click links in text for more info


Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers. The concept of "humors" became more prominent from the writing of medical theorist Alcmaeon of Croton, his list of humours was longer than just four liquids and included fundamental elements described by Empedocles, such as water, earth, etc. Some authors suggest that the concept of "humours" may have origins in Ancient Egyptian medicine or Mesopotamia, though it was not systemized until ancient Greek thinkers; the word humor is a translation of chymos. However much earlier than this, ancient Indian Ayurveda medicine had developed a theory of three humors, which they linked with the five Hindu elements. Hippocrates is the one credited with applying this idea to medicine. In contrast to Alcmaeon, Hippocrates suggested that humours are the vital bodily fluids, such as blood, yellow bile, phlegm and "black bile". Alcmaeon and Hippocrates posited that an extreme excess or deficiency of any of the humours bodily fluid in a person can be a sign of illness.

Hippocrates and Galen suggested that a moderate imbalance in the mixture of these fluids produces temperament type. One of the treatises attributed to Hippocrates, On the Nature of Man, describes the theory as follows: The Human body contains blood, yellow bile and black bile; these are the things that cause its pains and health. Health is that state in which these constituent substances are in the correct proportion to each other, both in strength and quantity, are well mixed. Pain occurs when one of the substances presents either a deficiency or an excess, or is separated in the body and not mixed with others. Although the theory of the four humors does appear in some Hippocratic texts, some Hippocratic writers only accepted the existence of two humors, while some refrained from discussing the humoral theory at all. Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries through the influence of the writings of Galen. Hippocrates theory of four humours was linked with the popular theory of the four elements: earth, fire and air proposed by Empedocles but this link wasn't proposed by Hippocrates or Galen who referred to bodily fluids.

While Galen thought that humors were formed in the body, rather than ingested, he believed that different foods had varying potential to be acted upon by the body to produce different humors. Warm foods, for example, tended to produce yellow bile. Seasons of the year, periods of life, geographic regions and occupations influenced the nature of the humors formed; the imbalance of humors, or dyscrasia, was thought to be the direct cause of all diseases. Health was associated with eucrasia; the qualities of the humors, in turn, influenced the nature of the diseases. Yellow bile caused phlegm caused cold diseases. In On the Temperaments, Galen further emphasized the importance of the qualities. An ideal temperament involved a balanced mixture of the four qualities. Galen identified four temperaments in which one of the qualities, cold, moist or dry and four more in which a combination of two and moist, warm and dry and dry or cold and moist, dominated; these last four, named for the humors with which they were associated—that is, choleric and phlegmatic became better known than the others.

While the term temperament came to refer just to psychological dispositions, Galen used it to refer to bodily dispositions, which determined a person's susceptibility to particular diseases as well as behavioral and emotional inclinations. Disease could be the result of the "corruption" of one or more of the humors, which could be caused by environmental circumstances, dietary changes, or many other factors; these deficits were thought to be caused by vapors absorbed by the body. Greeks and Romans, the Muslim and Western European medical establishments that adopted and adapted classical medical philosophy, believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity; when a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one of these four fluids said patient's personality and or physical health could be negatively affected. Though humorism theory had several models that used 2, 3 and 5 components, the most famous model consists of the four humors described by Hippocrates and developed further by Galen.

The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile, yellow bile and blood. Each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments. Based on Hippocratic medicine, it was believed that the four humors were to be in balanced proportions with regard to amount and strength of each humor for a body to be healthy; the proper blending and balance of the four humors was known as ‘eukrasia’. Imbalance and separation of humors leads to diseases. Galen recalls the correspondence between humors and seasons in his On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato, says that, "As for ages and the seasons, the child corresponds to spring, the young man to summer, the mature man to autumn, the old man to winter". Galen believed that the characteristics of the soul follow

Randeep Guleria

Randeep Guleria is an Indian pulmonologist and the head of the Department of Pulmonology and Sleep Disorders at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, credited with the establishment of India's first centre for pulmonary medicines and sleep disorders at AIIMS. He was honoured by the Government of India in 2015 with Padma Shri, the fourth highest Indian civilian award, he is an alumnus of Delhi. He is the present director of All India Institute of New Delhi. On February 2020, He outlines precautions for Swine Flu, Severe Viral Fever as several cases of these are administered in parts of India. Randeep Guleria did his medical studies at the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, from where he secured his MD in general medicine and DM in pulmonary medicine, he joined the All India Institute of Medical Sciences and rose in ranks to become a professor and the head of the department of Pulmonology and Sleep Disorders. He is associated with the World Health Organization as a member of its Scientific Advisory Group of Experts on immunization and influenza vaccination.

He is a life member of the Association of Physicians of India, Indian Chest Society and the National College of Chest Physicians of India. He serves as a consultant to International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna on issued related to radiation protection. Guleria is the personal physician to Atal Bihari Vajpayee, former Prime Minister of India since 1998 and is credited with research on pulmonary diseases, his research findings have been recorded by way of 268 articles. He is credited with efforts in establishing a centre for respiratory diseases and sleep medicine at AIIMS, reported to be a first in India, he is a recipient of Raj Nanda Pulmonary Disease Fellowship from Raj Nanda Trust and the Royal College of Physicians, UK and is an elected fellow of the National Academy of Medical Sciences. He sits on the editorial boards of a number of medical journals such as the Indian Journal of Chest Diseases, Lung India, Journal of American Medical Association and Chest India. Randeep Guleria was included by the Government of India in the 2015 Republic Day honours list for the civilian award of Padma Shri.

He lives in Delhi, adjacent to the AIIMS campus. He has been awarded the prestigious Dr. B C Roy National Awards for the year 2014, under eminent medical person category by the Medical Council of India. Randeep Guleria. "I Am". Times of India. Randeep Guleria. "Radiation Exposure in Medicine - Do Doctors Know Enough?". AIIMS Circular. "A clinical trial of herbal compound MA-305 in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: A Pilot Study". Clinical Trials Registry of India. 15 September 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2015. "Dr Randeep Guleria Arrives Bangalore for Ambareesh's Health Check". YouTube video. TV9 Kannada. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2015

Gregorio Billikopf

Gregorio Billikopf is a mediator and since 1981, a farm advisor specializing in labor management for the University of California, Davis. In May 2005, Billikopf accepted a visiting faculty appointment as an honorary professor of agricultural labor management at the University of Chile in Santiago. Billikopf is a frequent international speaker in his field, his agricultural extension research and teaching efforts have focused on such topics as employee selection, performance appraisal and termination, interpersonal relations, conflict resolution, interpersonal negotiation skills. Billikopf is the recipient of the 1989 National Association for County Agricultural Agents Achievement Award and the 2006 Distinguished Service Award, he has received a number of other awards from NACAA, including two National Winner communication awards: Webpage in 1999. Billikopf's maternal family have been grape growers in Chile for generations, it is at the labor-intensive family vineyard, where Gregorio spent much of his youth, that he first developed an interest in labor issues and agriculture.

While doing a search in the internet, Billikopf found that this interest in conflict management runs in the family. His paternal grandfather, Jacob Billikopf, is listed as a "notable arbitrator" whose writings are included in the Cornell University School of Industrial Relations' Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archive and elsewhere. On his Chilean side, he is related to historian Francisco Antonio Encina, author of Historia de Chile. Billikopf has authored numerous articles published in academic journals, several books including Labor Management in Agriculture and Party Directed Mediation: Facilitating Dialogue Between Individuals, portrays practical examples of Party-directed mediation an emerging specialty within the field of alternative dispute resolution, he presented his two mediation models, Party-directed mediation and Negotiated Performance Appraisal, for dealing with peer to peer conflict and supervisor-subordinate conflict at the International Association for Conflict Management annual meetings in 2005 and 2009.

Raised in Chile's Central Valley, Billikopf went on to obtain his bachelor of science in plant science from UC Davis, his master of arts in labor management from California State University, Stanislaus. Since his retirement from the University of California and his wife reside in Llanquihue, Chile, in what is called the Lake Region, are the parents of four children and a growing number of grandchildren. Special interests include activities as a dressage instructor, amateur radio operator, a soccer referee and a student of the Hebrew Holy Scriptures Isaiah and the latter prophets. On his Jewish side, Gregorio is the grandson of Jacob Billikopf and great-grandson of Louis Marshall. On his Chilean side, Gregorio is related to Francisco Antonio Encina, author of the 20 volume Historia de Chile. In March 1974, after reading the Book of Mormon, Billikopf became a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Party-directed mediation Party-Directed Mediation: Facilitating Dialogue Between Individuals by Gregorio Billikopf, free complete book PDF download, at the University of California Party-Directed Mediation: Facilitating Dialogue Between Individuals by Gregorio Billikopf, free complete book PDF download from - various formats Interpersonal Negotiation Skills two-hour seminar by Gregorio Billikopf, 2013, guest speaker at California State University, Stanislaus, a summary of Chapter 4 of Party-Directed Mediation.

Empathic Listening Audio by Gregorio Billikopf, download hour lecture on MP3 files, at the University of California. Gregorio Billikopf, El Huasito - Revista Agricola - Osorno, Chile Biographical article published by Revista Agricola, Diario Austral, in Chile after his return to Chile. UC – Gregorio "Uncle Moo" Billikopf

Vũng Tàu

Vũng Tàu is the largest city and former capital of Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province in Vietnam. The city area is 140 square kilometres, consists of 13 urban wards and one commune of Long Sơn Islet. Vũng Tàu was the capital of the province until it was replaced by the much smaller Bà Rịa city on 2 May 2012; the city is the crude oil extraction center of Vietnam. Vũng Tàu consists of 16 wards: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, Thắng Nhất, Thắng Nhì, Thắng Tam, Nguyễn An Ninh, Rạch Dừa and the commune of Long Sơn. During 14th and 15th centuries, the cape that would become Vũng Tàu was a swamp which European trading ships visited regularly; the ships' activities inspired the name Vũng Tàu, which means "anchorage". The French Indochinese government named it Cap Saint-Jacques; the cliff of Vũng Tàu is now called Mũi Nghinh Phong. Vũng Tàu was referred to as Tam Thắng in memory of the first three villages in this area: Thắng Nhất, Thắng Nhị, Thắng Tam, within the province of Biên Hòa under the Nguyễn Dynasty.

Under the reign of king Gia Long, when Malay pirates built a base here and subsequently became a danger to traders in Gia Định city, the king sent his army to crack down on the pirates. The pirates were ousted and the troops were given the land as a reward. 10 February 1859 marked the first use of cannons by Nguyễn's army, when they fired at French battleships from the fortress of Phước Thắng, located 100m from Vũng Tàu's Front Beach. This marked an important period in Vietnam's war against French invaders in South Vietnam. In 1876, according to a decree by the French government, Vũng Tàu was merged in Bà Rịa county per Saigon's administration. During the 1880s there were talks about moving Saigon's port facilities to Vũng Tàu, but this came to nothing due to Saigon's better infrastructure. On 1 May 1895, the governor of Cochinchina established by decree that Cap Saint Jacques would thereafter be an autonomous town. In 1898, Cap Saint Jacques was merged with Bà Rịa county once again, but re-divided in 1899.

In 1901, the population of Vũng Tàu was 5,690, of which 2,000 persons were immigrants from North Vietnam. Most of the town's population made their living in the dancing industry. On 4 April 1905, Cap Saint Jacques was made an administrative district of Bà Rịa province. In 1929, Cap Saint Jacques became a province, in 1934 became a city; the French governor of Indochina, Paul Doumer, built a mansion in Vũng Tàu, still a prominent landmark. During the Vietnam War, the 1st Australian Logistics Support Group was headquartered in Vũng Tàu – as were various United States military units at different times. Vũng Tàu became popular for R&R, amongst in-country US, Australian and New Zealand personnel. After the war, Vũng Tàu was a common launching place for the "Vietnamese boat people" fleeing the communists. On 30 May 1979, Vũng Tàu town was made the capital of Vũng Tàu-Côn Đảo Special Administrative Zone. On 12 August 1991, Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province was founded and Vũng Tàu town became Vũng Tàu City; the city is located in the south of Vietnam, situated at the tip of a small peninsula.

It has traditionally been a significant port during Vietnam's period of French rule. Today, the city's importance as a shipping port has diminished, but it still plays a significant role in Vietnam's offshore oil industry. Vũng Tàu is the only petroleum base of Vietnam where crude oil and natural gas exploitation activities dominate the city's economy and contribute principal income to Vietnam's budget and export volume. Vũng Tàu shipyard's reconstruction is scheduled to be completed in 2008, supplied with up-to-date anchor handling supply vessels of Aker. PEB Steel operates several factories in Vũng Tàu, for constructing steel buildings to be erected around Asia. Vũng Tàu has extensive beaches, including Front Beach. A big resort project has just been licensed by the Saigon Atlantis. Upon completion, this entertainment project worth US$300 million in capital investment will include resorts and sailing; the investor of this project is proposing to raise the investment capital to USD $4 billion.

Two other noteworthy entertainment projects awaiting licensing are Vũng Tàu Aquarium, which will cost USD 250 million, Bàu Trũng, a Disneyland-like entertainment park which will cost US$250 million. The project includes Landmark Tower, an 88-story skyscraper proposed to be built and completed by 2010 in Vũng Tàu by a USA-based company, Good Choice Import – Export Investment Inc, once built will be the highest building in Vietnam; the project is under consideration for approval by the local provincial government. In Vũng Tàu, one of the most celebrated holidays is Lễ hội Cá Ông. Festivals in the region include the Kite Festival and World Food Festival Culture Australian tourists come to Vũng Tàu in August to mark the anniversary of the Battle of Long Tân; as in most provinces and cities in Vietnam, Buddhism is the predominant religion. Mahayana Buddhism, the dominant form of the religion in Vietnam, was brought to Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu by the Vietnamese settlers from the north at the beginning of the 17th century during the expansion of the Nguyễn lords.

When they came bringing their original religion they built many Buddhist pagodas and statues in the city. Three Buddhist temples in particular, Thích Ca Phật Đài, Phổ Đà Sơn Quan Âm Bồ Tát Tự Temple, Niết Bàn Tịnh Xá temple, draw pilgrims from around the country. Before the area

Thittakudi (film)

Thittakudi is a 2010 Tamil drama film directed by Sundaran. The film features newcomers Ravi and Aswatha in lead roles, with Munnar Ramesh, R. Sivakumar, Dindigul Meyyappan, Senthil Kumari and Sujibala playing supporting roles; the film, produced by R. Sivagokul Raj, had musical score by Selvanambi and was released on 25 June 2010. In the village Tittakudi, Velu was a bad student at school and a hardcore fan of actor Rajinikanth, but his father did not want him to give him money to watch films. Under the guidance of the workman Ramaswamy and archenemy of his father, he became a construction worker against his father's will. With the money obtained from his hard work, he went to watch his favourite star's films. Many years Velu and his friend Kulanji have become wastrels: they drink alcohol and have sex with prostitutes; when the village girl Kalaiselvi, the daughter of Ramaswamy, attained puberty, Velu falls under her spell and tries to woo her. She falls in love with him. Ramaswamy wants his relative Durai to get married to his daughter and decides to arrange their wedding, but Kalaiselvi does not want to wed him.

Thereafter, Velu gives her money for the service. Kalaiselvi is astonished for being in love with a cold-hearted man. A villager witnesses it, the news is spread like wildfire, people begin to talk ill about them. Ramaswamy complains to the police that Velu raped his daughter, Velu is arrested. At the police, Kalaiselvi confesses. Fearing of losing her daughter, Kalaiselvi's mother makes her leave the village. Meanwhile, Ramaswamy's relatives plan to kill Velu. Kalaiselvi starts working in a cotton factory in a remote village, whereas Velu realises his mistakes. Velu tries to compromise with Ramaswamy and asks him to get married to his daughter, Ramaswamy accepts; the day of the marriage, Velu's father drinks poison to stop it, Velu could not attend his marriage. Ramaswamy forces Kalaiselvi to get married to a drunkard. In addition to that, Velu's family rejects him. Sundaran, a former associate of director Agathiyan, made his directorial debut with the village drama film Thittakudi. Newcomers Ravi and Aswatha were selected to play the lead roles.

Selvanambi composed the music, A. Karuppaiyah took care of camera work and the editing was by P. G. Vel. Politician M. Karunanidhi's grandson M. K. M. Arivunidhi sang a song; the film score and the soundtrack were composed by film composer Selvanambi. The soundtrack features 7 tracks with lyrics written by Na. Muthukumar and Ekadhasi; the audio was released on 20 January 2010 was released by M. Karunanidhi at his Gopalapuram residence in Chennai. T. R. Baalu, Rama Narayanan and director Amirtham were present during the audio launch; the film was released on 25 June 2010 alongside four other films. rated the film 0 out of 5 and stated, "Director Suntharan wanted to give some sort of social message with his movie but the way he scripted the screenplay, the movie sounds more like a wannabe sensationalist". Another reviewer said, "Cheesy story-liner and graveling screenplay - ‘Thittakudi’ is brimmed with these stuffs that in no way needs a visit". Bhama Devi Ravi of The Times of India rated the film 1.5 out of 5 and said, "Director Sundaram fails to convert a good story into a must-watch film.

To a large extent, this is due to poor casting below-par performance by hero Velu. He fails to stir anything in you, the way Paruthiveeran, a cheeky wastrel did; the film took a below average opening at the Chennai box office, beginning in the fifth position the first week and finishing in the fifth position the second week

Gibraltar-San Roque Refinery

The Gibraltar-San Roque Refinery is an oil refinery owned by CEPSA located on the north shore of the Bay of Gibraltar, in Guadarranque Industrial Estate, between Puente Mayorga and the Guadarranque river, in the municipality of San Roque, Spain. It is located next to the Los Barrios Power Plant, a coal fueled power station, it is the largest refinery in the Iberian Peninsula, with a crude oil daily processing capacity of 240,000 barrels per day. The refinery occupies 150 acres and has a refining capacity of 12 million tons per year, making it the largest Spanish refinery; the Spanish Government has been accused of having built the refinery deliberately in an effort to negatively affect the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar, although pollution is indiscriminate and it affects a large Spanish population in southern Spain. The results of local air samples by both the Gibraltar and Spanish NGOs and environmental groups are reported to the relevant European Union institutions. Apart from imposing fines on the wealthy CEPSA conglomerate, no other real action is taken.

As of 2018 work began on using Detal technology which will produce linear alkylbenzene, work will take around two years to complete. The refinery produces propane, gasoline, aviation fuel, diesel oil and fuel oil. On May 27, 1985, a Japanese ship called Petragen One docked in the refinery and was unloading 20,000 tons of naphtha, which exploded and caused the Spanish tanker Camponavia to catch fire. 33 people died and 36 were injured. The fire started explosions in the Camponavia, which broke in two and sank in a slick of burning oil; the Japanese ship snapped in two, leaving only the burning bow and stern visible above the waterline. On January 21, 2003, the barge of CEPSA Spabunker IV, used to supply fuel to ships crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, sank during a storm on the way from the dock to seek refuge in the port of Algeciras, just a few miles away; the captain died. In 2007 a serious sulphur incident happened as well as intermittent flaring episodes; the impacts of such upsets on surrounding neighbourhoods had provoked outrage and public protest which led to the Consejería de Medio Ambiente of the Junta de Andalucía to order an independent audit aimed at investigating such incidents.

In September 2011 a large fire could be seen for miles around, with black smoke coming from the refinery. In May 2014 a report by the World Health Organization showed that the nearby town of La Línea de la Concepción had the worst air quality in Spain; the report concentrated on PM10 and PM2.5 Pollutants in the air, which could only have come from the refinery. In May 2016 the report by the World Health Organization had placed La Línea as the third worst place in Spain in terms of air quality