Sport Comércio e Salgueiros known as Salgueiros, is a Portuguese multi-sports club from the city of Porto, in the northern region of the country. Founded on December 8, 1911, in the parish of Paranhos, it's one of the most historic clubs in the country. Known for its football team, it plays in the Campeonato de Portugal, the third tier of Portuguese football. Although they are based in Paranhos, they play their home matches at the Prof. Dr. Vieira de Carvalho in Maia which can accommodate 15,000 spectators. In 1911, a group of friends decided to fund a football club after watching a game that opposed FC Porto and S. L. Benfica at the Campo da Rainha; the friends would gather after work and dinner at lamp 1047 between the streets of Constituição and Particular de Salgueiros to debate ideas and build their new club. Thus was formed Sport Grupo e Salgueiros; the club had no money at the time, so the three founders decided to gather money by singing Christmas songs from door to door during the 1911 Christmas season.
They collected a total of 2800 reis, enough to purchase their first football. They decided their jerseys should be red like Benfica's as a way to separate themselves from city rivals FC Porto, their first pitch would be at the Arca D'Água, the team's first matches were against Sport Progresso, Carvalhido Football Club, others. In the 1916–17 season, the team name was changed to Sport Porto e Salgueiros as a matter of local pride. However, in 1920, after a profound economical crisis, Sport Porto e Salgueiros decided to join forces with another local club named Sport Comércio; this resulted in the name change of Sport Comércio e Salgueiros. From the 1930s, when the national leagues commenced, to the 1970s, Sport Comércio e Salgueiros was a mainstay of the Second Division, with the occasional participation in the First Division; that trend changed in the beginning of the 80's, with team being able to maintain respectable placings and playing for several consecutive years in the top tier. The highlight was a 5th place in the 1990–91 season that enabled the club to participate in European competitions for the first time.
In the 1991 -- 92 UEFA Cup, Salgueiros lost on penalties. Among the players in the French team was Zinedine Zidane. Salgueiros last participation in the first division was in the 2001–02 season. In 2004–05, facing its biggest economical crisis since its foundation, the senior football team was administratively relegated from the second division to the third-tier league. Due to the financial crisis, all the players in that season were non-professional upgraded players from the junior team; the club had recently lost its emblematic stadium, sold to the city hall in order to build a subway station at its location, had no home arena in which to play their matches or to practice. Due to the dramatic financial situation and debts, with the club prevented from registering professional players, the senior team ceased to exist at end of the season. After three years dormant, a Salgueiros team made its comeback to senior football as a new club named Sport Clube Salgueiros 08 for the 2008–09 season. However, the youth teams remained using the Sport Comércio e Salgueiros name.
Starting with a senior football team, the new club soon expanded to futsal and handball teams creating female sections for football and handball. In their first season in the district leagues in 2008–09, the football team averaged home attendances of over 2,200 people per game, the 15th highest average attendance nationally, proving that support for the charismatic club was as strong as ever, they started in the Porto FA Second Division, coming first in their series and gaining access to the final which decided promotion to the Porto FA First Division. They managed to gain access to the First Division. Three more promotions in four seasons led Salgueiros from the regional leagues to the Campeonato Nacional de Seniores, the third-tier of Portuguese football, for the 2013–14 season. At the end of the 2014–15 season, the club changed its name to Sport Club Salgueiros. On December 8, 2015, the club announced it had regained the rights of the original Sport Comércio e Salgueiros and would return to its former name and symbols at the start of the 2016–17 season.
As of 19 August 2017Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Known for its football section, the club has excelled at several other sports, such as water polo and athletics. Despite the fact that Salgueiros doesn't have a swimming pool, the water polo team, coached by Nuno Mariani, won its 12th national title in a row in 2006. After being runner-up in the 2007 championship Salgueiros renewed the national title in 2008. Played more than 50 league games, or gained national notability elsewhere Official Facebook page
Captain (association football)
The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is one of the older/or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can influence a game or have good leadership qualities. The team captain is identified by the wearing of an armband; the only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the coin toss prior to kick-off and prior to a penalty shootout. Contrary to what is sometimes said, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees may talk to the captain of a side about the side's general behaviour when necessary. At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, the captain leads the team up to collect their medals. Any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will be the first one to hoist it; the captain generally leads the teams out of the dressing room at the start of the match.
A captain is tasked with running the dressing room. The captain provides a rallying point for the team: if morale is low, it is the captain who will be looked upon to boost their team's spirits. Captains may join the manager in deciding the starting eleven for a certain game. In youth or recreational football, the captain takes on duties, that would, at a higher level, be delegated to the manager. A club captain is appointed for a season. If he is unavailable or not selected for a particular game, or must leave the pitch the club vice-captain will assume similar duties; the match captain is the first player to lift a trophy should the team win one if he was not the club captain. A good example of this was in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final when match captain Peter Schmeichel lifted the trophy for Manchester United as club captain Roy Keane was suspended. In the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final, match captain Frank Lampard jointly lifted the trophy for Chelsea with club captain John Terry.
A club may appoint two distinct roles: a club captain to represent the players in a public relations role, correspondent on the pitch. Manchester United has had both of these types of captains. After Neville retired in 2011, regular starter Nemanja Vidić was named as club captain. São Paulo's Rogério Ceni is the player. A vice-captain is a player, expected to captain the side when the club's captain is not included in the starting eleven, or if, during a game, the captain is substituted or sent off. Examples include Thomas Müller at Bayern Munich, Marcelo at Real Madrid, César Azpilicueta at Chelsea, Sergio Busquets at Barcelona, Harry Kane at Tottenham Hotspur, James Milner at Liverpool and Ashley Young at Manchester United; some clubs name a 3rd captain or a 4th captain to take the role of captain when both the captain and vice-captain are unavailable. In the 1986 FIFA World Cup, when Bryan Robson was injured and vice-captain Ray Wilkins received a two-game suspension for a red card, Peter Shilton became England's captain for the rest of the tournament.
During the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, Germany had three captains. Michael Ballack had captained the national team since 2004, including the successful qualifiers for the 2010 World Cup, but he did not play in the latter tournament due to a last minute injury. Philipp Lahm was appointed captain in South Africa, but due to an illness that ruled him out of Germany's final fixture, Bastian Schweinsteiger captained the team for that game, the third-place match. Lahm stated in an interview that he would not relinquish the captaincy when Ballack returned, causing some controversy, so team manager Oliver Bierhoff clarified the situation saying "Philipp Lahm is the World Cup captain and Michael Ballack is still the captain". Lahm ended up becoming the permanent captain of Germany until his retirement, as Ballack was never called up to the national team again. Captain
South Korea national football team
The Korea Republic national football team represents South Korea in international association football and is organised by the Korea Football Association. Since the 1960s, South Korea has emerged as a major football power in Asia and is the most successful Asian football team, having participated in nine consecutive and ten overall FIFA World Cup tournaments, the most for any Asian country. Despite going through five World Cup tournaments without winning a match, South Korea became the first and only Asian team to reach the semi-final stages when they co-hosted the 2002 tournament with Japan. South Korea won the first two AFC Asian Cup tournaments, though they have been unable to win since, finishing as the runners-up in 1972, 1980, 1988, 2015, third in 1964, 2000, 2007, 2011, they took the gold medal at the 1970, 1978, 1986 Asian Games. They have qualified for every FIFA World Cup since 1986; the team is nicknamed "The Reds" by both fans and the media due to the color of their primary kit. The national team's supporting group is referred to as the Red Devils.
Korea was not introduced to football until the late 1800s. Korea became a Japanese colony in 1905 and was annexed by force in 1910. In 1921, the first All Korea Football Tournament was held, in 1928, the Joseon Football Association was organized, which created a foundation to disseminate and develop football in Korea. Korean teams participated in competitions with Japanese teams from around 1926. Koreans played on the Japanese national team, most notably Kim Yong-sik who played for Japan at the 1936 Summer Olympics; the JFA was reorganized in 1945 as Japanese colonial rule ended with the close of World War II. Following the establishment of the South Korean state in the late 1940s, a new Korea Football Association was founded in 1948 and joined FIFA, the international football governing body; the same year, the South Korean national team made its international debut at the Olympic Games in London. The KFA joined the AFC in 1954. South Korea first entered the World Cup in 1954 as the second Asian team to compete in the World Cup after the Dutch East Indies.
South Korea played games against Turkey, losing 9 -- 0 and 7 -- 0 respectively. It would take thirty-two years before South Korea was able to participate in the World Cup finals again. South Korea would participate in the first Asian Cup in 1956, they defeated Israel and South Vietnam to take first place. They won the second Asian Cup in 1960, winning all of their games. However, they failed to repeat this success and lost all their games in the 1964 Asian Cup and failed to qualify in 1968, they took second place. They once again failed to qualify in 1976 but reached second place again in 1980. In 1986, South Korea was able to qualify for the 1986 FIFA World Cup, held in Mexico, for the first time since 1954. They, failed to win a game despite the presence of Cha Bum-kun, at the time one of the best Asian players, losing 3–1 to Argentina, drawing 1–1 with Bulgaria, losing 3–2 to Italy, their next major tournament was the 1988 AFC Asian Cup, in which they won all their games in the group stage and defeated China 2–1 in the semi-finals but lost on penalties 4–3 in the final against Saudi Arabia.
South Korea started the 1990s poorly. At the 1990 FIFA World Cup, they lost all their games against Spain 3–1, Uruguay 1–0, Belgium 2–0. South Korea failed to qualify for the 1992 Asian Cup as well. In the 1994 FIFA World Cup they managed to draw with Spain 2–2. Hong Myung-bo scored a goal and assisted teammate Seo Jung-won with the second, with both goals occurring in the last five minutes of the game. In their next game they earned another draw with Bolivia 0–0. In their last game against Germany they nearly managed another draw with Hwang Sun-hong and Hong Myung-bo each scoring a goal in the second half after being down 3–0 but they were unable to score thereafter and were defeated 3–2. In the 1996 Asian Cup they managed to make it out of the group stage as they ranked third on their group, losing to Kuwait on goal difference. A comparison made between all the third ranked teams in each group allowed South Korea to advance. However, they suffered a 2–6 loss to Iran in the quarter-finals, conceding five goals in the second half.
Afterwards, former South Korean legend Cha Bum-kun became the head coach going into the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Performing well in the qualification, the team played poorly in the tournament, losing to Mexico 3–1 and the Netherlands 5–0. Cha was sacked after the loss to the Netherlands; the team managed a 1–1 draw against Belgium. In the 2000 AFC Asian Cup, South Korea managed to advance out of the group stage and defeated Iran 2–1 in the quarter-finals but were beaten by Saudi Arabia 2–1 in the semi-finals, they defeated China 1–0 to gain third-place. South Korea co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup tournament with Japan; as they had never won a game in the World Cup hopes were not high. In addition there was pre-tournament criticism concerning Dutch coach Guus Hiddink, who many felt did not take his job seriously; however once the tournament began the South Korean team achieved thei
Brazil Independence Cup
The Brazil Independence Cup was an international football tournament held in Brazil, from 11 June to 9 July 1972, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Brazilian Declaration of Independence. It was called the Minicopa by the Brazilians and the final was between Brazil and Portugal, in the Maracanã Stadium. Brazil won 1–0, with Jairzinho scoring in the 89th minute. Brazil no longer had Pelé but still had Tostão, Jairzinho and Rivelino, the two played in the 1974 FIFA World Cup, in West Germany. Despite Portugal's quality results and team, including Benfica players such as Eusébio, Jaime Graça, José Henrique, Humberto Coelho, Rui Jordão, Toni, the team missed the World Cup 1974 and 1978 qualifying matches, so this tournament was their best result until the 1984 European Football Championship. 20 teams competed. 15 teams competed in the first round. The teams are drawn into three groups of 5 teams; each team plays each other team in its group once, earning 1 for a draw. The three first-placed teams advance to the final stage.
The 8 teams are drawn into two groups of 4 teams. Each team plays each other team in its group once, earning 1 for a draw; the two group runners-up play each other in the third-place playoff. The two group winners play each other in the final; the tournament was played in 12 cities: Aracaju, Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande, Maceió, Natal, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and São Paulo. 13 goals 5 goals 4 goals 3 goals 2 goals 1 goal Own goals Macario Reyes: Brazil Independence Cup 1972, Rec. Sport. Soccer Statistics Foundation, 27 June 2007. Eliézer Sebastián Pérez Pérez: Brazil Independence Cup 1972 – Additional Details, RSSSF, 6 July 2007. Sala de troféus Confederação Brasileira de Futebol, 27 May 2011. Tournament: Taça Independência, EU-Football.info
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Portugal national football team
The Portugal national football team represents Portugal in international men's association football competition since 1921. It is controlled by the governing body for football in Portugal. Portugal's first participation in a major tournament finals was at the 1966 World Cup, saw a team featuring famed striker Eusébio finish in third place; the next two times Portugal qualified for the World Cup finals were in 1986 and 2002, going out in the first round both times. Portugal made it to the semi-finals of the UEFA Euro 1984 final tournament, losing 3–2 after extra time to the hosts and eventual winners France; the team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2000, the 2006 World Cup and Euro 2012, as well as the final of Euro 2004, the latter on home soil. At Euro 2016, Portugal won its first major trophy, defeating hosts France 1–0 after extra time, with the winning goal scored by Eder. With the win, Portugal qualified and made its first appearance in the FIFA Confederations Cup held in Russia, where they finished third.
The team's home stadium is the Estádio Nacional, in Oeiras, although most of their home games are played in other stadiums across the country. The current head coach is Fernando Santos and the captain is Cristiano Ronaldo, who holds the team record for most caps and for most goals. Portugal was not invited to the 1930 World Cup, which only featured a final stage and no qualification round; the team took part in the 1934 FIFA World Cup qualification, but failed to eliminate their Spanish opponents, aggregating two defeats in the two-legged round, with a 9–0 loss in Madrid and 2–1 loss in Lisbon for an aggregate score of 11–1. In the 1938 FIFA World Cup qualification, the Seleção played one game against Switzerland in a neutral ground, held in Milan, losing 2–1 against the Swiss, ending qualification prospects; because of the international conflict due to the World War II, there was no World Cup held until the 1950 competition and subsequently, the national team made few games against other teams.
A 10–0 home friendly defeat against England, two years after the war, was the proof of how the irregularity of the games had taken its effects on the squad. On the restart of games, the team was to play a two-legged round against Spain, just like in the 1934 qualification. After a 5–1 defeat in Madrid, they managed to draw in the second game 2–2 and so the qualification ended with a 7–3 aggregate score. While they did not qualify on the pitch, they would be invited to replace Turkey, which had withdrawn from participating. For the qualification of the 1954 World Cup, the team would play Austria; the Austrians won the first game with a 9–1 result. The best the national team could do was hold the team to a goalless draw in Lisbon, the round ended with a 9–1 defeat. In the 1958 qualification, Portugal won a qualification match for the first time, 3–0 at home with Italy, they finished last in the group stage that featured Northern Ireland. The year 1960 was the year; the first edition was a knock-out tournament, the last four teams participating in final stage that only featured one leg while the older stages had two legs.
For the first round, the Seleção das Quinas won 2–0 against East Germany and 3–2 in Porto for the second leg, finishing with a 5–2 two-legged win. The quarter-final opponent was Yugoslavia. Despite winning the first game 2–1, they lost the second leg 5–1 in Belgrade, lost 6–3 on aggregate. England and Luxembourg were the 1962 FIFA World Cup qualification adversaries of the national team. Portugal ended second behind England. Like in the previous World Cup qualification, only the first in the group would qualify. In the 1964 European Championship. Portugal played against Bulgaria in the first round; the Portuguese won in Lisbon. With the round tied 4–4, a replay was needed in a neutral ground. In Rome, Portugal lost 1–0. In the 1966 World Cup qualification, Portugal was drawn into the same group as Czechoslovakia and Turkey, they topped the group with only one draw and one defeat during all the six games and qualified for a FIFA World Cup, that year the final stage would be held in England. Notable results were both 1–0 away wins against Czechoslovakia and Turkey and a 5–1 home win against the Turks.
The team started out with three wins in the group stage where they were in Group C when they beat Hungary 3–1, Bulgaria 3–0, two-time defending champions Brazil 3–1. Secondly, they beat surprise quarter-finalist North Korea 5–3, with Eusébio getting four markers to overturn a 3–0 deficit, they reached the semi-finals where they were beaten by hosts England 2–1. Portugal defeated the Soviet Union 2–1 in the third place match for their best World Cup finish to date. Eusébio was the top scorer of the World Cup with nine goals. In the Euro 1972 qualifiers, Portugal had to win its group that comprised the teams of Belgium and Scotland. Portugal finished second to Belgium. For the 1974 qualification stages, Portugal were unable to defeat Bulgaria in the decisive match, thus not qualifying. Portugal faced tough competition from the strong Poland team for the place in the 1978 World Cup in Argentina, they finished second place, behind Poland. The national team was put alongside Austria, Belgium, N
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.