Northern England known as the North of England or the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area. It extends from the Scottish border in the north to near the River Trent in the south, although precise definitions of its southern extent vary. Northern England comprises three statistical regions: the North East, North West and Yorkshire and the Humber; these have a combined population of around 14.9 million as of the 2011 Census and an area of 37,331 km2. Northern England contains much of England's national parkland but has large areas of urbanisation, including the conurbations of Greater Manchester, Teesside, Tyneside and South and West Yorkshire; the region has been controlled by many groups, from the Brigantes, the largest Brythonic kingdom of Great Britain, to the Romans, to Anglo-Saxons and Danes. After the Norman conquest in 1066, the Harrying of the North brought destruction; the area experienced Anglo-Scottish border fighting until the unification of Britain under the Stuarts, with some parts changing hands between England and Scotland many times.
Many of the innovations of the Industrial Revolution began in Northern England, its cities were the crucibles of many of the political changes that accompanied this social upheaval, from trade unionism to Manchester Capitalism. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the economy of the North was dominated by heavy industry such as weaving, shipbuilding and mining; the deindustrialisation that followed in the second half of the 20th century hit Northern England hard, many towns remain deprived compared with those in Southern England. Urban renewal projects and the transition to a service economy have resulted in strong economic growth in some parts of Northern England, but a definite North–South divide remains both in the economy and the culture of England. Centuries of migration and labour have shaped Northern culture, the region retains distinctive dialects and cuisine. For government and statistical purposes, Northern England is defined as the area covered by the three statistical regions of North East England, North West England and Yorkshire and the Humber.
This area consists of the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, County Durham, East Riding of Yorkshire, Greater Manchester, Merseyside, North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and Wear and West Yorkshire, plus the unitary authority areas of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. This definition will be used except when otherwise stated. Other definitions use historic county boundaries, in which case the North is taken to comprise Cumberland, Westmorland, County Durham and Yorkshire supplemented by Cheshire, or are drawn without reference to human borders, using geographic features such as the River Mersey and River Trent; the Isle of Man is included in definitions of "the North", although it is politically and culturally distinct from England. Some areas of Derbyshire, Lincolnshire and Staffordshire have Northern characteristics and include satellites of Northern cities. Towns in the High Peak borough of Derbyshire are included in the Greater Manchester Built-Up Area, as villages and hamlets there such as Tintwistle and Woodhead were in Cheshire before local government boundary changes in 1974, due to their close proximity to the city of Manchester, before this the borough was considered to be part of the Greater Manchester Statutory City Region.
More the Chesterfield, North East Derbyshire and Derbyshire Dales districts have joined with districts of South Yorkshire to form the Sheffield City Region, along with the Bassetlaw District of Nottinghamshire, although for all other purposes these districts still remain in their respective East Midlands counties. The geographer Danny Dorling includes most of the West Midlands and part of the East Midlands in his definition of the North, claiming that "ideas of a midlands region add more confusion than light". Conversely, more restrictive definitions exist based on the extent of the historical Northumbria, which exclude Cheshire and Lincolnshire. Personal definitions of the North vary and are sometimes passionately debated; when asked to draw a dividing line between North and South, Southerners tend to draw this line further south than Northerners do. From the Southern perspective, Northern England is sometimes defined jokingly as the area north of the Watford Gap between Northampton and Leicester – a definition which would include much of the Midlands.
Various cities and towns have been described as or promoted themselves as the "gateway to the North", including Crewe, Stoke-on-Trent, Sheffield. For some in the northernmost reaches of England, the North starts somewhere in North Yorkshire around the River Tees – the Yorkshire poet Simon Armitage suggests Thirsk, Northallerton or Richmond – and does not include cities like Manchester and Leeds, nor the majority of Yorkshire. Northern England is not a homogenous unit, some have rejected the idea that the North exists as a coherent entity, claiming that considerable cultural differences across the area overwhelm any similarities. Through the North of England run the Pennines, an upland chain referred to as "the backbone of England", which stretches from the Tyne Gap to the Peak District. Other uplands in the North include the Lake District with England's highest mountains, the Cheviot Hills adjoining the border with Scotland, the North York Moors near the North Sea coastline; the geography of the North has been shaped by the ice she
Immingham is a town, civil parish and ward in the North East Lincolnshire unitary authority of England. It is situated on the south-west bank of the Humber Estuary, is 6 miles north-west from Grimsby; the region was unpopulated and undeveloped until the early 1900s, when the Great Central Railway began developing its Immingham Dock. The Immingham Ward of North East Lincolnshire Council includes Stallingborough and Habrough; as of 2018, its elected councillors are Stewart Swinburn, David Bolton, David Watson. Population of the ward in 2001 was 11,804 persons, 11,507 persons in 2011. European route E22 passes through Immingham on the A160 via Immingham Dock; the civil parish of Immingham is located on the south bank of the Humber Estuary 6.2 miles west-north-west of Grimsby. The civil parish is bounded by South Killingholme to the north-west, with the drain watercourse outfalling at South Killingholme Haven forming the boundary – the county boundary between North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire.
The south-eastern boundary is with the civil parish of Stallingborough, with the North Beck Drain forming most of the boundary. The parish extends to the south-west as far as Roxton, with boundaries to the south-west and south with the civil parishes of Habrough and Keelby; the civil parish is low lying, extending from below 5 metres above sea level near the Humber foreshore, to a peak of 21 metres in Roxton wood in the south-west corner. The main features within the parish are the Humber shoreline, running north-west to south-east, the Immingham Dock and estate, adjacent south of the dock the town of Immingham; the A180 and Stallingborough-Habrough section of the mainline railway west out of Grimsby pass east–west through the southern part of the parish. The A1173 connects the town and dock to the A180. Excluding farms there are no other places of habitation outside the town in the civil parish. There are two abandoned sites of medieval villages in the parish: that of the village of Immingham, north-west of the modern town, near St Andrew's Church.
Population of the civil parish was 9,861 in 2001, 9,642 in 2011. The town of Immingham is a compact urban area of 1 square mile, situated south-west of the dock in the middle of the parish, it is bisected by the B1210. The town has a retail centre, "Kennedy Way", a swimming pool and a golf club, several schools. On the north-eastern outskirts of the town there is a Knauf UK GmbH plant; the name Immingham is thought to mean the "Homestead of the people of Imma". The place was referred to as Imungeham in the Domesday Book, recorded as Immingeham in around 1115; the termination "-ham" is Anglo-Saxon in origin. The patronymic, has been noted as occurring elsewhere, such as in Imminghausen, or Emmingen. Immingham is mentioned as a manor in the 11th century Domesday Book. Saint Andrew's church dates to the early medieval period, with much of the structure dating to the 13th century, with parts of the nave as early as the 11th or 12th century; the tower was constructed in the 16th/17th century, to a similar design to that found in nearby Aylesby and Healing.
The structure was restored in the 1880s and 1920. A decorated octagonal font in the church dates to the 15th C; the remains of a stone cross outside the church dates to the medieval period. There is archaeological evidence of the medieval settlement. Earthwork remains indicating a settlement and agricultural use exist near south of the church. Archaeological evidence of saltmaking has been found north of the village, references to a saltmaking site here exist from the Domesday book, in a late 12th century document describing the gift of land including the saltpan to Newhouse Abbey. In 1608 the village became a location in the story of the Pilgrim Fathers of America. A popular protest secured the release of the women, who were able to rejoin their families, continue the journey. In the medieval period Immingham decline, reduced from 66 households in 1523 to 46 in 1723, in common with other Lincolnshire places on or near the Humber banks; the silting of the haven leading from the Humber has been supposed as one possible cause.
Churchfield Manor, in the north-west of the town dates to the late 1600s/early 1700s. Belmont cottage south of the church dates to the early 1800s. Both are now listed structures; the Ings at Immingham were enclosed in 1840. A coastguard station erected in 1850; the Great Grimsby and Sheffield Junction Railway passed through the parish south of Immingham. In the 1870s the parish of Immingham had a population of 237, whilst Roxton was still known as a small hamlet; the parish had an area of 3,195 acres, good grazing land – much of, owned by the Earl of Yarborough. In addition to th
The River Ancholme is a river in Lincolnshire, a tributary of the Humber. It rises at Ancholme Head, a spring just north of the village of Ingham and west of the Roman Road, Ermine Street, it flows east and north to Bishopbridge, where it is joined by the Rase. North of Bishopbridge it flows through the market town of Brigg before draining into the Humber at South Ferriby, it drains a significant part of northern Lincolnshire between the North Sea. The river has been used by humans since at least 800 BC, confirmed by the excavation of a planked boat at Brigg, patents covering improvements to the river are known from 1287 onwards. Major change occurred in 1635, when a new straight channel was constructed from Bishopbridge to Ferriby; the new channel carries most of the water and is known as the New River Ancholme, whereas the Old River Ancholme maintains its natural course, meandering from side to side. The old course is reduced to a drain, except around the town of Brigg where the two rivers create an island in the centre of Brigg known as'Island Carr'.
Further improvements were started by John Rennie in the early 1800s and completed by his son in the 1820s, with the reconstruction of Ferriby Sluice taking place around 1841. From that time onwards the river was reasonably profitable, although receipts were reduced when railways arrived in the area, trade picked up in the 1890s, was boosted by cargoes of sugar beet in the 1930s. All commercial carrying had ceased above Brigg by the 1970s, stopped altogether in the 1980s; the upper section was derelict by but was restored and dredged in 2004. The river is an important drainage channel for north Lincolnshire, but is used for leisure, with boating, rowing and fishing taking place. Responsibility for the river changed six times between 1930 and 1996, but it is now managed by the Environment Agency; the Ancholme Internal Drainage Board maintains twelve pumping stations on the banks of the river, which pump water from the surrounding low-lying land to prevent flooding. The river supplies large volumes of water to the Scunthorpe Steelworks, to Anglian Water, who use it to provide a public water supply to the South Humber bank industrial area.
In order to maintain this volume of abstraction during the summer months, other dry periods, water is transferred from Barlings Eau, near the River Witham, by the Trent Witham Ancholme transfer scheme, commissioned in 1974. Few of the bridges which cross the river form part of a public road, so they have not been replaced to cope with increased traffic. A number of them are listed structures; the river is home to two historic boats owned by the Humber Keel & Sloop Preservation Society. In its natural post-glacial state, the river's valley was flat-bottomed: it had formed the bed of the glacial Lake Ancholme, on an outwash delta, as the ice retreated, was fenny. There is evidence that boats have used the river from early times, for there have been three significant archaeological finds of ancient boats. Logboats have been found at Brigg and Appleby, a planked boat was found at Brigg in 1888. Professor McGrail conducted a re-excavation of the site in 1974, to discover the bottom of a flat-bottomed boat, made from oak planks, sewn together and caulked with moss.
The boat was thus similar in construction to the Ferriby Boats found on the northern shore of the Humber, but was some 500 years younger, being carbon-dated to around 800 BC. Further evidence of the local importance of the river in prehistory is evidenced by other finds or archaeology close to the river's course; as an example, in the parish of Bishop Norton, situated just over 1 km north of Bishopbridge. In this parish the Lincolnshire Historical Environment Record records just under 90 sites, from different historic periods; the majority of the prehistorical sites, including settlements, are close to the Ancholme. Most of these range from the Neolithic, through the Bronze Age to the Romano-British period; the oldest find in the parish was a Paleolithic handaxe discovered close to the site of the Harlam Hill Lock on a hummock of river gravels. This find dates anywhere from 500,000 BCE to 150,001 BCE; this axe, along with several Neolithic axes are now in Lincoln Museum. The course of the old river acts as a boundary for Bishop Norton and all the other parishes that abut it.
This being the eastern boundary. The fact that the majority of archaeology in the parish, as recorded in the HER that dates from after the construction of the Roman Road, tends to the western end of the parish close to the Roman road, that from earlier periods tends to be closer to the river is suggestive that the River was a primary communications route as well as the provider of physical and economic need, supplanted by the new road. Despite suffering from silting as a result of water from the Humber entering it, passing through land, waterlogged on both sides, the Ancholme offered a route into the communities of northern Lincolnshire. Cargo was carried on it from an early date: in 1287 a patent was granted to allow improvements to be made from Bishopbridge to Ferriby, so that boats could more carry grain and other commodities on the river "as they had done formerly". However, the major concern of the local landowners seems to have been that it should act as an effective drainage channel to prevent inundation of their lands, between 1289 and 1418 the river was mentioned in the Patent Rolls thirteen times.
The need to keep the channel scoured was always mentioned, but navigation was not. The river was
A tidal river is a river whose flow and level are influenced by tides. A section of a larger river affected by the tides is a tidal reach, although it may sometimes be considered a tidal river if it has been given a separate name; the Brisbane River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean from the east coast of Australia, is a tidal river. Tidal rivers are short rivers with low discharge rates but high overall discharge. In some cases, high tides impound downstream flowing freshwater, reversing the flow and increasing the water level of the lower section of river, forming large estuaries. High tides can be noticed as far as 100 kilometres upstream. Oregon's Coquille River is one such stream. Estuary Ria tidal reach tidal bore
Port of Grimsby
The Port of Grimsby is located on the south bank of the Humber Estuary at Grimsby in North East Lincolnshire. Sea trade out of Grimsby dates to at least the medieval period; the Grimsby Haven Company began dock development in the late 1700s, the port was further developed from the 1840s onwards by the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway and its successors. The port has had three main dock systems: The earliest dock, or Old Dock was developed in the 1790s, downriver from the medieval Haven, on the outfall of the same water course. From the 1880s the dock's focus was coal timber. From the 1970s onwards the dock has been used for large-scale car importation; the Royal Dock was developed from the 1840s onwards, contemporary with the arrival of the railway – it was built on a large area of land reclaimed from the Humber Estuary north-east of the original town and harbour. The dock's trade has included a wide variety of goods including coal and general merchandise; the third dock system is the Fish docks, all of which exit from the same lock onto the Humber close to and east of the Royal Dock lock.
The first fish dock was built 1857, expanded southward in 1878 with the addition of a second. In 1934 a third fish dock expanded the No.1 dock, reclaimed additional land from the Humber. The Fish docks and nearby estate were devoted to the landing of fish, maintenance and repair of the Grimsby fishing fleet, which grew into one of the largest in Britain; the fishing industry collapsed in the 1970s due to outside factors. The Grimsby Haven Company was re-incorporated as the Grimsby Dock Company, which amalgamated in 1846 with several railway companies into the MSLR known as the Great Central Railway; the GCR became part of the North Eastern Railway during the 1923 Grouping. In 1948 nationalisation formed the British Transport Commission from which British Transport Docks Board was split in 1962. Privatisation by the Transport Act 1981 formed Associated British Ports, the present owner of the port; as of 2015 the port is a major car importation location, as well as an offshore wind farm servicing hub, handles other cargos including timber, minerals and dry bulks.
Grimsby's development as a landing place and town has an underlying basis in the area's geography – the combination of high ground of over 16 feet, near to the Humber, close to a water outfall. Grimsby has been documented as a landing place dating to at least the Viking Age. According to 19th century writers Grimsby was referenced in medieval histories as the landing place of marauding Danish armies; the haven is reputed to be the landing place of the semi-legendary figures Grim and Havelok in the town's founding myth, Havelok the Dane. In the second year of the reign of King John he visited the town and conferred on its inhabitants the right that "they should be exempt from toll and lastage, moorage and passage, in every town and seaport throughout England, except the city of London..", the town was granted the right of a ferry in the same year. Henry III granted the town a ferry across the Humber, as well as a charter of merchandise. Records of trade with Scandinavian countries date to the 11th century, with furs and falcons being traded.
Importation of pine and oil from Norway is recorded from the early 13th century. Fish and fishmongery in Grimsby are well documented as a part of trade and business from at least the late 12th century, continued as important until the 16th century. In the 13th century the people of Grimsby came into dispute with the people of the then-thriving port town of Ravenserodd over the alleged'hijacking', either by persuasion or force, of trade intended for Grimsby to the port of Ravenserodd. An inquisition into the rivalry was held in 1290 by order of Edward II. During Edward II's war with France, the Mayor and bailiffs were commanded to equip Grimsby ship, place them under the command of James Kingston, patrol the coast of eastern England and impounding any French or allied vessels; the Haven and was prone to silting, in 1280 proposals were made to divert the River Freshney to scour the harbour. By 1341 a new haven, the West Haven had been constructed. During the 14th and 15th century, trade with Scandinavia declined, in part due to Hansa competition, whilst trade with the Low Countries increased, during this period the port faced increased competition from the developing ports at Hull and Boston.
As continental trade decreased and general coastal trade increased in importance for the port. Icelandic fishing and importation of timber from Norway took place but declined from the 15th to 17th centuries. By the end of the 18th century the place had decreased in importance as a port, many of what remained of the inhabitants got a living from the land; the population had diminished from around 1,500 persons in 1400 to an estimated 850 in 1524, 399 in the early 1700s. De la Pryme noted the towns decline. Grimsby is at a little poor town, not a quarter so great as heretofore. Three things may be assign'd to its decay. First, the destruction of the haven, in former times a fine larg river That which destroy'd it was the Humber's wearing away the huge cliff at Cleythorp, bringing it and casting it all into Grimsby haven or
The River Freshney is a river in the English county of North East Lincolnshire. The town of Grimsby stands on its banks, it rises from at least four springs on the edge of the Lincolnshire Wolds, although local folklore and oral tradition has it springing from Welbeck Hill. It entered the tidal River Humber at Pyewipe, north west of Grimsby, but has been re-routed and now supplies Grimsby Docks. There was an existing haven within the borough of Grimsby but this suffered with silting problems so in 1669 landowners agreed to the diversion of the Freshney through the town to the haven to provide fresh water and improve the flow, it is believed the work was completed in the early 18th century. The river rises from a series of springs; the furthest south rises just to the north of Beelsby, close to the 200-foot contour. It flows north and is joined by another stream which flows past some earthworks, dating from the English Civil War, before both pass under the A18 Laceby to Barnoldby le Beck road. Team Gate Drain flows to the west.
It is joined by the stream from Welbeck Hill, which rises close to the A18 road and the 65-foot contour. Having combined, they flow northwards, passing under the A46 road and the old course of the road through Laceby, both of which are called Grimsby Road; the river is called Laceby Beck. Another stream from Aylesby joins; the New Cut Drain runs parallel to the river from here, they pass under the A1136 road and either side of the Freshney Bog Nature Reserve. Cromwell Road and the railway line to Grimsby cross in quick succession, after which the New Cut Drain follows the original course of the river, while the river turns under the railway line to the docks, under a series of bridges in Grimsby; these carry Earl Street and Alexandra Road over the channel. Another sharp turn brings the river into Alexandra Dock. There is a sluice with flap doors on it across the river at this point, Freshney pumping station assists the discharge when water level prevent gravity discharge. Corporation Bridge is a grade II listed Scherzer rolling lift bridge and carries Corporation Road over the dock.
It was designed by Alfred C Gardner, the Docks Engineer for the London and North Eastern Railway, was installed in 1925 by Sir William Arrol & Co. an engineering company based in Glasgow. It has four cast iron and steel spans, one of which opens, the structure, which replaced the previous swing bridge, was formally opened by the Prince of Wales on 19 July 1928. After the A180 Westgate road crosses Alexandra Dock, Union Dock connects it to Royal Dock, at the end of which a lock connects it to the Humber. Freshney Bog was constructed in 2001 as a washland, which could be used to hold excess water when the channel below it could not cope with the flow in the river, it is a major part of the flood defence system for Grimsby. During the floods of 2007, more than a full month's rainfall fell in 24 hours on the river catchment. Groundwater levels rose by over 16 feet in the week prior to the floods, with the ground saturated, the capacity of the river and the New Cut Drain was exceeded. Freshney Bog storage area filled up, but had insufficient capacity for the volume of water, as a result, flooding occurred, which affected 200 houses.
At Laceby Beck gauging station, normal levels of the river vary between 0.62 and 2.55 feet, but on 2 April 2018, they reached 3.46 feet at 21:15 BST. This height is believed to be the highest, it was thought that a level of 2.43m was reached in 1985. At that height, Grimsby Town centre and the West Marsh areas would have been under 1-1.3m of water. The Environmental Agency have since updated this anomaly as no flood occurred to that extent in 1985; the Environment Agency carried out flood alleviation work on the New Cut Drain in 2013, to reduce the risk of properties flooding. This work was planned after the significant flooding event that occurred on 21 July 2007 when the river rose to a record 3.25 feet. The work involved sheet piling of some 770 yards of the drain, installation of perforated filter drains to collect surface water. A new flood bank between the river and the Willows Estate was constructed, parts of the existing bank between the New Cut Drain and the Freshney Washland Flood Storage Reservoir were removed, to allow more water to be impounded when river flows are high.
The Environment Agency measure water quality of the river systems in England. Each is given an overall ecological status, which may be one of five levels: high, moderate and bad. There are several components that are used to determine this, including biological status, which looks at the quantity and varieties of invertebrates and fish, chemical status, which compares the concentrations of various chemicals against known safe concentrations. Chemical status fail; the water quality of the Freshney was as follows in 2016. The ecological and overall status have improved since 2014, when both were rated bad, the chemical status was rated fail; the reasons for water quality being less than good include physical modificiation of the channel, groundwater abstraction, sewage discharge and poor soil management of the surrounding agricultural land. The Friends of the Freshney was formed in the 2000s under the Chairmanship of Chris Scott, have organised regular clean-ups of the lower river the stretch that goes through the Duke of York Gardens in Grimsby.
The group meet at the Fire Station in Cromwell Road, with former West Marsh councillor Keith Watkin as Chair. Curr
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate