SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Humayun

Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad, better known by his regnal name, was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Afghanistan, Northern India, Bangladesh from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned one million square kilometres. In December 1530, Humayun succeeded his father to the throne of Delhi as ruler of the Mughal territories in the Indian subcontinent. Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power, at the age of 22, his half-brother Kamran Mirza inherited Kabul and Kandahar, the northernmost parts of their father's empire. Kamran was to become a bitter rival of Humayun. Humayun lost Mughal territories to Sher Shah Suri, but regained them 15 years with Safavid aid. Humayun's return from Persia was accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen and signalled an important change in Mughal court culture.

The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India dating from the time of Humayun. Subsequently, Humayun further expanded the Empire in a short time, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar; the decision of Babur to divide the territories of his empire between two of his sons was unusual in India, although it had been a common Central Asian practice since the time of Genghis Khan. Unlike most monarchies, which practised primogeniture, the Timurids followed the example of Genghis and did not leave an entire kingdom to the eldest son. Although under that system only a Chingissid could claim sovereignty and khanal authority, any male Chinggisid within a given sub-branch had an equal right to the throne. While Genghis Khan's Empire had been peacefully divided between his sons upon his death every Chinggisid succession since had resulted in fratricide.

Timur himself had divided his territories among Pir Muhammad, Miran Shah, Khalil Sultan and Shah Rukh, which resulted in inter-family warfare. Upon Babur's death, Humayun's territories were the least secure, he had ruled only four years, not all umarah viewed Humayun as the rightful ruler. Indeed, when Babur had become ill, some of the nobles had tried to install his Brother-in-law, Mahdi Khwaja, as ruler. Although this attempt failed, it was a sign of problems to come; when Humayun came to the throne of the Mughal Empire, several of his brothers revolted against him. Another brother Khalil Mirza was assassinated; the Emperor commenced construction of a tomb for his brother in 1538, but this was not yet finished when Humayun was forced to flee to Persia. Sher Shah destroyed no further work was done on it after Humayun's restoration. Humayun had two major rivals for his lands: Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat to the southwest and Sher Shah Suri settled along the river Ganges in Bihar to the east. Humayun's first campaign was to confront Sher Shah Suri.

Halfway through this offensive Humayun had to abandon it and concentrate on Gujarat, where a threat from Ahmed Shah had to be met. Humayun was victorious annexing Gujarat, Malwa and the great fort of Mandu. During the first five years of Humayun's reign and Sher Khan extended their rule, although Sultan Bahadur faced pressure in the east from sporadic conflicts with the Portuguese. While the Mughals had obtained firearms via the Ottoman Empire, Bahadur's Gujarat had acquired them through a series of contracts drawn up with the Portuguese, allowing the Portuguese to establish a strategic foothold in north western India. In 1535 Humayun was made aware that the Sultan of Gujarat was planning an assault on the Mughal territories with Portuguese aid. Humayun marched on Bahadur. Within a month he had captured the forts of Champaner. However, instead of pressing his attack, Humayun ceased the campaign and consolidated his newly conquered territory. Sultan Bahadur, meanwhile took up refuge with the Portuguese.

Shortly after Humayun had marched on Gujarat, Sher Shah Suri saw an opportunity to wrest control of Agra from the Mughals. He began to gather his army together hoping for a decisive siege of the Mughal capital. Upon hearing this alarming news, Humayun marched his troops back to Agra allowing Bahadur to regain control of the territories Humayun had taken. In February 1537, Bahadur was killed when a botched plan to kidnap the Portuguese viceroy ended in a fire-fight that the Sultan lost. Whilst Humayun succeeded in protecting Agra from Sher Shah, the second city of the Empire, Gaur the capital of the vilayat of Bengal, was sacked. Humayun's troops had been delayed while trying to take Chunar, a fort occupied by Sher Shah's son, in order to protect his troops from an attack from the rear; the stores of grain at Gauri, the largest in the empire, were emptied, Humayun arrived to see corpses littering the roads. The vast wealth of Bengal was brought East, giving Sher Shah a substantial war chest. Sher Shah withdrew to the east, but Humayun did not follow: instead he "shut himself up for a considerable time in his Harem, indulged himself in every kind of luxury".

Hindal, Humayun's 19-year-old brother, had agreed to aid him in this battle and protect the rear from attack, but he abandoned his position and withdrew to Agra, where he decreed himself acting em

The Source (novel)

The Source is a historical novel by James A. Michener, first published in 1965, it is a survey of the history of the Jewish people and the land of Israel from pre-monotheistic days to the birth of the modern State of Israel. The Source uses, for its central device, a fictional tell in northern Israel called "Makor". Prosaically, the name comes from a freshwater well just north of Makor, but symbolically it stands for much more and spiritually. Unlike most Michener novels, this book is not in strict chronological order. A parallel frame story set in Israel in the 1960s supports the historical timeline. Archaeologists digging at the tell at Makor uncover artifacts from each layer, which serve as the basis for a chapter exploring the lives of the people involved with that artifact; the book follows the story of the Family of Ur from a Stone Age family whose wife begins to believe that there is a supernatural force, which leads us to the beginnings of monotheism. The descendants are not aware of the ancient antecedents revealed to the reader by the all-knowing writer as the story progresses through the Davidic kingdom, Hellenistic times, Roman times, etc.

The site is continually inhabited until the end of the Crusades when it is destroyed by the victorious Mameluks and is not rebuilt by the Ottomans. The Tell – 1963, three archeologists, a Jew, a Catholic, a Muslim, are at a modern archeological dig; the story moves back and forth between the historical chapters and the modern dig at the tell at Makor. The Bee-Eater – Introduction to the Ur family in Stone Age times and their first move into an agricultural society. Of Death and Life – Starting prior to 2000 BCE, the concept of an ultimate supreme being takes root with the introduction of the Cult of El, as are some barbaric and mystic practices, like child sacrifice and temple prostitution. An Old Man and His God – Bronze Age, an early view of Hebrews as they moved from the desert life into Canaan and brought along the early teachings of El Shaddai. Makor is sacked by the Hebrews in 1491 BCE. Psalm of the Hoopoe Bird – Takes place 1040–970 BCE, during the last years of King David; the Voice of Gomer – Takes place 605 BCE – 562 BCE.

Following the Egyptian defeat at the Battle of Carchemish, Nebuchadnezzar II marches into the Levant and deports the Jews to Babylon. In the Gymnasium – 222–187 BCE, Jewish life under the Seleucid Empire. King of the Jews – 74 BCE – 4 CE: this chapter is told in epistolary form and describes the rise of the ambitious Herod the Great to his eventual downfall into madness. Yigal and His Three Generals – 12-70 CE: this chapter begins with rule of the mad Caligula and his attempt to force idolatry on the Jews. After his death, he was replaced by the madder Nero, who ordered Vespasian to repress Josephus and the Jewish rebellion; the Law – This chapter takes place after the Empress Helena's pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Christianity is being forced in Galilee; this chapter is about two Jews who convert to Christianity due to the strictness of the Talmud, but are soon disenfranchised by the Christian Schism. This chapter is the fictional origin of St. Mark. A Day in the Life of a Desert Rider – This chapter begins with the introduction of Islam to the Holy Land by Muslim conquests.

Volkmar – This chapter opens with Peter the Hermit as he travels the European countryside in search of participants for the ill-fated People's Crusade. It concludes with the Siege of Jerusalem; the Fires of Ma Coeur – In 1291, the last crusader strongholds begin to fall to the Mamaluks. The final stronghold is Acre; the Saintly Men of Safed – This chapter focuses on the three Rabbis who meet in Safed while escaping the Spanish Inquisition and European pogroms, their culture clashes between Sephardim and Kabbalistic traditions. Twilight of an Empire – In the 1880s the Ottoman Empire is falling apart and this chapter delves into the deep corruption in the public administration and Sultan Abdul Hamid II's backlash at reform. Rebbe Itzik and the Sabra – 1948 – The new state of Israel starts to emerge; this chapter deals with the origins of two characters in the present day narrative – Ilan Eliav and Vered Bar El. The Tell – culmination of the novel and rediscovery of the well built and described in the previous chapter Psalm of the Hoopoe Bird.

In the early civilizations, the concept of fertility sprouts from agriculture and the desire for a fruitful harvest. During the earliest layer of history, the giant stone idol named El is created to please the earth and bring good crops; as society moves away from a rural and agricultural existence, fertility is given less and less importance. The phallic is present from the Stone Age, until 606 BCE; as modern Judaism begins to take form, the theme of dedication and tenacity is brought forward again and again. The final words of many of the book's characters are of prayer; as anti-semitism becomes more prevalent, this theme grows stronger, as if to show the strength of the faith that the Jewish people hold. The Source, at Random House The Source, at Books on Tape

2006 IIHF World U18 Championship Division III

The 2006 IIHF World U18 Championship Division III was an international under-18 ice hockey tournament run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. The Division III tournament made up the fourth level of competition at the 2006 IIHF World U18 Championships and took place between 13 and 19 March 2006 in Miercurea Ciuc, Romania; the tournament was won by Romania who upon winning gained promotion, along with Israel who finished in second place, to Division II of the 2007 IIHF World U18 Championships. The 2006 IIHF World U18 Championship Division III began on 13 March 2006 in Romania. Bulgaria, New Zealand and Turkey all returned to compete in the Division III competition after missing promotion at the previous years World Championships. Romania and South Africa entered the Division III competition after being relegated from the Division II tournaments of the 2005 IIHF World U18 Championships. Romania finished first after winning all five of their games and gained promotion to Division II of the 2007 IIHF World U18 Championships.

Israel who finished in second place gained promotion to Division II, while South Africa finished third after managing to win only two and tie one of their five games of the tournament. Bulgaria and Turkey who finished fifth and sixth were relegated to the Division III Qualification tournament for the 2007 IIHF World U18 Championships. Daniel Erlich of Israel finished as the tournaments top scorer after recording 26 points including 12 goals and 14 assists. Romania's Istvan Csergo finished as the tournaments leading goaltender with a save percentage of 96.00. All times local. List shows the top ten skaters sorted by points goals. Only the top five goaltenders, based on save percentage, who have played 40% of their team's minutes are included in this list. International Ice Hockey Federation