A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is distributed throughout the year; the definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C. In addition, the location in question must not be arid; the Dfb and Dsb subtypes are known as hemiboreal. Humid continental climates are found between latitudes 40° N and 60° N, within the central and northeastern portions of North America and Asia, they are much less found in the Southern Hemisphere due to the larger ocean area at that latitude and the consequent greater maritime moderation. In the Northern Hemisphere some of the humid continental climates in Hokkaido, Northern Honshu, Sakhalin island, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland are maritime-influenced, with cool summers and winters being just below the freezing mark.
More extreme humid continental climates found in northeast China, southern Siberia, the Canadian Prairies, the Great Lakes region of the American Midwest and Central Canada combine hotter summer maxima and colder winters than the marine-based variety. Using the Köppen climate classification, a climate is classified as humid continental when the temperature of the coldest month is below −3 °C and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C; these temperatures were not arbitrary. In Europe, the −3 °C average temperature isotherm was near the southern extent of winter snowpack; the 10 °C average temperature was found to be the minimum temperature necessary for tree growth. Wide temperature ranges are common within this climate zone. Second letter in the classification symbol defines seasonal rainfall as follows: s: A dry summer—the driest month in the high-sun half of the year has less than 30 millimetres /40 millimetres of rainfall and has or less than 1⁄3 the precipitation of the wettest month in the low-sun half of the year, w: A dry winter—the driest month in the low-sun half of the year has or less than one‑tenth of the precipitation found in the wettest month in the summer half of the year, f: Without dry season—does not meet either of the alternative specifications.while the third letter denotes the extent of summer heat: a: Hot summer, warmest month averages at least 22 °C, b: Warm summer, warmest month averages below 22 °C and at least four months averages above 10 °C.
Within North America, moisture within this climate regime is supplied by the Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico and adjacent western subtropical Atlantic. Precipitation is well distributed year-round in many areas with this climate, while others may see a marked reduction in wintry precipitation, which increases the chances of a wintertime drought. Snowfall occurs in all areas with a humid continental climate and in many such places is more common than rain during the height of winter. In places with sufficient wintertime precipitation, the snow cover is deep. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms, in North America and Asia an tropical system. Though humidity levels are high in locations with humid continental climates, the "humid" designation means that the climate is not dry enough to be classified as semi-arid or arid. By definition, forests thrive within this climate. Biomes within this climate regime include temperate woodlands, temperate grasslands, temperate deciduous, temperate evergreen forests, coniferous forests.
Within wetter areas, spruce, pine and oak can be found. Fall foliage is noted during the autumn. A hot summer version of a continental climate features an average temperature of at least 22 °C in its warmest month. Since these regimes are limited to the Northern Hemisphere, the warmest month is July or August. High temperatures in the warmest month tend to be in the high 20s or low 30s °C, while average January afternoon temperatures are near or well below freezing. Frost free periods last 4–7 months within this climate regime. Within the United States, this climate includes small areas from the lower Midwest eastward to the lower Great Lakes, parts of the western United States. Precipitation is less seasonally uniform in the west; the western states of the central United States have thermal regimes which fit the Dfa climate type, but are quite dry, are grouped with the steppe climates. In the Eastern Hemisphere, this climate regime is found within interior Eurasia, east-central Asia, parts of India.
Within Europe, the Dfa climate type is present near the Black Sea in southern Ukraine, the Southern Federal District of Russia, southern Moldova, parts of southern Romania, Bulgaria, but tends to be drier and can be semi-arid in these places. In East Asia, this climate exhibits a monsoonal tendency with much higher precipitation in summer than in winter, due the effec
Mindy Rosenfeld is an American flutist and harpist, noted as a founding member of the Baltimore Consort, specializing in Renaissance music. She is credited as Mindy Rosenfeld Hedges. Mindy Rosenfeld, graduated with a Bachelor of Music in Flute Performance from the Peabody Conservatory in Baltimore, a Master of Music in Modern and Baroque Flute Performance from San Francisco Conservatory, she was one of the founding members of the Baltimore Consort in 1980. She remains a performing member, tours extensively with the group. In 1989, she became a member of San Francisco’s Philharmonia Baroque Orchestra where she has made numerous recordings, appeared in Lincoln Center’s Mostly Mozart Festival, BBC Proms at Royal Albert Hall, the Berkeley Early Music Festival, Concertgebouw in Amsterdam, Disney Hall and Carnegie Hall. Rosenfeld is Principal Flutist and soloist with the Symphony of the Redwoods and the Mendocino Music Festival in California, she has performed as a guest artist with a number of other ensembles.
Rosenfeld was married to American composer and guitarist Michael Hedges,Rosenfeld is the mother of five children: Mischa Aaron Hedges, Jasper Alden Hedges, Sascha Benjamin Burgess, Oliver Burgess, Theo Robinson Burgess. Rosenfeld resides in California. Selected recordings include: Aerial Boundaries CD Baltimore Consort Live In Concert CD Taproot CD Telemann: Six Sonatas For Two Flutes, Op. 2 CD One Morning CD Indigo Road CD Rosenfeld plays Prelude from the Suite in e Minor by deBoismortier for Flute and Continuo Official site
Henry Oloyede Fajemirokun, CON was a trade unionist who became a prominent Nigerian Industrialist and businessman and one of the country's dynamic indigenous entrepreneurs who had established and built one of the foremost indigenous private sector business concerns in his time. He was a strong believer in, promoted West Africa's economic integration alongside Adebayo Adedeji which subsequently led to the formation of the Economic Community of West African States, he saw the need for a well-organized private sector and was devoted to developing and strengthening the private sector, he expended considerable resources to advance the activities of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry Movement within Nigeria, West Africa and the Commonwealth. He held various positions in the Chamber of industry Movement, he was the 4th President of the Nigerian Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture, The 6th President of the Lagos Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the 1st President of the Federation of West African Chambers of Commerce and the co-founder and founding President of the Nigerian-British Chamber of Commerce alongside Sir Adam Thomson, the Chairman of British Caledonian Airways now part of British Airways).
He was a member of the Board of Governors of and former President of Nigerian-American Chamber of Commerce. He was the Vice-President, Federation of Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce. Henry was born in Ile Oluji, Ondo State to the family of Daniel Famakinwa Fajemirokun and Felicia Adebumi Fajemirokun, daughter of High Chief Odofin Oganbule Akinsuroju and Madam Adesemi Akinsuroju, granddaughter of Omoba Adebamigbei, he was educated at St. Peter's School, Ile-Oluji and at St Luke's School, Oke-igbo for his primary education. For his secondary education, he educated at CMS Grammar School, Lagos and at Ondo Boys High School. After Ondo Boys school, he joined the Royal West African Frontier Force at the age of 18 and served in India during World War II. After the war, he joined the Post and Telegraph Department as a clerk and studied for his Cambridge School Certificate. After serving during World War II, he began his career at the Post and Telegraph Department, he was a member of the workers' union in the department and rose to become President of the department's Ex-Servicemen's Union in 1948.
In 1952, he became President of Telegraph's Clerical and Workers Allied Union. He started private business in 1955 from a loan he received from a maternal relative, he entered the agricultural export sector, exporting cattle bones first hides and skin, rubber and shea nuts and imported cement. He earned the trust of buyers, he added other ventures into his business activities, in 1962, he started a maritime services firm. By 1960 he had become one of the largest importers of cement from Poland, he received funding for this particular venture from a credit facility, provided to him by a British bank in London. As the founder and largest shareholder of the Henry Stephens Group of companies, under his direction the company grew and diversified into several spheres such as cement and building materials, banking, shipping, ship broking and oil prospecting, he was a leading voice in industry and championed greater participation by Nigerians in the economy, still dominated by foreign concerns in industry.
Following a decision to in 1972, an indigenization decree was promulgated by the Federal government to effect greater indigenous participation in different sectors of the economy. Although a strong proponent of greater indigenous participation, Fajemirokun was cognizant of the need for continued foreign investment in the country and was vocal on maintaining a balance of both. Barring his failed bid to purchase a significant stake in the Daily Times. Fajemirokun did not participate in taking over any foreign concerns as a result of the indigenization decrees in 1972 and 1977. Before 1972, he had pioneered industries and expanded his business interests and was able to form partnerships and joint ventures with foreign firms. Fajemirokun's hard work and masterful timing served him well and enabled him to expand organically into other industries. For more than a decade the Henry Stephens Group had managed to build up a solid network trading with firms in foreign countries such as the United Kingdom, United States of America, Japan, Egypt and Brazil.
The Group was well positioned to expand into other industries and by 1977 was in the process of establishing hotels, truck assembly plants and other manufacturing concerns including the acquisition and development of mining quarries for cement. Groups such as his served to counter the competition from the Federal Military Government and foreign firms; the crowding out of the organized private sector by the FMG was vocally criticized because the belief was that the organized private sector was better suited to both manage the relationships with the foreign firms ensuring a longer term commitment to the country rather than triggering an exodus and to negotiate a fair price for the value of the equity being sold down rather than capitulating to the demands of the FMG the time. He led the negotiations to establish the first private merchant bank in th