Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion
The Diocese of Sion is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. It is one of the oldest north of the Alps; the history of the Bishops of Sion, of the Abbey of St. Maurice of Valais as a whole are inextricably intertwined; the see was established at Octodurum, now called Martigny, the capital of the Roman province of Alpes Poeninae. The first authentically historical bishop was Saint Theodore/Theodolus, present at the Council of Aquileia in 381, he founded the Abbey of Saint-Maurice, with a small church in honor of Saint Maurice, martyred there c. 300, when he united the local hermits in a common life, thus beginning the Abbey of Saint-Maurice, the oldest north of the Alps. Theodore rebuilt the church at Sion, destroyed by Emperor Maximinus at the beginning of the 4th century. At first the new diocese was a suffragan of the archdiocese of Vienne. In 589 the bishop, St. Heliodorus, transferred the see to Sion, leaving the low-lying, flood-prone site of Octodurum, where the Drance joins the Rhone.
Though the early bishops were abbots of Saint-Maurice, the monastic community was jealously watchful that the bishops should not extend their jurisdiction over the abbey. Several of the bishops united both offices: Wilcharius Archbishop of Vienne, whence he had been driven by the Moors. About 999, the last king of Upper Burgundy, Rudolph III, granted the Countship of Valais to Bishop Hugo. Taking this donation as a basis, the bishops of Sion extended their secular power, the religious metropolis of the valley became the political centre. However, the union of the two powers was the cause of violent disputes in the following centuries. For, while the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishop, as Bishop of Sion, extended over the whole valley of the Rhone above Lake Geneva, the Countship of Valais included only the upper part of the valley, reaching to the confluence of the Trient and the Rhone; the attempts of the bishops of Sion to carry their secular power farther down the Rhone were bitterly and opposed by the abbots of Saint-Maurice, who had obtained large possessions in Lower Valais.
The medieval bishops of Sion were appointed from the younger sons of noble families of Savoy and Valais and drew the resources of the see into the feuds of these families. Moreover, the bishops were vigorously opposed, as a matter of principle, by the petty feudal nobles of Valais, each in their fortified castle on rocky heights, seeking to evade the supremacy of the bishop, at the same time count and prefect of the Holy Roman Empire. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the benefactors in these traditional struggles were the rich peasant communities of Upper Valais, which were called the Sieben Zehnden, who exacted increasing political rights as the price of support, beginning with the success of the rebellion of 1415–1420. Bishop William IV of Raron was obliged to relinquish civil and criminal jurisdiction over the sieben Zehnten by the Treaty of Naters in 1446, while a revolt of his subjects compelled Bishop Jost of Silinen to flee from the diocese. In 1428-1447, the Valais witch trials raged through the area.
The bishops of Sion minted their own money from earliest times from as early as the Carolingian era, from the 11th century. In the early 17th century, the Seven Tithings began to mint their own coin, vigorously opposed by the bishops until they had to cede temporal power to the Republic in 1634. Sion and the district of the Valais were drawn into wider struggles. Walter II of Supersaxo had taken part in the battles of the Swiss against Charles the Bold of Burgundy and his ally, the Duke of Savoy, in 1475 they drove the House of Savoy from Lower Valais. Linked to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 15th century, the Valais region was for long divided between the French party and the Burgundian-Milanese alliance, to which a powerful personage, Cardinal Matthaeus Schiner, bishop of Sion, had thrown his support. Schiner feared French supremacy enough to place the military force of the diocese at the disposal of the pope and in 1510 brought about an alliance for five years between the Swiss Confederacy and the Roman Church, only to end up as one of the biggest losers in the Swiss defeat at Marignano in 1515, in which the bishop fought himself.
In return for his support, Julius II made Schiner a cardinal and in 1513 accepted direct control of the see, which gave the Bishops of Sion much of the authority of an archbishop. The defeat at Marignano and the arbitrary rule of his brothers led to a revolt of Schiner's subjects; the new doctrines of the Reformation found little acceptance in Valais, although preachers were sent into the canton from Bern and Basel. In 1529 Bishop Adrian I of Riedmatten, the cathedral chapter, the sieben Zehnten formed an alliance with the Catholic cantons of the Confederation, to maintain and protect the Catholic faith against the efforts of the Reformed cantons. On account of this alliance Valais aided in gaining the victory of the Catholics over the followers of Zwingli at Kappel am Alb
Aribert (archbishop of Milan)
Aribert was the archbishop of Milan from 1018, a quarrelsome warrior-bishop in an age in which such figures were not uncommon. Aribert went to Konstanz in June 1025, with other bishops of Northern Italy, to pay homage to Conrad II of Germany, the beleaguered founder of the Salian dynasty. There, in exchange for privileges, he agreed to crown Conrad with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, which the magnates had offered to Odo of Blois; this he did, on 26 March 1026, at Milan, for the traditional seat of Lombard coronations, was still in revolt against imperial authority. He journeyed to Rome a year for the imperial coronation of Conrad by Pope John XIX on 26 March 1027, he subsequently joined an imperial military expedition into the Kingdom of Arles, which Conrad inherited upon the death in 1032 of Rudolph III of Burgundy, but, contested by Odo. In the political arena of Italy, power was disputed between the great territorial magnates— the capitanei— with their vassal captains and the lesser nobility— the valvassores— allied with the burghers of the Italian communes.
Aribert created enemies among the lower nobility, against whom he perpetrated the worst violences, with the metropolitan of Ravenna, whose episcopal rights, along with those of the smaller sees, he ignored. A revolt soon engulfed northern Italy and, at Aribert's request, Conrad's son, the Emperor Henry III, travelled south of the Alps in the winter of 1036/37, to quell it; the Emperor, took the position of champion of the valvassores and demanded that Aribert should make a defence against charges brought against him, but Aribert refused, on the grounds that he was the emperor's equal. His consequent arrest provoked the rebellion of the anti-Imperial faction of the Milanese, seen by 19th-century historians as fiercely patriotic. Aribert was leading the revolt from Milan; the Emperor found himself unable to take Milan by siege and proceeded to Rome, where his diplomatic skills succeeded in isolating Aribert from his erstwhile allies, notably through his famous decree of 28 May 1037, securing the tenancy of lesser vassals, both imperial and ecclesiastical.
The Emperor took the step of deposing the fighting archbishop, John's successor Pope Benedict IX excommunicated Aribert in March 1038. That year, he held up the carroccio as the symbol of Milan and soon it was the symbol of all the Tuscan cities as far as Rome. Aribert ended his episcopacy in relative peace, having agreed to cease hostilities with Henry, at Ingelheim in 1040, reconciled with him and obtained the revocation of his excommunication
County of Savoy
The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century. It was the cradle of the future Savoyard state. Sapaudia, stretching south of Lake Geneva from the Rhône River to the Western Alps, had been part of Upper Burgundy ruled by the Bosonid duke Hucbert from the mid 9th century. Together with the neighboring Free County of Burgundy it became part of the larger Kingdom of Burgundy under King Rudolph II in 933. Humbert the White-Handed was raised to count by the last King of Burgundy, Rudolph III, in 1003, he backed the inheritance claims of the emperor Henry II and in turn was permitted to usurp the county of Aosta from its bishops at the death of Anselm. Following his support of Conrad II in annexing Arles upon Rudolph's death and suppressing the revolts of Count Odo and Bishop Burchard, he received the county of Maurienne and territories in Chablais and Tarentaise held by its archbishops at Moûtiers.
While the Arelat remained a titular kingdom of the Holy Roman Empire, Humbert's descendants—later known as the House of Savoy—maintained their independence as counts. In 1046, his younger son Otto married Adelaide, daughter of Ulric Manfred II, marquis of Susa; when she inherited her father's lands in preference to other, relatives, he thereby acquired control of the extensive March of Turin. This was united with Savoy upon his inheritance from his elder brother; the counts further enlarged their territory when, in 1218, they inherited the Vaud lands north of the Lake Geneva from the extinct House of Zähringen. In 1220, Count Thomas I occupied the towns of Pinerolo and Chambéry, which afterwards became the Savoy capital. In 1240, his younger son Peter II was invited to England by King Henry III, who had married Peter's niece Eleanor of Provence, he was appointed Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports and Earl of Richmond and had the Savoy Palace erected at London. In 1313, Count Amadeus V the Great gained the status of Imperial immediacy from the hands of Emperor Henry VII of Luxembourg.
What was left of the Kingdom of Burgundy ceased to be under the authority of the Emperor after the Dauphiné had passed to the French crown of prince Charles V of Valois in 1349 and the "Green Count" Amadeus VI of Savoy was appointed Imperial vicar of Arelat by Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg in 1365. The "Red Count" Amadeus VII gained access to the Mediterranean Sea by the acquisition of the County of Nice in 1388, his son Amadeus VIII the Peaceful purchased the County of Geneva in 1401; the extended Savoy lands were raised to a duchy in 1416 by the German king Sigismund of Luxembourg. In 1416 Amadeus VIII was raised to the status of Duke of Savoy. Savoie Haute-Savoie Taylor, A. J. and Lewis is Savoy. "A Letter from Lewis of Savoy to Edward I" The English Historical Review, Vol. 68, No. 266, 56–62
Master of ceremonies
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated MC, is the official host of a ceremony, staged event or similar performance. The term is earliest documented in the Catholic Church since the 5th century, where the Master of Ceremonies was and still is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy; the master of ceremonies sometimes refers to the protocol officer during an official state function in monarchies. Today, the term is used to connote a compère, which corresponds to a master of ceremonies who presents performers, speaks to the audience, entertains people, keeps an event moving; this usage occurs in the entertainment industry, including for television game show hosts, as well as in contemporary hip hop and electronic dance music culture. In addition, the term exists in various chivalric orders and fraternal orders. Alternative names include compère, microphone controller; the term originated in the Catholic Church.
The Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy. He may be an official involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court, other dignitaries and potentates. Examples of official liturgical books prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum and Cæremoniale Episcoporum; the office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the Ordines Romani. Names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the Renaissance. However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals and customs of pontifical ceremonies are known to have been given to Charles Martel in the 8th century; the rules and rituals themselves are known to have been compiled or written by the pontifical masters of ceremonies, dating back to the time of Pope Gelasius I with modifications and additions made by Pope Gregory the Great.
It is reasonable to assume. The duties of the Master of Ceremonies may have developed from the time Emperor Constantine the Great gave the Lateran Palace to the popes or from the time Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, were no doubt influenced by imperial practices and norms. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period is scarce or lost; the ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are known to have influenced the papal court. The accumulation of elaborations and complications since the Renaissance and Baroque eras continued well into the 20th century, until some of the ceremonies were simplified or eliminated by Pope Paul VI in the 1970s after Vatican II. At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organizes and rehearses the proceedings and ritual of each Mass, he may have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the Master of Ceremonies plays a vital role in ensuring that everything runs smoothly.
The current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini, who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini. Certain European royal courts maintained senior offices known as Masters of Ceremonies, responsible for conducting stately ceremonies such as coronations and receptions of foreign ambassadors. Examples included: Spanish Empire: Maestro de Ceremonias British Empire: Master of the Ceremonies France: Grand Master of Ceremonies Japan: Master of Ceremonies Russian Empire: see Table of Ranks Ottoman Empire: Kapıcıbaşı "chief doorkeeper" of the Topkapi Palace The function is prevalent in the culture of chivalric orders, as well as in more modern fraternal orders, such as Freemasons and Odd Fellows. Most large corporate and association conferences and conventions use an MC to keep the events running smoothly; this role is sometimes performed by someone inside the group but by an outside professional expert MC. Their role could include - introducing and thanking speakers, introducing the theme of the conference, facilitating a panel discussion & interviewing guests.
During the wedding reception, the multifaceted responsibility of the Master of Ceremony is to keep the agenda flowing smoothly by: skillfully capturing and maintaining the attention of the wedding guests directing their attention on whatever the bride and groom have chosen to include keeping the wedding attendees informed so at any given moment they know what is happening comfortably guiding the bride's and groom's friends and family so they know what they are supposed to do to participateThe role of the wedding master of ceremonies incorporates a wide range of skills, those who serve in this capacity have undergone extensive training in the following areas: Delivering applause cues Presenting introductions Microphone technique Posture and stance Voice inflection Staging Masters of ceremonies at weddings and private events ensure the coordination of their event, including liaison with catering staff. In hip hop and electronic dance music, "MC" refers to rap artists or performers who perform vocals for their own or other artist's original material
Rudolph III of Burgundy
Rudolph III was King of Burgundy from 993 until his death. He was the last ruler of an independent Kingdom of Arles called the Second Kingdom of Burgundy, the last male member of the Burgundian group of the Elder House of Welf. Rudolph was the heir of King Conrad I of Burgundy, his mother Matilda, a member of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty, was the daughter of King Louis IV of France. Rudolph himself had three sisters: Gerberga, who married Duke Herman II of Swabia about 988, married to Count Odo I of Blois and secondly to King Robert II of France in 996, Gisela, who married the Ottonian duke Henry II of Bavaria and became the mother of Emperor Henry II. Rudolph succeeded to the Burgundian throne upon his father's death on 19 October 993 and was crowned king in Lausanne, his reign was marked with turbulence. Unable to placate the powerful nobility, he had to deal with encroachments of power on the part of Count Otto-William of Burgundy. Like his father, Rudolph approached to the German Ottonian dynasty to stabilise his rule.
His aunt Adelaide of Italy, widow of Emperor Otto I, her grandson Otto III intervened in Burgundian affairs to secure his accession to power. In turn, Rudolph in 1006 ceded the city of Basel to his nephew Henry II, elected King of the Romans as head of the Kingdom of Germany in 1002. Rudolph's first marriage with one Agiltrud remained childless. On 28 June 1011, he married Ermengarde of Burgundy, a relative of Count Humbert I of Savoy and widow of Count Rotbold II of Provence. Rudolph vested her with the County of Vienne and Sermorens and further large estates up to Lake Geneva. However, no children were born from his second marriage too; when in 1016 King Rudolph entered into another conflict with Count Otto-William over the investiture of the Archbishop of Besançon, he and Emperor Henry II met in Straßburg where Henry succeeded in negotiating Rudolph to name him as his successor. Henry marched against Otto-William and the Burgundian nobles submitted. Henry's right of succession was confirmed at a 1018 diet in Mainz, upon his death in 1024, the question appeared again unsettled.
Henry's Salian successor, King Conrad II occupied Basel and began to negotiate with Rudolph to become his heir. Rudolph was present at Conrad's imperial coronation at Easter 1027 and in August an inheritance contract was concluded; this agreement was contested by Rudolph's nobles, Count Odo II of Blois and Count Reginald I of Burgundy. Rudolph died at the age of 61, with no surviving issue, he was buried in Lausanne Cathedral. Conrad II claimed the Burgundian Kingdom of Arles and incorporated it in the Holy Roman Empire; as the last member of the Burgundian Welfs, Rudolph was considered a weak ruler by his contemporaries. The chronicler Wipo of Burgundy called. Thietmar of Merseburg named the Burgundian counts the actual rulers, while Rudolph only held the royal title. At least from 1018, Rudolph ruled as a mock king in the shadow of his designated successor, who interfered in domestic conflicts. Emperor Conrad II had to defend his right of succession against the embittered resistance of the Burgundian nobility.
In 1038 he had his son Henry III elevated to a King of Burgundy at Solothurn, enforcing the homage by the nobles. Previte-Orton, C. W.. The Early History of the House of Savoy. Cambridge University Press
Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne Cathedral is a church in Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, one of two co-cathedrals of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chambéry–Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne–Tarentaise. Until 1966, it was the cathedral of the Diocese of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, it is dedicated to John the Baptist. It was rebuilt in the 11th. In 1771, a neoclassical porch was added, it holds the remains of the first three counts of the House of Savoy: Humbert I, Amadeus I and Boniface
Lenzburg is a town in the central region of the Swiss canton Aargau and is the capital of the Lenzburg District. The town, founded in the Middle Ages, lies in the Seetal valley, about 3 kilometres south of the Aare river. Lenzburg and the neighbouring municipalities of Niederlenz and Staufen have grown together in an agglomeration. A Neolithic grave field of the Cortaillod culture has been discovered on the Goffersberg dating from 4300 - 3500 BCE. A Roman theater was uncovered when a motorway was built in 1964, it was part of a small settlement with 500 inhabitants that existed for 200 years. The settlement was abandoned in the 3rd century. In the 5th and 6th centuries, an Alamanni settlement existed. Lenzburg is first mentioned in 924 as de Lencis. In 1036, Lenzburg Castle was used for the first time as seat for the Count of Lenzburg an important lord; the house however died out in 1173, the castle was transferred to emperor Frederick Barbarossa. In the following period, it was used by the Kyburger house.
The Habsburgs took over the castle in 1273. City rights were granted in 1306. Lenzburg was conquered by Bern in 1415, along with the western part of current Aargau, though Bern did not take away its city rights. In 1433, the city of Bern bought the castle and used it to govern the region from 1444 to 1798. A major fire devastated the town in 1491; the Reformation was carried out with the rest of the region in 1528, the economy started to transform from an agrarian to a more industrial one in the 16th century. In the 18th century Lenzburg developed into a centre for cotton processing. An Indienne textile factory was founded in 1732. In 1798, the Helvetian Republic was proclaimed and the lords from Bern were ousted; the canton of Aargau was founded and Lenzburg became a district capital in 1803. In 1830, a series of meetings were held in Lenzberg to discuss changing the cantonal constitution; when peaceful negotiation with the cantonal authorities in Aarau failed to produce results, Johann Heinrich Fischer from Merenschwand called for a rebel militia from the Freiämter to force the government to change, in what was known as the Freiämtersturm.
On 6 December 1830, his rebel troops marched toward Lenzberg on their way to Aarau. At Lenzberg, about 100 government soldiers formed to resist the militia, brought their guns in position; the Freiämter militia ran toward the militia with wild battle cries, the government soldiers broke and ran without firing a shot. By 6pm the militia entered Aarau and the commander of government troops surrendered without any resistance. Lenzburg transformed into the economic centre of the region in the second half of the 19th century. On 23 June 1874, Lenzburg was connected to the Aargauische Südbahn railway. On 6 September 1877 the Schweizerische Nationalbahn opened a line from Wettingen to Zofingen as part of a plan to connect Singen and Lake Geneva in competition with the established railway companies; the line was taken over by the Schweizerische Nordostbahn. The bankruptcy of the Nationalbahn brought Lenzburg to the brink of economic ruin, as the city itself was involved in financing it. Paying back the city's debt took half a century.
The castle changed hands several times in the 20th century. In 1860, it was bought by a poet from Germany. In 1893, it was renovated. In 1956, it was bought by the canton and since been used to house a museum. Lenzburg lies at the northern edge of the Seetal, it lies 30 km west of Zurich. Lenzburg has an area, as of 2009, of 11.33 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.47 km2 or 21.8% is used for agricultural purposes, while 5.62 km2 or 49.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 3.2 km2 or 28.2 % is settled, 0.06 km2 or 0.5 % is either lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 4.9% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 12.3% and transportation infrastructure made up 7.4%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.9% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 1.7%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 15.2% is used for growing crops and 6.0% is pastures.
All the water in the municipality streams. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Argent a Hurt. Lenzburg has a population of 10,173 As of June 2009, 27.6% of the population are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 6.3%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Albanian being third; the age distribution, as of 2008, in Lenzburg is. Of the adult population, 1,235 people or 15.4 % of the population are between 29 years old. 1,131 people or 14.1% are between 30 and 39, 1,245 people or 15.5% are between 40 and 49, 1,016 people or 12.7% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 777 people or 9.7% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 611 people or 7.6% are between 70 and 79, there are 345 people or 4.3% who are between 80 and 89, there are 78 people or 1.0% who are 90 and older. As of 2000 the average number of residents per living room was 0.56, about equal to the cantonal average of 0.57 per room.
In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least 4 m2 as normal bedrooms, di