SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Human voice

The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, laughing, screaming, yelling etc. The human voice frequency is a part of human sound production in which the vocal folds are the primary sound source. Speaking, the mechanism for generating the human voice can be subdivided into three parts; the lungs, the "pump" must produce adequate air pressure to vibrate vocal folds. The vocal folds vibrate to use airflow from the lungs to create audible pulses that form the laryngeal sound source; the muscles of the larynx adjust the length and tension of the vocal folds to ‘fine-tune’ pitch and tone. The articulators articulate and filter the sound emanating from the larynx and to some degree can interact with the laryngeal airflow to strengthen or weaken it as a sound source; the vocal folds, in combination with the articulators, are capable of producing intricate arrays of sound. The tone of voice may be modulated to suggest emotions such as anger, fear, happiness or sadness.

The human voice is used to express emotion, can reveal the age and sex of the speaker. Singers use the human voice as an instrument for creating music. Adult men and women have different sizes of vocal fold. Adult male voices are lower-pitched and have larger folds; the male vocal folds, are between 17 25 mm in length. The female vocal folds are between 17.5 mm in length. The folds are within the larynx, they are attached at the back to the arytenoids cartilages, at the front to the thyroid cartilage. They have no outer edge as they blend into the side of the breathing tube while their inner edges or "margins" are free to vibrate, they have a three layer construction of an epithelium, vocal ligament muscle, which can shorten and bulge the folds. They are pearly white in color. Above both sides of the vocal cord is the vestibular fold or false vocal cord, which has a small sac between its two folds; the difference in vocal folds size between men and women means that they have differently pitched voices.

Additionally, genetics causes variances amongst the same sex, with men's and women's singing voices being categorized into types. For example, among men, there are bass, baritone and countertenor, among women, mezzo-soprano and soprano. There are additional categories for operatic voices; this is not the only source of difference between male and female voice. Men speaking, have a larger vocal tract, which gives the resultant voice a lower-sounding timbre; this is independent of the vocal folds themselves. Human spoken language makes use of the ability of all people in a given society to dynamically modulate certain parameters of the laryngeal voice source in a consistent manner; the most important communicative, or phonetic, parameters are the voice pitch and the degree of separation of the vocal folds, referred to as vocal fold adduction or abduction. The ability to vary the ab/adduction of the vocal folds has a strong genetic component, since vocal fold adduction has a life-preserving function in keeping food from passing into the lungs, in addition to the covering action of the epiglottis.

The muscles that control this action are among the fastest in the body. Children can learn to use this action during speech at an early age, as they learn to speak the difference between utterances such as "apa" as "aba". Enough, they can learn to do this well before the age of two by listening only to the voices of adults around them who have voices much different from their own, though the laryngeal movements causing these phonetic differentiations are deep in the throat and not visible to them. If an abductory movement or adductory movement is strong enough, the vibrations of the vocal folds will stop. If the gesture is abductory and is part of a speech sound, the sound will be called voiceless. However, voiceless speech sounds are sometimes better identified as containing an abductory gesture if the gesture was not strong enough to stop the vocal folds from vibrating; this anomalous feature of voiceless speech sounds is better understood if it is realized that it is the change in the spectral qualities of the voice as abduction proceeds, the primary acoustic attribute that the listener attends to when identifying a voiceless speech sound, not the presence or absence of voice.

An adductory gesture is identified by the change in voice spectral energy it produces. Thus, a speech sound having an adductory gesture may be referred to as a "glottal stop" if the vocal fold vibrations do not stop. Other aspects of the voice, such as variations in the regularity of vibration, are used for communication, are important for the trained voice user to maste

Yermak (1898 icebreaker)

Yermak was a Russian and Soviet icebreaker. It was the first polar icebreaker in the world, having a strengthened hull shaped to ride over and crush pack ice. Yermak was built for the Imperial Russian Navy under the supervision of vice-admiral S. O. Makarov by the members of his commission, which included D. I. Mendeleev, engineers N. I. Yankovsky and R. I. Runeberg, admiral F. F. Wrangel, among others, it was built in Newcastle upon Tyne at its Low Walker yard and launched in 1898. She was named after the famous Russian explorer of Don Cossack ataman Yermak Timofeyevich, she was commissioned on 17 October 1898. She arrived in Kronstadt on 4 March 1899 after breaking through ice and a formal reception was held to mark her arrival. In 1899 she reached 81°21'N north of Spitsbergen, she had been constructed to break through heavy ice. Yermak had been used in the winter of 1899–1900 to set up the first radio communication link in Russia between Kotka and Gogland island. In 1900 she came to the aid of the cruiser Gromoboi.

Between 1899–1911 Yermak sailed in heavy ice conditions for more than 1000 days. During World War I she assisted the Baltic Fleet during the Ice cruise when the fleet was evacuated from Helsinki to Kronstadt in February 1918. During World War II the Yermak was mobilised again and took part in the evacuation of Hanko naval base, she was armed with two 76 mm, four 45 mm and four machine guns. Yermak served with different branches of the Russian and Soviet Navy and Merchant Marine up until 1964, becoming one of the longest-serving icebreakers in the world. An island in the Nordenskiöld Archipelago was named after her. A monument to the icebreaker Yermak was unveiled in Murmansk In November 1965 – this included mosaic panels and the original anchor on the pedestal. Another icebreaker with the name Yermak was built for the Soviet Union at the Wärtsilä Helsinki shipyard, Finland in 1974. Russia employs an icebreaker named Yermak in the Baltic Sea as late as 2010. Ice Cruise of the Baltic Fleet Alexander Stepanovich Popov History of icebreakers, by the US Coast Guard

Pakistani cricket team in England and Ireland in 2016

The Pakistan national cricket team toured England and Ireland from 3 July to 7 September 2016 for a four-match Test series, a five-match One Day International series and a one-off Twenty20 International against the England cricket team. They played two three-day matches against Somerset and Sussex prior to the Test series, a two-day match against Worcestershire during the Test series, two ODI matches against Ireland prior to the ODI series. England's ODI matches against Pakistan was the first to trial a system where the TV umpire calls the front-foot no-ball, instead of the on-field umpire. During the third ODI match of the series, England set a new record team total when they scored 444 runs, with Alex Hales setting a new individual total for an England batsman when he scored 171; the Test series was drawn 2–2, England won the ODI series 4–1, Pakistan won the one-off T20I match by 9 wickets. The fixtures formed part of a points-based scoring system, introduced in their series against Sri Lanka in May 2016.

England won the Super Series 16–12. † Toby Roland-Jones was dropped from the England Test squad after James Anderson and Ben Stokes were recalled for the 2nd Test. David Willey was ruled out of the ODI series after suffering an injury in the final of the 2016 NatWest t20 Blast, with Jake Ball named as his replacement. However, Willey's injury was not as serious as first thought, with him rejoining the squad, with Ball retaining his place. Mohammad Irfan was replaced by Hasan Ali. Series home at ESPNCricinfo