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Human rights in China

Human rights in China is periodically reviewed by the United Nations Human Rights Committee, on which the government of the People's Republic of China and various foreign governments and human rights organizations have disagreed. PRC authorities, their supporters, other proponents claim that existing policies and enforcement measures are sufficient to guard against human rights abuses; however other countries and their authorities, international non-governmental organizations, such as Human Rights in China and Amnesty International, citizens and dissidents inside the country, state that the authorities in mainland China sanction or organize such abuses. After Xi Jinping succeeded General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in 2012, human rights in China have become worse. Jiang Tianyong is the latest lawyer known for defending jailed critics of the government. According to the news over the past two years more than 200 have been detained in the ongoing crackdown on criticism in China.

NGOs such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as foreign governmental institutions such as the U. S. State Department present evidence of the PRC violating the freedoms of speech and religion of its citizens and of others within its jurisdiction. Authorities in the PRC claim to define human rights differently, so as to include economic and social as well as political rights, all in relation to "national culture" and the level of development of the country. Authorities in the PRC, referring to this definition, claim, they do not, use the definition used by most countries and organisations. PRC politicians have maintained that, according to the PRC Constitution, the "Four Cardinal Principles" supersede citizenship rights. PRC officials interpret the primacy of the Four Cardinal Principles as a legal basis for the arrest of people who the government says seek to overthrow the principles. Chinese nationals whom authorities perceive to be in compliance with these principles, on the other hand, are permitted by the PRC authorities to enjoy and exercise all the rights that come with citizenship of the PRC, provided they do not violate PRC laws in any other manner.

Numerous human rights groups have publicized human rights issues in China that they consider the government to be mishandling, including: the death penalty, the one-child policy, the political and legal status of Tibet, neglect of freedom of the press in mainland China. Other areas of concern include the lack of legal recognition of human rights and the lack of an independent judiciary, rule of law, due process. Further issues raised in regard to human rights include the severe lack of worker's rights, the absence of independent labour unions, allegations of discrimination against rural workers and ethnic minorities, as well as the lack of religious freedom – rights groups have highlighted repression of the Christian, Tibetan Buddhist, Uyghur Muslim, Falun Gong religious groups; some Chinese activist groups are trying to expand these freedoms, including Human Rights in China, Chinese Human Rights Defenders, the China Human Rights Lawyers Concern Group. Chinese human rights attorneys who take on cases related to these issues, however face harassment and arrest.

According to the Amnesty International report from 2016/2017 the government continued to draft and enact a series of new national security laws that presented serious threats to the protection of human rights. The nationwide crackdown on human rights lawyers and activists continued throughout the year. Activists and human rights defenders continued to be systematically subjected to monitoring, intimidation and detention; the report continues that police detained increasing numbers of human rights defenders outside of formal detention facilities, sometimes without access to a lawyer for long periods, exposing the detainees to the risk of torture and other ill-treatment. Booksellers, activists and a journalist who went missing in neighboring countries in 2015 and 2016 turned up at detention in China, causing concerns about China's law enforcement agencies acting outside their jurisdiction. Since the legal reforms of the late 1970s and 1980s, the Communist Party of China has moved to embrace the language of the rule of law and to establish a modern court system.

In the process, it has enacted thousands of new laws and regulations, has begun training more legal professionals. The concept of'rule of law' has been emphasized in the constitution, the ruling party has embarked on campaigns to promote the idea that citizens have protection under the law. At the same time, however, a fundamental contradiction exists in the constitution itself, in which the Communist Party insists that its authority supersedes that of the law. Thus, the constitution enshrines the rule of law, yet stresses the principle that the'leadership of the Communist Party' holds primacy over the law; some Chinese themselves have only a vague conception of the priority of the CPC leadership over constitutional and legal authority. The judiciary is not independent of the Communist Party, judges face political pressure. In this way, the CPC controls the judiciary through its influence; this influence has produced a system described as'rule by law' (allu

Bill Smith (poker player)

Bill Smith was a professional poker player who won the 1985 World Series of Poker Main Event. Smith was a staple at the World Series of Poker during the 1980s, he was involved in three final tables of the Main Event. At the 1981 and 1986 WSOP Smith placed fifth, but at the 1985 World Series of Poker he won the bracelet, $700,000, his total tournament winnings exceeded $1,050,000. His three cashes at the WSOP accounted for $788,800 of his lifetime winnings. Smith would play professional poker tournaments drunk. By all accounts, he was an alcoholic. According to fellow poker player T. J. Cloutier, Smith did not play well when he was sober or drunk. “Bill was the tightest player you'd played in your life when he was sober. And when he was halfway drunk, he was the best player I'd played with. No one could read opponents’ hands better than half- drunk Smith, but when he got past that halfway mark, he was the worst player I'd played with.” The year Smith won the Main Event, he entered the final day's play sober and just sat there while he warmed up.

After he started drinking, he accumulated a huge pile of chips by well-timed aggressive play. He had so many chips once he was drunk that good luck led him to victory. Smith died in 1996


Calvene is a town in the province of Vicenza, Italy. It is east of SP349; the population has remained stable throughout the years. The most recent census showed 1324 inhabitants. One of the forms of the Venetian dialect is spoken in Calvene and its surrounding towns: Dialect: Calvene l'e un bel paese pianta sui sassi russi, Lugo i xe quattro mussi. Italian: Calvene è un bel paese costruito sui sassi rossi, in Lugo ci sono quattro asini; the village of Calvene rises 201 metres above sea level and is in a valley through which the river Astico and Chiavona stream run. We know that Calvene has existed since Roman times because of numerous archeological discoveries over various epochs, some of which carry inscriptions of a certain “gens Calvena” settled in Venetian area. There have, in fact, been numerous discoveries of relics and money in the Astico valley from Roman times, proving the dominion of the Romans on the locals. Calvene and its entire region remained subject to Roman rule as it went from splendor to its downfall and consequent destruction by Barbarian hordes who invaded Italy at various times.

Calvene was subject to Lombard authority. One point of evidence is some of the last names that came from German ancestry such as Bordogni and Bissoli. In addition, there exists an ancient document in which it speaks of a certain “Giusto”, son of Martino, of the Lombard people, who possessed fields, household effects and furniture in Calvene. There was a parish at that time that stood in Calvene where, according to some hypotheses, in ancient times stood a Roman forum, it is presumed. It was rebuilt in the 16th century and was swept away in the flood of the Chiavona in 1850; the position of the forum and of the next church makes one presuppose that in the past the village grew more to the south and that for reasons of defence in medieval times it moved to its present position. Lombard rule lasted for two centuries and was taken over by the Franks and Charlemagne in 774. Under the Frank's reign began the rule of bishops, princes and tithe collectors; the bishop of Padova reigned over this region.

During this time, the Carolingian dynasty came to an end and the Holy Roman Empire fell. In 911 the king of the Kingdom of Italy, Beregario I, Marquis of Ivrea, confirmed to the bishop of Padova the ownership of the goods, promised to him and the power to erect castles. Around 1100 there were 2 castles of which nothing remains, only names and places of where they were: Castellaro was in the center in the land of homonymy, Monte Castello, or Rocca was north of the region; the first castle was to reign the Astico valley, the Chiavona valley and the main streets of the region. These places necessitated a greater defence and thereafter formed the fastest access way between the plains and the upland and vice versa. In a document from 1268 Calvene was a village with a mayor and a procurer who took care of the goods that the parsonages of Vicenza would give them. During this time, taxes no longer were paid by the elected vassal to the bishop, but to the dean of the fiefdom elected by the people and deposited to the village accounts.

In the 14th century Calvene was taken over by the Vicentine, Carraresan and Visconti powers. In 1347 the Venetians, having obtained permission to cross Vicentine territory, went down into the Astico valley with an army of German soldiers to fight the enemy Francesco de Carrara, bringing destruction and inflicting terror. In 1404 Calvene, like all of the provinces, came under the dominion of the “Serenissima” or the most Serene Republic of Venice. In that period tradition says that an important but troublesome person from Chioggia was exiled to Calvene and this person named the Val di Chioda. In 1390, one spoke of the fiefdom of the villages of Calvene and Lonedo, which shows that the 2 other villages had attained administrative autonomy. In the 15th century the major resources of the village were the cultivation of wheat, rye, oats and olives; the cultivation of olives was the prevalent interest of the hilly land on the northwest side of town owned by the Bordogni, Collesello and Termine families.

The main artisan activity was the production of wool. Only a few houses in Calvene remain from the 10th century. A few of them maintain the characteristics of the old manor home that belonged to noblemen of the area who however preferred to reside in the stability of Vicenza and cross into the original area only during the summer months. In this area not many of the original family names from Calvene have been retained but these have: Testolin, Dalle Molle, Binotto etc... The powerful families from the village were named “De Calvene” or Of/From Calvene; the church was rebuilt and restored in 1525. The Plague took many victims in 1575 who were buried in an area of the village called Lazzaretto near the Chiavona stream. A stone marker called the Stone of the Plague was built at the top of Lazzaretto. In 1640, after different occurrences, the church of Lugo, up to under Calvene's jurisdiction and the parish was reduced to 446 members, assuming its present size. In 1574 the church of San Bellino was constructed in the hamlet of Monte, at that time made up of seven families.

In the 18th century began the use of the villages' numerous hydraulic

Charles Willcox

Sir Charles Willcox was an Australian businessman and politician. He was Mayor of Adelaide from 1892 to 1894, was a member of the South Australian House of Assembly for Gumeracha in 1896, was a member of the South Australian Legislative Council for North-Eastern District from 1897 to 1902, he was born at Burrowbridge on the River Parrett in Somerset, where he was educated, before sailing to South Australia in 1863 in the Adamant at the age of 18. For a time he resided in the south-east of South Australia and worked on the land for the wholesale merchants Goode Brothers in Adelaide. In 1873 he joined with one William Gilbert to form Gilbert, Willcox and Co. hay and corn merchants in Tynte Street, North Adelaide. Ten years he bought out Gilbert and continued business as Charles Willcox and Co. bought into and took over several other businesses. In 1886, he and W. Everard bought the Payneham and Paradise Tram Company in 1896 the Goodwood and Clarence Park tramways; these were taken over by the Government to form the Municipal Tramways Trust for the purpose of electrification.

He was a director of several steamship companies which were taken over around 1915 by Adelaide Steamship Company, of which he was to remain a director until he died. Around 1886 he helped Job Hallett found the brickmaking firm that in 1904 became J. Son. In 1901 he took over the produce firm of W. Thyer and Co. and continued trading as Thyer, Willcox and Co. He had interests in farming at Mallala and Two Wells, fruit-growing at Renmark and Berri, the Terowie Mill, the Adelaide Jubilee Exhibition of 1887, the YMCA, the North Adelaide Institute, John Hill & Co, he was elected to the Adelaide City Council for the Robe ward in 1882, became alderman, was elected mayor by the narrowest of majorities against alderman Sketheway in 1892, a position he held for two years. He was elected to the South Australian House of Assembly in the seat of Gumeracha, but resigned after objections that he was a government contractor. In 1896 he was elected to North-Eastern District for the Legislative Council, he helped found the Adelaide Y.

M. C. A. of which he was for many years a committee member of the Royal Institute for the Blind and Home for Incurables. He was a prominent member of the Tynte Street Baptist Church, he was survived by a widow, six sons and five daughters. His eldest son, Frank May Willcox was a prominent medical practitioner who trained and practised in both Edinburgh and Adelaide. Mr. S. Willcox lived at Two Wells Alan May Willcox of Two Salisbury. H. G. Willcox of Robe Terrace, Medindie was at one time a director of the Littlehampton Brick Co. Ltd. Percy Howard Willcox lived at Medindie. Charles Angas Willcox lived at FitzroyThe surviving daughters were: Mrs. G. Hillman of Prospect Mrs. R. W. Thomas of Brisbane Mrs. Malcolm P. Reid of Toorak Miss Patrica Kathleen Murie Willcox of Prospect and London Miss Irene Phyllis Willcox of Fitzroy and London Death of Mr. Charles Willcox The Advertiser 8 September 1921 p. 9 accessed 14 February 2011


Gams is a municipality in the Wahlkreis of Werdenberg in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. Gams is first mentioned in 835 as Campesias. In 1210 it was mentioned in 1236 as Gamps; until the Middle Ages it was known in Romansh as Chiamp. Gams has an area, as of 2006, of 22.3 km2. Of this area, 59.7 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 6.8% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is located in the Werdenberg Wahlkreis, at the foot of the Alpstein sub-range of the Appenzell Alps and on the edge of the Rhine valley, it sits at the eastern entrance into the Toggenburg as well as the footpath over the Saxerlücke to Appenzell and St. Gallen. Additionally, it was on the most important trade route between Chur-Sargans-Lake Constance and was the starting point of the pilgrimage routes to Einsiedeln and Rankweil, it consists of the village of Gams with the village of Gasenzen. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per fess Argent and Gules overall a Chamois Sable statant on Coupeaux Or.

The chamois on the coat of arms is an example of false canting. The name Gams doesn't come from Gemse but from the Romansh Campesias which means "field of sheep". Gams has a population of 3,471; as of 2007, about 15.3% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Of the foreign population, 91 are from Germany, 22 are from Italy, 118 are from ex-Yugoslavia, 34 are from Austria, 8 are from Turkey, 81 are from another country. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 9.3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Italian being third. Of the Swiss national languages, 2,695 speak German, 13 people speak French, 22 people speak Italian, 5 people speak Romansh; the age distribution, as of 2000, in Gams is. Of the adult population, 316 people or 11.0% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 443 people or 15.5% are between 30 and 39, 450 people or 15.7% are between 40 and 49, 300 people or 10.5% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 217 people or 7.6% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 163 people or 5.7% are between 70 and 79, there are 80 people or 2.8% who are between 80 and 89, there are 5 people or 0.2% who are between 90 and 99.

In 2000 there were 262 persons. There were 475 persons who were part of a couple without children, 1,815 who were part of a couple with children. There were 121 people who lived in single parent home, while there are 29 persons who were adult children living with one or both parents, 18 persons who lived in a household made up of relatives, 14 who lived household made up of unrelated persons, 133 who are either institutionalized or live in another type of collective housing. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the CVP, the FDP and the SP. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Gams about 68.6% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Out of the total population in Gams, as of 2000, the highest education level completed by 621 people was Primary, while 974 have completed Secondary, 273 have attended a Tertiary school, 88 are not in school; the remainder did not answer this question.

The historical population is given in the following table: As of 2007, Gams had an unemployment rate of 0.76%. As of 2005, there were 230 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 85 businesses involved in this sector. 383 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 41 businesses in this sector. 393 people are employed with 86 businesses in this sector. As of October 2009 the average unemployment rate was 2.6%. There were 208 businesses in the municipality of which 39 were involved in the secondary sector of the economy while 88 were involved in the third; as of 2000 there were 571 residents who worked in the municipality, while 834 residents worked outside Gams and 323 people commuted into the municipality for work. From the 2000 census, 1,811 or 63.2% are Roman Catholic, while 649 or 22.6% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there are 27 individuals who belong to the Orthodox Church, there are 44 individuals who belong to another Christian church.

There are 110. There are 7 individuals who belong to another church, 130 belong to no church, are agnostic or atheist, 89 individuals did not answer the question. Official website Gams in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

1977–78 Liverpool F.C. season

It was to be a season of contrasts for Liverpool F. C. as they retained the European Cup, following a 1–0 victory against Club Brugge in the final at Wembley in London and winning the European Super Cup by beating Hamburg, who included Kevin Keegan in their side Seven-One on aggregate with a Six-Nil Second Leg win at Anfield. However, in both the Football League and the Football League Cup they would end as runners-up to newly promoted Nottingham Forest managed by Brian Clough; the replay of the Football League Cup Final would prove controversial with a penalty which decided the match, followed by a disallowed goal when it was adjudged that Terry McDermott handled the ball. Liverpool manager Bob Paisley bought Kenny Dalglish from Celtic for £440,000, a record transfer fee between British clubs. Dalglish went on to score 20 goals in the league and 31 in all competitions, including the winner in the European Cup Final. Realising that Ian Callaghan was nearing the end of his career at Liverpool, the club spent £352,000 on Graeme Souness from Middlesbrough.

However, Callaghan's final season started with a call up to the England squad, would play in the match against Switzerland on 7 September 1977 under new manager Ron Greenwood. It was to be his first cap since playing in the 1966 FIFA World Cup finals against France. Terry McDermott's emergence would see him make his debut in the same match with Ray Clemence, Phil Neal, Emlyn Hughes and Ray Kennedy playing as well. Kevin Keegan played in the match, making it seven current and former Liverpool players in that game. Ray Clemence Peter McDonnell Steve Ogrizovic Emlyn Hughes Joey Jones Brian Kettle Alec Lindsay Phil Neal Tommy Smith Phil Thompson Alan Hansen Colin Irwin Ian Callaghan Jimmy Case Steve Heighway Sammy Lee Ray Kennedy Terry McDermott Graeme Souness David Fairclough Kenny Dalglish Kevin Kewley John Toshack David Johnson LFC – 1977–78 season Liverweb - 1977-78 Season