The High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle is a family of light, four-wheel drive, military trucks and utility vehicles produced by AM General. It has supplanted the roles performed by the original jeep, others such as the Vietnam War-era M151 jeep, the M561 "Gama Goat", their M718A1 and M792 ambulance versions, the Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicle, other light trucks. Used by the United States military, it is used by numerous other countries and organizations and in civilian adaptations; the Humvee saw widespread use in the Gulf War of 1991, where it negotiated the treacherous desert terrain. After going through a replacement process, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle was chosen as its successor. Since the World War II ¼-ton reconnaissance truck was green-lit for mass-deployment, became known as the "jeep", the United States military had continued to rely on jeeps as general utility vehicles, as a mass-transport for soldiers in small groups. Although the US Army had let Ford redesign the jeep from the ground up during the 1950s, the resulting M151 jeep incorporated significant innovations, it adhered to the original concept—a compact, low profile vehicle, with a folding windshield, that a layman could distinguish from the preceding Willys jeeps.

The jeeps were shorter than a Volkswagen Beetle and weighed just over one metric ton, seating three with an 800 lb payload. During and after the war, the light, ​1⁄4-ton jeeps were complemented by the ​3⁄4-ton Dodge WC and Korea War M37 models. By the mid-1960s, the U. S. military felt a need to reevaluate their aging light vehicle fleet. For starters, from the mid 1960s, the U. S. Army had tried to modernize, through replacing the larger, purpose-built Dodge M37s by militarized, "commercial off the shelf" 4×4 trucks—initially the M715 Jeep trucks, succeeded in the 1970s by the Dodge M880 series, but these didn't satisfy newer requirements either—what was wanted was a versatile light military truck, that could replace multiple outdated vehicles; when becoming aware of the U. S. Army's desire for a versatile new light weapons carrier / reconnaissance vehicle, as early as 1969 FMC Corporation started development on their XR311 prototype, offered it for testing in 1970. At least a dozen of these were built for testing under the High Mobility Combat Vehicle, or HMCV program much more as an enhanced capability successor to the M151 jeep, than as a general purpose load lugger.

In 1977, Lamborghini developed the Cheetah model in an attempt to meet the Army contract specifications. In 1979, the U. S. Army drafted final specifications for a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle, to replace all the tactical vehicles in the 1/4 to 1 1/4-ton range, namely the M151 quarter-ton jeep and M561 Gama Goat, as one "jack-of-all-trades" light tactical vehicle to perform the role of several existing trucks; the specification called for excellent on and off-road performance, the ability to carry a large payload, improved survivability against indirect fire. Compared to the jeep, it was larger and had a much wider track, with a 16 in ground clearance, double that of most sport-utility vehicles; the new truck was to traverse a 40 percent slope. The air intake was to be mounted flush on top of the right fender (or to be raised on a stovepipe to roof level to ford 5 ft of water and electronics waterproofed to drive through 2.5 ft of water were specified. The radiator was to be mounted sloping over the engine on a forward-hinged hood.

Out of 61 companies that showed interest, only three submitted prototypes. In July 1979, AM General, a subsidiary of American Motors Corporation began preliminary design work. Less than a year the first prototype was in testing. Chrysler Defense and Teledyne Continental produced competing designs. In June 1981, the Army awarded AM General a contract for development of several more prototype vehicles to be delivered to the government for another series of tests; the original M998 A0 series had a curb weight of 5,200 lb, a payload of 2,500 lb, a 6.2 L V-8 diesel engine and 6.3 L gasoline, a three-speed automatic transmission. The three companies were chosen to design and build eleven HMMWV prototypes, which covered over 600,000 miles in trials which included off-road courses in desert and arctic conditions. AM General was awarded an initial contract in 1983 for 2,334 vehicles, the first batch of a five-year contract that would see 55,000 vehicles delivered to the U. S. military, including 39,000 vehicles for the Army.

S. and foreign customers by the Persian Gulf War of 1991, 100,000 were delivered by the Humvee's 10th anniversary in 1995. Ft. Lewis and the 2nd Battalion 1st Infantry, 9th Infantry Division was the testing unit to employ HMMWV in the new concept of a motorized division. Yakima Training Center in Yakima, Washington was the main testing grounds for HMMWVs from 1985 through December 1991, when the motorized concept was abandoned and the division inactivated. HMMWVs first saw combat in Operation Just Cause, the U. S. invasion of Panama in 1989. The HMMWV was designed for personnel and light cargo transport behind front lines, not as a front line fighting vehicle. Like the previous jeep, the basic HMMWV has no armor or protection against chemical, radiological or nuclear threats. Losses were low in conventional operations, such as the Gulf War. Vehicles and crews suffered considerable damage and losses during the Battle of Mogadishu in 1993 due to t

Halo of Flies (song)

"Halo of Flies" is a 1973 single by rock band Alice Cooper taken from their 1971 album Killer. The single was only released in the Netherlands; the song was, according to Cooper's liner notes in the compilation The Definitive Alice Cooper, an attempt by the band to prove that they could perform King Crimson-like progressive rock suites, was about a spy organization. Upon its 1973 single release, the song became a top 10 hit in the Netherlands and charted in neighboring Belgium; the single release featured the B-side "Under My Wheels" a song of the Killer album, released as a single two years prior. The noise rock band Halo of Flies named themselves after this song. Jello Biafra and The Melvins covered the song on their release Sieg Howdy!, while Haunted Garage covered it for the 1993 Cooper tribute Welcome to Our Nightmare. The song was used in the VR experience Dreams of Dali. "Halo of Flies" - 8:22 "Under My Wheels" - 2:51 Alice Cooper - vocals Glen Buxton - lead guitar Michael Bruce - rhythm guitar, keyboards Dennis Dunaway - bass guitar Neal Smith - drums Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

List of ambassadors of Pakistan to the United States

The Pakistan Ambassador to the United States is in charge of the Pakistan Embassy, Washington, D. C. and Pakistan's diplomatic mission to the United States. The official title is Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the United States of America. Asad Majeed Khan is the current ambassador to the United States; the embassy of Pakistan in Washington, D. C. was built on 28 August 1947, when Pakistan attained independence from Great Britain and separated from India to form the Dominion of Pakistan. From the onset, Pakistan adopted a pro-American policy, with relations taking an upturn in 1954 when Pakistan signed several defense pacts with the United States- first the SEATO and CENTO in 1955, their relations were soured because of the subsequent Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971, but were rejuvenated due to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the ensuing covert war of 1980–88. Pakistan's secret nuclear programme led the US to impose sanctions on Pakistan, thus deteriorating Pakistani-American relations, but the War on Terrorism again placed Pakistan in the good books of America, improving the two countries' bilateral relations once more.

Therefore, the Pakistani ambassadors to the US were not only the top officers of the Pakistani civil service, but political appointees of respective governments of the time. Some former ambassadors rose to command positions in the Pakistani government, with one of them, Muhammad Ali Bogra, becoming the Prime Minister of Pakistan. United States Ambassador to Pakistan Embassy of the United States, Islamabad