Hummus is a dip, spread, or savory dish made from cooked, mashed chickpeas blended with tahini, lemon juice, garlic. It is popular in the Middle East and Mediterranean, as well as in Middle Eastern cuisine around the globe, it can be found in most grocery stores in North America and Europe. "Hummus" comes from the Arabic word meaning "chickpeas", the full name of the prepared spread in Arabic is ḥummuṣ bi ṭaḥīna which means "chickpeas with tahini". Spelling of the word in English can be inconsistent, though most major dictionaries from American and British publishers give hummus as the primary spelling; some American dictionaries give hommos as an alternative, while British dictionaries give houmous or hoummos. Other spellings include homous, houmos and similar variants. While humus is sometimes found, it is avoided as it conflicts with another English word that refers to organic matter in soil. Although multiple different theories and claims of origins exist in various parts of the Middle East, evidence is insufficient to determine the precise location or time of the invention of hummus.
Its basic ingredients—chickpeas, sesame and garlic—have been combined and eaten in the Levant over centuries. Though regional populations ate chickpeas, cooked them in stews and other hot dishes, puréed chickpeas eaten cold with tahini do not appear before the Abbasid period in Egypt and the Levant; the earliest known written recipes for a dish resembling hummus bi tahina are recorded in cookbooks written in Cairo in the 13th century. A cold purée of chickpeas with vinegar and pickled lemons with herbs and oil, but no tahini or garlic, appears in the Kanz al-Fawa'id fi Tanwi' al-Mawa'id, it is served by rolling it out and letting it sit overnight, which gives it a different texture from hummus bi tahina. As an appetizer and dip, diners scoop hummus such as pita, it is served as part of a meze or as an accompaniment to falafel, grilled chicken, fish, or eggplant. Garnishes include chopped tomato, coriander, caramelized onions, sautéed mushrooms, whole chickpeas, olive oil, hard-boiled eggs, sumac, olives and pine nuts.
Outside the Middle East, it is sometimes served with tortilla crackers. Hummus ful is topped with a paste made from fava beans boiled until soft and crushed. Hummus msabbaha/mashawsha is a mixture of hummus paste, warm chickpeas, tahini. Hummus is a popular dip in Egypt where it is eaten with pita, flavored with cumin or other spices. For Palestinians and Jordanians, hummus has long been a staple food served as a warm dish, with bread for breakfast, lunch or dinner. All of the ingredients in hummus are found in Palestinian gardens and markets, thus adding to the availability and popularity of the dish. In Palestine, hummus is garnished, with olive oil, "nana" mint leaves and parsley. A related dish popular in Palestine and Jordan is laban ma' hummus, which uses yogurt in the place of tahini and butter in the place of olive oil and is topped with pieces of toasted bread. Hummus is a common part of everyday meals in Israel, it is made from ingredients that, following Kashrut, can be combined with both dairy meals.
Jewish immigrants arriving from Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century adopted much of the local Palestinian cuisine, including hummus, though it traditionally has been part of the cuisine of the Mizrahi Jews who lived in Arabic-speaking lands. The many Mizrahi Jewish immigrants from these countries brought their own unique variations, such as hummus with fried eggplant and boiled eggs prepared by Iraqi Jews, Hasa Al Hummus, a chickpea soup preferred by Moroccans; the Yemenite quarter of Tel Aviv is known for its hummus with traditional skhug hot sauce. More African immigrants have brought specialties such as Sudanese Hummus Darfur, with eggs and grated cheese. Arab Israelis and Jews alike seek out authentic hummus in Arab hummusia, restaurants specializing in hummus dishes, making famous such Arab villages as Abu Gosh and Kafr Yasif. Enthusiasts travel to the more remote Arab and Druze villages in the northern Galilee region in search of the perfect hummus experience. Although sometimes criticized as Jewish appropriation of Palestinian and Arab culture, hummus has been adopted as an unofficial "national dish" of Israel, reflecting its huge popularity and significance among the entire Israeli population.
Many restaurants run by Mizrahi Jews and Arab citizens of Israel are dedicated to warm hummus, which may be served as chick peas softened with baking soda along with garlic, olive oil and tahini. One of the hummus versions available is msabbaha, made with lemon-spiked tahini garnished with whole chick peas, a sprinkling of paprika and a drizzle of olive oil. One author calls hummus, "One of the most popular and best-known of all Syrian dishes" and a "must on any mezzeh table." Syrian and Lebanese in Canada's Arab diaspora prepare and consume hummus along with other dishes like falafel and tabbouleh among the third- and fourth-generation offspring of the original immigrants. In Cyprus, hummus is part of the local cuisine in both Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities where it is called "humoi". In the United Kingdom, humm
CTP synthase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CTPS2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of CTP from UTP with the concomitant deamination of glutamine to glutamate; this protein is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cytosine nucleotides, which play an important role in various metabolic processes and provide the precursors necessary for the synthesis of RNA and DNA. Cancer cells that exhibit increased cell proliferation exhibit an increased activity of this encoded protein. Thus, this protein is an attractive target for selective chemotherapy. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene. Human CTPS2 genome location and CTPS2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser
Redout is a futuristic racing video game developed and published by Italian studio 34BigThings, co-published by Nicalis and 505 Games. It is inspired by racing games such as F-Zero, Rollcage, POD as stated on the game page on Steam; the game was released on Microsoft Windows on September 2, 2016, while PlayStation 4 and Xbox One got a late August, 2017 release. The Nintendo Switch port was slated for a Spring 2017 release, but got delayed and was re-announced for a May 14, 2019 release. Redout is an anti-gravity racing game set in 2560 where players compete in the SRRL by piloting one of a selection of crafts on several different tracks. There are seven racing teams and every team has four ships; each ship has its distinct characteristics of acceleration, top speed, structural integrity, energy pool and energy recharge speed. The players can customize their ship's characteristics installing upgrades and choosing a passive and active powerup of the six of each available. There are five racing complexes each one consisting of five tracks.
Track design includes loops, teleports, underwater sections, tubular sections and tracks with low or no gravity. The game features different racing modes of which the most unusual one is the boss mode, a race on a long track obtained by linking via teleports the five tracks of a racing complex. Multiplayer is supported online via lobbies of up to twelve players and locally via two players split-screen; the ship controls are more similar to that of an aircraft and as such allow the players to handle strafing and pitch of the vehicle, the latter is used when turning uphill to prevent the ship from grinding the floor and when turning downhill to prevent redouts