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Human skeleton

The human skeleton is the internal framework of the human body. It is composed of around 270 bones at birth – this total decreases to around 206 bones by adulthood after some bones get fused together; the bone mass in the skeleton reaches maximum density around age 21. The human skeleton can be divided into the appendicular skeleton; the axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, the rib cage, the skull and other associated bones. The appendicular skeleton, attached to the axial skeleton, is formed by the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle and the bones of the upper and lower limbs; the human skeleton performs six major functions. The human skeleton is not as sexually dimorphic as that of many other primate species, but subtle differences between sexes in the morphology of the skull, long bones, pelvis exist. In general, female skeletal elements tend to be smaller and less robust than corresponding male elements within a given population; the human female pelvis is different from that of males in order to facilitate childbirth.

Unlike most primates, human males do not have penile bones. The axial skeleton is formed by the vertebral column, a part of the rib cage, the skull; the upright posture of humans is maintained by the axial skeleton, which transmits the weight from the head, the trunk, the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints. The bones of the spine are supported by many ligaments; the erector spinae muscles are supporting and are useful for balance. The appendicular skeleton is formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle or pelvis, the lower limbs, their functions are to make locomotion possible and to protect the major organs of digestion and reproduction. The skeleton serves six major functions: support, protection, production of blood cells, storage of minerals and endocrine regulation; the skeleton provides the framework which maintains its shape. The pelvis, associated ligaments and muscles provide a floor for the pelvic structures. Without the rib cages, costal cartilages, intercostal muscles, the lungs would collapse.

The joints between bones allow movement, some allowing a wider range of movement than others, e.g. the ball and socket joint allows a greater range of movement than the pivot joint at the neck. Movement is powered by skeletal muscles, which are attached to the skeleton at various sites on bones. Muscles and joints provide the principal mechanics for movement, all coordinated by the nervous system, it is believed that the reduction of human bone density in prehistoric times reduced the agility and dexterity of human movement. Shifting from hunting to agriculture has caused human bone density to reduce significantly; the skeleton helps to protect our many vital internal organs from being damaged. The skull protects the brain; the rib cage and sternum protect the lungs and major blood vessels. The skeleton is the site of haematopoiesis, the development of blood cells that takes place in the bone marrow. In children, haematopoiesis occurs in the marrow of the long bones such as the femur and tibia.

In adults, it occurs in the pelvis, cranium and sternum. The bone matrix can store calcium and is involved in calcium metabolism, bone marrow can store iron in ferritin and is involved in iron metabolism. However, bones are not made of calcium, but a mixture of chondroitin sulfate and hydroxyapatite, the latter making up 70% of a bone. Hydroxyapatite is in turn composed of 39.8% of calcium, 41.4% of oxygen, 18.5% of phosphorus, 0.2% of hydrogen by mass. Chondroitin sulfate is a sugar made up of oxygen and carbon. Bone cells release a hormone called osteocalcin, which contributes to the regulation of blood sugar and fat deposition. Osteocalcin increases both the insulin secretion and sensitivity, in addition to boosting the number of insulin-producing cells and reducing stores of fat. Anatomical differences between human males and females are pronounced in some soft tissue areas, but tend to be limited in the skeleton; the human skeleton is not as sexually dimorphic as that of many other primate species, but subtle differences between sexes in the morphology of the skull, long bones, pelvis are exhibited across human populations.

In general, female skeletal elements tend to be smaller and less robust than corresponding male elements within a given population. It is not known to what extent those differences are genetic or environmental. A variety of gross morphological traits of the human skull demonstrate sexual dimorphism, such as the median nuchal line, mastoid processes, supraorbital margin, supraorbital ridge, the chin. Human inter-sex dental dimorphism centers on the canine teeth, but it is not nearly as pronounced as in the other great apes. Long bones are larger in males than in females within a given population. Muscle attachment sites on long bones are more robust in males than in females, reflecting a difference in overall muscle mass and development between sexes. Sexual dimorphism in the long bones is characterized by morphometric or gross morphological analyses; the human pelvis exhibits greater sexual dimorphism than other bones in the size and shape of the pelvic cavity, greater sciatic notches, the sub-pubic angle.

The Phenice method is commo

Stonefort, Illinois

Stonefort is a village in Saline and Williamson counties, United States. The population was 297 at the 2010 census. Stonefort is named for an ancient rock fortification that stood in the vicinity when the first settlers started arriving in the area in the early 1800s; the village of Stonefort was established in the late 1850s, was located about a mile to the southeast, near the edge of the bluff. When the Cairo and Vincennes Railroad was completed through the area in the 1870s, Stonefort's public buildings were dismantled and moved to the village's present location, adjacent to the railroad tracks; the former site of the village is now listed as "Oldtown" on maps. Stonefort is located at 37°37′0″N 88°42′26″W; the village is situated atop a ridge that rises above the South Fork Saline River valley to the north and the Little Saline River valley to the south. U. S. Route 45 connects Stonefort with Carrier Mills to the northeast and New Burnside to the southwest; the Tunnel Hill State Trail, a 45-mile rail trail, traverses Stonefort.

According to the 2010 census, Stonefort has a total area of 1.456 square miles, of which 1.45 square miles is land and 0.006 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 297 people, 131 households, 89 families residing in the village; the population density was 199.9 people per square mile. There were 144 housing units at an average density of 98.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.60% White, 1.03% African American, 1.03% from other races, 0.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population. There were 131 households out of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.70. In the village, the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 4.5% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 24.0% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $28,654, the median income for a family was $31,442. Males had a median income of $38,125 versus $22,083 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,937. About 6.0% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 18.0% of those sixty five or over. Media related to Stonefort, Illinois at Wikimedia Commons

Aga Khan Agency for Microfinance

Aga Khan Agency for Microfinance is a microfinancing agency of the Aga Khan Development Network. Microfinance is the provision of a broad range of financial services, for those who do not have access, such as deposits, payment services, money transfers and insurance products, to low-income households to help them raise their income levels and improve their quality of life. AKAM was formally inaugurated in February 2005 by Aga Khan IV and the former president of the World Bank, James Wolfensohn; the not-for-profit agency is based in Geneva, Switzerland. It is governed by an independent Board of Directors chaired by the Aga Khan. AKAM brings together the financial services programming of the Aga Khan Development Network, at the lower end of the ladder and consolidating their objectives and principles of development under one institutional umbrella; the agency belongs to AKDN's social development branch, as such AKAM operates in both rural and urban areas, seeks to alleviate poverty by helping to improve incomes and quality of life through various programmes and partnerships.

Today, AKAM operates in developing countries including Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mali, Pakistan, Syria and Tanzania and provides various microfinance opportunities whose “versatility allows it to be adapted to the needs and circumstances of the poor in urban and in rural environments.”At the end of 2010 it had 156 branches in South, Central Asia, the Middle East, West Africa and East Africa, with 3,120 employees. Since its establishment in 2005, AKAM has assumed responsibility for microfinance programs that were administered by other agencies within AKDN for more than 25 years. At the end of June 2010, the agency managed a loan portfolio of over US$147.7 million in outstanding micro and medium-sized loans to over 287,240 beneficiaries in 13 countries. The underlying objectives of the Agency are to “alleviate economic and social exclusion, diminish the vulnerability of poor populations and reduce poverty” so as to make the beneficiaries “self-reliant and gain the skills needed to graduate to the mainstream financial markets”.

To articulate its approach, AKAM has formulated a series of key principles. These are: Providing a broad range of microfinance services Aiming to balance costs with revenue but generate a modest surplus to contribute to the expansion of services and geographic coverage Operating alongside other AKDN agencies to draw on their experience Utilizing institutional approaches and instruments that facilitate access and address the diversity of contexts and cultures Consolidating all practices to ensure that procedures are transparent and appropriately documented with trained staff Focusing on positive growth as required by contexts and circumstance Drawing on partnerships outside the Network such as governments, international agencies and professional organizations to expand the general frame of reference and maximize success AKAM throughout the years has received support from numerous institutions all over the world. Support in this case is defined as the provision of funding and/or technical assistance.

The following is a list of the international institutions and organizations which as of 2011 have supported AKAM: Agence Francaise de Dévéloppement, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, BlueOrchard, the Canadian International Development Agency, DEG, the European Investment Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Financierings-Maatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden, the International Finance Corporation, the Japanese International Cooperation Agency, Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau, MicroFinanza Rating, the Microfinance Investment Support Facility for Afghanistan, PlaNet Finance Group, Triple Jump, the World Bank Group, the United States Department of Agriculture and the United States Agency for International Development. The First MicroFinance Bank-Afghanistan was founded in 2003 and became one of the first banks to be under Afghanistan's legal framework on microfinance. FMFB-A opened its first branch in Kabul in May 2004 with KfW Banking Group and the International Finance Corporation as shareholders.

The microfinance market was estimated at over 303,000 clients at the end of 2009, still only 18 percent of the two million households living under the poverty line in the country. FMFB-A is the largest microfinance institution in Afghanistan in terms of outstanding portfolio size with US$45.7 million in 2010 in microfinance loans compared to US$39.8 million in 2009. Of the total portfolio, 31 percent of the client base is rural; the institution's rural portfolio represents 13,490 loans disbursed valued at US$22 million. FMFB-A has a network of 45 branches, 17 of which are in rural areas, covering 14 provinces; the First MicroCredit Company, launched as a microfinance programme in 2003, was established in its present form as a microcredit company, in 2006. It is the largest microfinance provider in the southern region of the Kyrgyz Republic. Over 950,000 people, or 65 percent of the population, work in the agrarian sector and 44 percent of people in the Kyrgyz Republic work on family farms; the number of FMCC loans outstanding totalled over 11,980 at the end of 2009.

This is a 21 percent increase over 2008. About 41 percent of beneficiaries of the loan portfolio were women. Adding together all of the clients, the loans disbursed were valued at more than US$13.2 million. The First MicroFinance Bank-Pakistan was the first bank to be licensed in Pakistan, in March 2002, under the country's new microfinance regulatory framework, it began as a programme in Rawalpindi and Karachi in 2002. In 2009, FM

Jeff Black (singer-songwriter)

Jeff Black is an American singer-songwriter from Kansas City and now based in Nashville, Tennessee. His writings have been described in the Allmusic as "impressionistic songs that are smart without forgetting the emotional undercurrent." His songs have been covered by Alison Krauss, Waylon Jennings, Sam Bush, Jerry Douglas and BlackHawk. BlackHawk's cover of Black's song, "That's Just About Right," was a Top 10 Country single in 1996. BlackHawk's cover of Black's song, "King Of The World" was a Top 30 Country single in 1998. Black co-wrote the title track Circles Around Me with Sam Bush for his 2009 Grammy nominated album Circles Around Me. Black has released 10 of his own self-produced tours widely, he is recognized as a digital music pioneer by NPR for his podcast, Black Tuesdays. Jeff Black was born in 1962 in Kansas City and grew up in Liberty, Missouri. Black received his first guitar as a present for his tenth birthday. In his twenties Black began performing at Blayney's, a Kansas City blues club where he worked as a bouncer.

Soon Black began touring and relocated to Nashville, Tennessee where he re-connected with Kansas City friend, Iris DeMent. Black's own first album, Birmingham Road, was recorded with the members of the band Wilco, minus lead singer, Jeff Tweedy; the songs have been described as "fine portraits of American life without the sappiness or self-consciousness attributed to the singer/songwriter genre." Birmingham Road Honey and Salt B-Sides and Confessions, Volume One Tin Lily Sleepy Town Mining For Gold Christmas Sunshine Plow Through The Mystic B-Sides and Confessions, Volume Two Folklore A Walk In The Sun "Birmingham Road" Birmingham Road "That's Just About Right" Birmingham Road Jeff Black.com, official web site Folk Alley Sessions, Archives Folk Alley First Listen, Archives Woodsongs Old-Time Radio Hour, see episode #250

Bartolomeo Maranta

Bartolomeo Maranta Bartholomaeus Marantha was an Italian physician and literary theorist. The Marantaceae, a family of herbaceous perennials related to the gingers, are named after him, his name was given to a street in Rome. Maranta was born in Venosa, in 1500 or 1514, to the lawyer and academic Roberto Maranta from Venosa, Beatrice Monna, a noblewoman from Molfetta. Having graduated at Naples, around 1550 he moved to Pisa where he became a student of the botanist and physician Luca Ghini. From 1554 to 1556, he worked with the botanical garden of Naples that Gian Vincenzo Pinelli had founded, around 1568 helped found a botanical garden in Rome, he was a friend of the naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi, twenty-two letters from their correspondence survive. Maranta was both the friend and rival of Pietro Andrea Mattioli; the two competed upon the death of Ghini over which of them would inherit their teacher's papers and herbarium. Maranta died in Melfi. Maranta was physician to the Duke of Mantua and to Cardinal Branda Castiglioni.

He combined his interests in medicine and botany in Methodi cognoscendorum simplicium, in which he organized the subject of botanical pharmacology by nomenclature, species identification, medicinal properties. Maranta and other 16th-century naturalists differed from their classical predecessors in allowing empirical evidence to have a direct shaping influence on their work. Maranta maintained that theriac had been tested on criminals condemned to death and was proven in antiquity to be infallible, it was a treatment for all diseases. If theriac failed to produce results, he said, it was because the physicians and pharmacists of his own time lacked the knowledge to compound it. Maranta conducted experiments in the natural history museum of Ferrante Imperato on the proportion of wine needed to dissolve the ingredients for theriac, claiming that "it preserves the healthy" and "cures the sick." But theriac was a controversial drug. Maranta's literary theorizing, like that of Aristotle commentator Francesco Buonamici, is Aristotelian.

His major work of literary criticism is Lucullianae quaestiones, in five volumes. One of Maranta's interests is the effects of maraviglia, or "the marvelous," on plot. Torquato Tasso had defined maraviglia in epic as "any virtuous feat that surpassed the ordinary capacity of great men," including miracles, but maraviglia could derive from verbal artistry and style. Maranta describes the "marvels" of tragedy and epic as that, "unheard of, beyond expectation."Like Buonamici, Maranta sought to resist the Renaissance tendency to regard poetry as subject to rhetoric. But of the Italian literary critics, only Maranta makes a point of insisting on the superiority of poetry to both rhetoric and history. In this regard, he has been compared to Philip Sidney, although his work was not to have been known by the English poet and critic. Maranta believed that poets were more powerful teachers than philosophers because their discourse is made vivid, rather than abstract, by moving the passions and demonstrating behavior.

Note: Some information in this article was taken from its counterpart in the French Wikipedia

16bit (band)

16bit were an electronic music duo, consisting of Eddie Jefferys and Jason Morrison. They were signed to Chase & Status' MTA Records, best known for their work with Björk. 16bit were composed of Eddie Jefferys from South London and Jason Morrison from Somerset. Both became interested in electronic music at an early age, citing jungle, garage as their main influences, they were best known for producing dubstep and made their debut release in January 2008 with In The Death Car EP featuring the track "Chainsaw Calligraphy", recognised for its innovative qualities at the time. Fourteen of 16bit's songs were used as the soundtrack for the iOS and WiiWare video game Lilt Line; the duo co-produced "Crystalline" and "Mutual Core" off Björk's 2011 album Biophilia. They subsequently remixed both "Mutual Core" and "Hollow"; the album was nominated for two Grammy awards. Jefferys and Morrison went to Brooklyn. Björk explained that "I was torn about whether to use their version of'Hollow' on the album, their beats for'Crystalline' and'Mutual Core' made it on there, but in the end'Hollow' wound up on the remix album".

While Jefferys said of the collaboration that "working with such abstract time signatures was a strange mix of confusing and enjoyable. She has been so successful without compromising her music or herself", they produced the single "At Your Inconvenience" from the eponymous album of Professor Green. In 2012, the duo had produced the track "I Am the Narrator" from Plan B's third studio album iLL Manors, their 2010 remix of Noisia's "Machine Gun" was used in a trailer and various TV spots for Transformers: Dark of the Moon. The remix was used in the trailer for Far Cry 3. In 2010, their track'Jump' was featured in the Nike commercial'Hit The Target'.16bit won'Best Mix' at the 2010 Dubstep Forum Awards for their'Milky Pie Mix' and came second top in the Best Producer category. Although they stated that the intention was to release a full-length album, it never materialised. In mid-2012, the duo split to pursue solo production careers for unknown reasons. Jefferys relocated to Chicago. Eddie Jefferys has since released music under the alias "Moody Good".

He released his debut album with MTA Records and OWSLA on 2 June 2014. Jefferys produced a single for the rap group Foreign Beggars entitled "Anywhere", provided additional production for the Chase & Status track "Gangsta Boogie" and remixed Yogi's single featuring Pusha T'Burial'. Jason Morrison was working on his own solo project known as The 13, but he decided to retire the project, he is working under the alternative alias "jaswan", which he has released solo music on Bandcamp as, has all of his tracks listed on SoundCloud and Spotify. Put Ya Dirt Inside/Ford Fiesta PCP/President of Europe In The Death Car EP Texaco Cobra/Jump/Can You Show Me What Head Is Swine Flu/What Time Is It? The Tale of the Exploding Fist EP Serum FRZR9000/Skullcrack Panic Chainsaw Calligraphy EP 16 Bit Edition 1 16 Bit Edition 2 Dinosaurs/Boston Cream Plan B – "She Said" Torqux – "Relentless" SKisM – "The Blank" Propatingz feat. Dakini – "Babylons Scared" Noisia – "Machine Gun" Professor Green – "Jungle" Borgore – "Foes" Kissy Sellout – "Garden Friends" Amon Tobin – "Surge" Chase & Status – "Hitz" Björk – "Hollow" Björk – "Mutual Core" 16bit on Facebook 16bit discography at Discogs