Sharkey County, Mississippi
Sharkey County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. Part of the western border is formed by the Yazoo River. According to the 2010 census, the population was 4,916, making it the second-least populous county in Mississippi, its county seat is Rolling Fork. The county is named after William L. Sharkey, the provisional Governor of Mississippi in 1865. Sharkey County is located in the Mississippi Delta region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 435 square miles, of which 432 square miles is land and 3.4 square miles is water. U. S. Route 61 Mississippi Highway 14 Mississippi Highway 16 Washington County Humphreys County Yazoo County Issaquena County Delta National Forest Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,916 people residing in the county. 71.0% were Black or African American, 27.9% White, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Native American, 0.4% of some other race and 0.4% or two or more races. 0.8% were Hispanic or Latino.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,580 people, 2,163 households, 1,589 families residing in the county. The population density was 15 people per square mile. There were 2,416 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.32% Black or African American, 29.36% White, 0.18% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.27% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 1.31% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,163 households out of which 36.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.00% were married couples living together, 26.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.56. In the county, the population was spread out with 33.00% under the age of 18, 10.40% from 18 to 24, 24.80% from 25 to 44, 20.40% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 88.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $22,285, the median income for a family was $26,786. Males had a median income of $26,563 versus $17,931 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,396. About 30.50% of families and 38.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 50.00% of those under age 18 and 24.20% of those age 65 or over. Sharkey County has the tenth-lowest per capita income in Mississippi and the 73rd lowest in the United States. Public School Districts South Delta School District, which operates South Delta High School Private Schools Sharkey-Issaquena Academy Rolling Fork Anguilla Cary Delta City Egremont Nitta Yuma Onward Panther Burn Patmos National Register of Historic Places listings in Sharkey County, Mississippi Official website
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Mississippi Highway 7
Mississippi Highway 7 runs north–south from the Tennessee state line in Benton County to Belzoni, Mississippi. It travels 165 miles, serving Humphreys, Carroll, Yalobusha, Lafayette and Benton Counties, it runs nearly parallel to the used Mississippi Central Railroad. Florewood River Plantation State Park University of Mississippi Wall Doxey State Park From north to south Michigan City near the Tennessee state line Lamar Holly Springs Oxford Water Valley Grenada Greenwood Itta Bena Morgan City Belzoni List of state highways in Mississippi Media related to Mississippi Highway 7 at Wikimedia Commons
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U. S. population, while people who are Asian alone, those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctn
Charles Clifton "Cliff" Finch was an American politician who served as the 57th Governor of the U. S. state of Mississippi, from 1976 to 1980. Finch was born in the village of Pope in Panola County, northern Mississippi, the son of Ruth Christine and Carl Bedford Finch. At the age of 18, he enlisted in World War II and was sent into the Italian Campaign as part of the 88th Infantry Division. After the war, Finch worked in construction on the Pacific island of Guam, he attended the University of Mississippi at Oxford. In 1958, he graduated from the University of Mississippi School of Law. Finch entered politics in 1960 and was elected as a Democrat to the Mississippi House of Representatives. In 1964 and again in 1968, he was elected district attorney for the Seventeenth Judicial District. In 1971, he was an unsuccessful candidate for lieutenant governor. Finch won the unexpected victor in two rounds of Democratic primaries leading up to the 1976 gubernatorial race, he forged a coalition of African American and working-class white voters in a populist-style gubernatorial campaign.
To show his concern for working people, he sacked groceries, drove bulldozers, performed other menial jobs. Finch adopted the campaign slogan "The working man's friend", with those letters featured on a black lunch box in drawings and placards. Finch was elected over the Republican nominee Gil Carmichael, a businessman from Meridian, the African American independent candidate Henry Jay Kirksey; the election was close, with Finch winning with just more than half the vote. In the same election, Evelyn Gandy won the lieutenant governorship, Democrats retained control of the state legislature. Carmichael drew 45 percent of the vote, an exceptionally high figure for a statewide Republican candidate at that time; as governor, Finch helped save Mississippi's savings and loan industry from collapse, provided flood relief after the 1979 Easter flood. While still governor, Finch ran for the United States Senate in 1978, but he was defeated in the Democratic party primary by Maurice Dantin, who lost in the general election to the Republican U.
S. Representative Thad Cochran. After leaving office, Finch ran in 1980 against U. S. President Jimmy Carter, he received 48,032 votes in nine primaries. After the campaign, Finch resumed practicing law. Finch died on April 22, 1986 in Batesville in Panola County, from a massive heart attack. Cliff Finch at Find a Grave
Holmes County, Mississippi
Holmes County is a county in the U. S. state of Mississippi. The western part of the county is within the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta; as of the 2010 census, the population was 19,198. Its county seat is Lexington; the county is named in honor of David Holmes, territorial governor and the first governor of the state of Mississippi. A favorite son, Edmond Favor Noel, was an attorney and state politician, elected as governor of Mississippi, serving from 1908 to 1912. Cotton was long the commodity crop. Planters developed their properties along the riverfronts. After the war, many freedmen acquired land in the bottomlands of the Delta by clearing and selling timber, but most lost their land during difficult financial times, becoming tenant farmers or sharecroppers. With an economy based on agriculture, the county had steep population declines from 1940 to 1970, due to mechanization of farm labor, the second wave of the Great Migration, as African Americans migrated from the Deep South to West Coast cities, where jobs were plentiful in the buildup of the defense industry.
Some African Americans had reacquired land in Holmes County in the 1940s under the New Deal programs. By 1960, Holmes County's 800 independent black farmers owned 50% of the land, more such farmers than elsewhere in the state, they were integral members of the Civil Rights Movement during the 1960s. In 1967, eight of ten black candidates to run for local county office were landowning farmers. Holmes had more candidates running for offices for the Freedom Democratic Party than did any other county. Robert G. Clark, Jr. a teacher in Holmes County, was elected as state representative in 1967, the first black to be elected to state government in the 20th century. He served as the only African American in the state house until 1976, he continued to be re-elected to the state legislature from Holmes County until 2003. In the late 20th century, he was elected to the first of three terms as Speaker of the state House; the western border of the county is formed by the Yazoo River. The eastern border is formed by the Big Black River and the eastern part has hills.
The county was developed for cotton plantations in the antebellum era before the American Civil War, with most properties of the period located along the riverfronts for transportation access. Due to the plantation economy and reliance on slave labor, the county was majority black before the Civil War. "According to U. S. Census data, the 1860 Holmes County population included 5,806 whites, 10 "free colored" and 11,975 slaves. By the 1870 census, the white population had increased about 6% to 6,145, the "colored" population had increased about 10% to 13,225." After the war, many freedmen and white migrants went to Holmes County and other parts of the Mississippi Delta, where they developed the bottomlands behind the riverfront properties and selling timber in order to buy their own lands. Workers were attracted to the Delta area by higher than usual wages on the plantations, which had a labor shortage in the transition to a free labor economy. By the turn of the 20th century, a majority of the landowners in the Delta counties were black.
Blacks were disenfranchised by the new constitution of 1890. Unable to gain credit, many of the first generations of African-American landowners lost their properties by 1920. In this period, they were competing for land with the better-funded timber and railroad companies. Afterward, the blacks were forced to become sharecroppers or tenant farmers; the period after Reconstruction and through the early 20th century had the highest incidence of whites lynching blacks. Holmes County had 10 documented lynchings in the period from 1877 to 1950. Two lynchings took place in the county seat of Mississippi in the 1940s. White planters continued to recruit labor in the area, as freedmen wanted to work on their own account; the first Chinese immigrant laborers entered the Delta in the late 1870s. From 1900-1930, additional Chinese immigrants arrived in Mississippi, including some to Holmes County, they worked hard to leave field labor and became merchants becoming grocers of small stores in the rural Delta towns.
As their socioeconomic status changed, the Chinese Americans carved out a niche "between black and white", gaining admission to white schools for their children through court challenges. With the decline of small towns, most Chinese Americans moved to larger cities through the 20th century. In Mississippi, the number of ethnic Chinese has increased overall in the state through 2010, although it is still small in total - fewer than 5,000. During the New Deal, the Roosevelt administration worked through the Farmers Home Administration to provide low-interest loans in order to increase black land ownership, they established a co-op cotton gin to be used by farmers in the project. In Holmes County, numerous blacks became landowners through this program in the 1940s, they were fiercely independent and were among strong supporters of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s as whites kept a grip on economic and political power through banks and the county courthouse. Although there had been outmigration, the population of the county in 1960 was still 42% black.
The USDA Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (established under another n