has bony prominences and margins that can be palpated and some serve as anatomical landmarks that define the extent of the leg.
These landmarks are the anterior superior iliac spine, the greater trochanter, the superior margin of the medial condyle of tibia, the medial malleolus. Notable exceptions to palpation are the hip joint, the neck and body, or shaft of the femur; the large joints of the lower limb are aligned in a straight line, which represents the mechanical longitudinal axis of the leg, the Mikulicz line. This line stretches from the hip joint, through the knee joint, down to the center of the ankle. In the tibial shaft, the mechanical and anatomical axes coincide, but in the femoral shaft they diverge 6°, resulting in the femorotibial angle of 174° in a leg with normal axial alignment. A leg is considered straight when, with the feet brought together, both the medial malleoli of the ankle and the medial condyles of the knee are touching. Divergence from the normal femorotibial angle is called genu varum if the center of the knee joint is lateral to the mechanical axis, genu valgum if it is medial to the mechanical axis.
These conditions impose unbalanced loads on the joints and stretching of either the thigh's adductors and abductors. The angle of inclination formed between the neck and shaft of the femur, varies with age—about 150° in the newborn, it decreases to 126–128° in adults, to reach 120° in old age. Pathological changes in this angle results in abnormal posture of the leg: A small angle produces coxa vara and a large angle in coxa valga. Additionally, a line drawn through the femoral neck superimposed on a line drawn through the femoral condyles forms an angle, the torsion angle, which makes it possible for flexion movements of the hip joint to be transposed into rotary movements of the femoral head. Abnormally increased torsion angles results in a limb turned inward and a decreased angle in a limb turned outward. There are several ways of classifying the muscles of the hip: By location or innervation; some hip muscles act on either the knee joint or on vertebral joints. Additionally, because the area of origin and insertion of many of these muscles are extensive, these muscles are involved in several different movements.
In the hip joint and medial rotation occur along the axis of the limb. The anterior dorsal hip muscles are the iliopsoas, a group of two or three muscles with a shared insertion on the lesser trochanter of the femur; the psoas major originates from the last vertebra and along the lumbar spine to stretch down into the pelvis. The iliacus originates on the iliac fossa on
Machines That Make Civilization Fun is a studio album by American hip hop musician Bigg Jus, a former member of Company Flow. It was released on Mush Records in 2012. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 65% based on 7 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Thomas Quinlan of Exclaim! said, "Machines That Make Civilization Fun is Bigg Jus's best, most well-rounded solo album so far, but it's still a difficult listen that will limit the album's appeal to advanced listeners only." Emma H. Sundstrom of PopMatters gave the album 7 stars out of 10, saying, "It's hard to gauge now how dated it will sound in five or ten years, but at this moment, it's the neurotic and deafening sound of a civilization whose machines are beginning to break down, it sounds terrifyingly familiar."Fact placed it at number 50 on the "50 Best Albums of 2012" list. Machines That Make Civilization Fun at Discogs
Karl Martin Lauer was a West German sprinter who won a gold medal in the 4 × 100 m relay at the 1960 Summer Olympics. Lauer was a German champion in 110 m hurdles from 1956 to 1960 and in decathlon in 1956. At the 1956 Summer Olympics, he finished fifth in decathlon. At the 1958 European Championships, he won the gold in 110 m hurdles. In 1958 Lauer ran his first world record, in the 4 × 100 m relay, he set his second world record in this time in his main event of 110 m hurdles. The same year he set his personal best in decathlon and was ranked second in the world in this event. At the end of the year he was named Athlete of the Year by the sports magazine Track & Field News, the first of the annual election. At the Rome Olympics Lauer was again fourth in 110 m hurdles and ran the anchoring leg for the German's 4 × 100 m relay team. In the final the Germans finished second behind the United States, but 15 minutes after the finish it was announced that the American team had been disqualified for an incorrect exchange.
Germany's time, 39.5 seconds, equaled their own world record. After the Olympics Lauer was forced to retire from sports – a non-sterile injection resulted in sepsis and prospects of leg amputation. While visiting Lauer in hospital, his girlfriend and brother had a car crash, with the girlfriend dying and his brother several years later. After recovering Lauer sold a few million copies of his 40 + records, his single "Taxi nach Texas" was awarded the Silver Lion of Radio Luxembourg in 1964. Lauer attended the 1964 Olympics as a journalist and the 1972 Olympics as a representative of the Junghans Company, he worked as director of the German company Triumph Adler. Lauer died on 6 October 2019 at the age of 82
Geraldine Lamboley Walther is an American violist. Since 2005 she has been a member of the Takács String Quartet, replacing Roger Tapping as violist of the group, she is the former principal violist of the San Francisco Symphony, a role she held from 1976 through 2005. She was assistant principal viola of the Pittsburgh Symphony, Miami Symphony and Baltimore Symphony, she won first prize at the Primrose International Viola Competition in 1979. She teaches on the music faculty of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Before joining the Takács Quartet at the University of Colorado, Geraldine Walther was Principal Violist of the San Francisco Symphony for 29 years. Early in her career she served as assistant principal of the Pittsburgh Symphony, the Miami Philharmonic, the Baltimore Symphony, she studied at the Manhattan School of Music with Lillian Fuchs, at the Curtis Institute with Michael Tree of the Guarneri Quartet, in 1979 she won first prize at the William Primrose International Competition.
She had been on the music faculty of The San Francisco Conservatory, Notre Dame de Namur University, Mills College and conducted master classes at numerous universities and festivals. She has performed as soloist on numerous occasions with the San Francisco Symphony and given the US premieres of Michael Tippett's Triple Concerto in 1981, Tōru Takemitsu's A String Around Autumn in 1990, Peter Lieberson's Viola Concerto in 1999, George Benjamin's Viola, Viola in 1999, the Viola Concerto by Robin Holloway. In 1995 Ms. Walther was selected by Sir Georg Solti as a member of his Musicians of the World, which performed in Geneva to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the United Nations in July 1995, she has served as principal violist with the Mainly Mozart Festival in San Diego. An avid chamber musician, Ms. Walther participates in leading chamber music festivals, including Marlboro, Santa Fe, Bridgehampton, most the Telluride and Ruby Mountain festivals, Music at Kohl Mansion, Green Music Festival in Sonoma, the inaugural season of Music@Menlo.
She has collaborated with such artists as Isaac Stern, Pinchas Zukerman, Jaime Laredo, appeared as a guest artist with the Vermeer, Lindsay, Tokyo and St. Lawrence quartets. Geraldine Walther’s recordings include Paul Hindemith's Trauermusik and Der Schwanendreher with the San Francisco Symphony, Paul Chihara's Golden Slumbers with the San Francisco Chamber Singers, Lou Harrison's Threnody. In 2003, she recorded, with SFS Assistant Concertmaster Mark Volkert and cellist Jan Volkert, a disc of Mr. Volkert's transcriptions for string trio entitled Delectable Pieces. In 2013, she released a cd of the music of Johannes Brahms, which includes the two viola sonata and the Trio in A minor for Viola and Piano. Faculty biography at University of Colorado Biography at San Francisco Symphony Andante: San Jose Mercury News article on joining the Takács Quartet San Francisco Chronicle article on leaving the San Francisco Symphony
Ebenezer Wilson Poe was a Republican politician in the U. S. State of Ohio, Ohio State Auditor 1888–1896. Ebenezer W. Poe was born at Ohio on a farm near Findlay. After his father enlisted in the Union Army in 1862 during the American Civil War, he enlisted at age 16 in Company G of the One Hundred Thirty-Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, served in the Army of the Cumberland until mustered out in August, 1864. Poe re-enrolled in the high school in Findlay and graduated, he taught school for three years, was a store clerk, in 1873 ran a store. He disposed of that business in 1875, was a traveling salesman for six years. In 1881, the Republicans nominated him for Wood County Auditor, he won, was re-elected in 1883. At the 1887 Republican State Convention, Poe won on the first ballot in a field of seven for the nomination for Ohio State Auditor, he defeated incumbent Democrat Emil Kiesewetter in the general election. He won re-election in 1891. At the 1895 Republican State Convention, Poe was among eight candidates for the Governor nomination, after the third ballot, threw his support to eventual nominee and Governor Asa S. Bushnell.
After his term as Auditor expired, he associated with an Equitable Life Insurance. Poe was married October 8, 1868 to Caroline Thomas of McComb and had four children. Poe died June 1898 in Columbus, Ohio, he was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Grand Army of the Republic, was a Methodist. He was interred in Green Lawn Cemetery, Ohio. Smith, Joseph P, ed.. History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. Smith, Joseph P, ed.. History of the Republican Party in Ohio. II. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. Taylor, William Alexander. Centennial history of Columbus and Franklin County, Ohio. 1. Chicago: S J Clarke Publishing Company. P. 644
Somali Americans are Americans of Somali ancestry. The first ethnic Somalis to arrive in the U. S. were sailors. They were followed by students pursuing higher studies in the 1960s and 1970s, by the late 1970s through the late 1980s and early 1990s more Somalis arrived. However, it was not until the mid and late 1990s when the civil war in Somalia broke out that the majority of Somalis arrived in the United States; the Somali community in the U. S is now among the largest in the Somali diaspora; the earliest ethnic Somali immigrants to the United States were sailors who arrived in the 1920s from British Somaliland. Acquiring American citizenship, they participated in the Somali independence movement and served as key liaisons whenever Somali political figures visited the UN headquarters. For their substantial contributions to Somali society, these early Somali expatriates were rewarded with medals by the Somali government and some were issued land back home. Following independence in 1960, Somali students began arriving in the US to pursue higher studies while living with relatives or on scholarships.
Many of the youngsters returned to Somalia after graduation and went on to play an important role in the development of their nation. During the 1980s, a small number of Somalis settled in the United States, they were joined by many other ethnic Somalis from different backgrounds, who sought asylum in the US after the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia or emigrated from other parts of Greater Somalia. A large number of the Somali immigrants settled in Minnesota, which in 2002 harbored the largest population of Somalis in North America. Many of the newer arrivals came through voluntary agencies contracted with the State Department, who helped them settle in. By 2006, Somalis in the state accounted for $164–$394 million in purchasing power and owned 600 businesses; the city of Minneapolis in particular hosts hundreds of Somali-owned and operated commercial ventures. Colorful stalls inside several shopping malls offer everything from halal meat, to stylish leather shoes, to the latest fashion for men and women, as well as gold jewelry, money transfer or hawala offices, banners advertising the latest Somali films, video rental stores stocked with nostalgic love songs not found in the mainstream supermarkets and boutiques.
As of the 2015 American Community Survey, there are 57,000 residents in the state who are of Somali ancestry, among whom 31,400 were born in Somalia. Somalis in the United States send resources to their extended families abroad, remittances that were facilitated by the signing of the Money Remittances Improvement Act. Following a improved security situation in Somalia in 2012, many Somali U. S. residents have begun returning to Mogadishu and other parts of the country. A few of the homeward-bound immigrants along with some American-born associates have been sought and/or prosecuted for providing material support to the Al-Shabaab and Islamic State political militant groups. However, according to intelligence officials, fewer expatriates were joining the groups' ranks by late 2013. Most of the returnees have instead repatriated for investment opportunities and to take part in the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction process in Somalia. Participating in the renovation of schools, hospitals and other infrastructure, they have played a leading role in the capital's recovery and have helped propel the local real estate market.
Current estimates of the number of Somali immigrants living in the United States vary ranging from 35,760 to 150,000 persons. 2010 American Community Survey data indicates that there are 85,700 people with Somali ancestry in the US. Of those, around 25,000 or one third live in Minnesota. Nationwide, 76,205 were Somalia-born. Somali's are the largest Cushitic groups in the United States; the largest concentration of Somalia-born people in the United States is in the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington area of Minnesota; the next largest concentrations of Somalis are in Columbus, Seattle, San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos in California, Washington, D. C.-Arlington-Alexandria in the Virginia-D. C. area, Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta in Georgia, Phoenix-Mesa-Glendale in Arizona, Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro in Oregon, Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin in Tennessee, Boston-Cambridge-Quincy in Massachusetts, other areas. In 2014, the Minneapolis City Council passed a resolution marking July 1 as Somali American Day.
The event commemorates the Independence Day of Somalia, annually celebrated on the same day. The council approved a resolution making Minneapolis and Bosaso in northeastern Somalia sister cities. Additionally, the Federal Government of Somalia announced that it would start keeping count of Somalis abroad; the Somali community in the United States is represented by various Somali-run organizations. Somali Community Services in San Jose and the Somali American Council of Oregon on the west coast offer guidance to new Somali families and works with the municipal authorities to strengthen civic relations; the Somali Community Access Network is one of several groups serving Columbus' Somali community. In Minnesota, the Confederation of Somali Community in Minnesota, Somali American Parent Association, Somali Action Alliance offer various social services to the state's resident Somalis. Politically, a Somali American Caucus in the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party was formed to represent the Somali community.
A Somali American chairs the Rep