Loches is a commune in the Indre-et-Loire department in central France. It is situated 29 miles southeast of Tours on the left bank of the Indre River. Loches grew up around a monastery founded about 500 by St. Ours and belonged to the Counts of Anjou from 886 until 1205. In the latter year it was seized from King John of England by Philip Augustus, from the middle of the 13th century until after the time of Charles IX of France the castle was a residence of the kings of France, apart for a brief interlude in 1424 when it was heritably granted to Archibald Douglas, Duke of Touraine. Antoine Guenand, Lord of La Celle-Guenand was appointed Captain-Governor of Loches in 1441; the town, one of the most picturesque in central France, lies at the foot of the rocky eminence on which stands the Château de Loches, the castle of the Anjou family, surrounded by an outer wall 13 ft thick, consisting of the old collegiate church of St Ours, the royal lodge and the donjon or keep. The church of St Ours dates from the tenth century to the twelfth century.
It contains the tomb of Agnès Sorel. The royal lodge, built by Charles VII of France and once used as the subprefecture, contains the oratory of Anne of Brittany, it was here on 11 May 1429 that Joan of Arc arrived, fresh from her historic victory at Orleans, to meet the king. The donjon includes, besides the ruined keep, the Martelet, celebrated as the prison of Lodovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, who died there in 1508, the Tour Ronde, built by Louis XI of France and containing the famous iron cages in which state prisoners, including according to a story now discredited, the inventor Cardinal Balue, were confined. Loches has several houses of the Renaissance period. On the right bank of the Indre, opposite the town, is the village of Beaulieu-lès-Loches, once the seat of a barony. Liquor and tanning are carried on together with trade in farm produce, wine and livestock. Loches was the birthplace of: Fulk III, Count of Anjou Alfred de Vigny, poet and novelist Pierre Nicolas Gerdy, French physician, anatomist and physiologist.
Ernest Christophe, François Rude's student and a friend of Baudelaire. Jacques Villeret, actor Loches is twinned with: Wermelskirchen, Germany St Andrews, Scotland Communes of the Indre-et-Loire department INSEE commune file Tourism office website
Carloman (mayor of the palace)
Carloman was the eldest son of Charles Martel, majordomo or mayor of the palace and duke of the Franks, his wife Chrotrud of Treves. On Charles's death and his brother Pepin the Short succeeded to their father's legal positions, Carloman in Austrasia, Pepin in Neustria, he was a member of the family called the Carolingians and it can be argued that he was instrumental in consolidating their power at the expense of the ruling Merovingian kings of the Franks. He withdrew from public life in 747 to take up the monastic habit, "the first of a new type of saintly king," according to Norman Cantor, "more interested in religious devotion than royal power, who appeared in the following three centuries and, an indication of the growing impact of Christian piety on Germanic society". After the death of his father, power was not divided to include Grifo, another of Charles's sons, by his second wife Swanachild; this was per Charles' wishes, though Grifo demanded a portion of the realm from his brothers, who refused him.
In 741, Carloman and Pepin besieged their half-brother, Grifo in Laon, took him captive and forced him into a monastery. Each brother turned his attention towards his own area of influence as majordomo, Pippin in the West and Carloman in the East, the Carolingian base of power. With Grifo contained, the two mayors, who had not yet proved themselves in battle in defence of the realm as their father had, on the initiative of Carloman, installed the Merovingian Childeric III as king though Martel had left the throne vacant since the death of Theuderic IV in 737. Unlike most medieval instances of fraternal power sharing and Pepin for seven years seemed at least willing to work together. Carloman joined Pepin against Hunald I of Aquitaine's rising in 742 and again in 745. Pepin assisted Carloman against the Saxons in 742–43, when Duke Theoderic was forced to come to terms, against Odilo, Duke of Bavaria, in 742 and again in 744, when peace was established between the brothers and their brother-in-law, for Odilo had married their sister Hiltrude.
In his realm, Carloman strengthened his authority in part via his support of the Anglo-Saxon missionary Winfrid, the so-called "Apostle of the Germans," whom he charged with restructuring the church in Austrasia. This was in part the continuation of a policy begun under his grandfather, Pepin of Herstal, continued under his father, Charles Martel, who erected four dioceses in Bavaria and gave them Boniface as archbishop and metropolitan over all Germany east of the Rhine, with his seat at Mainz. Boniface had been under Charles Martel's protection from 723 on. Carloman was instrumental in convening the Concilium Germanicum in 742, the first major synod of the Catholic Church to be held in the eastern regions of the Frankish kingdom. Chaired jointly by him and Boniface, the synod ruled that priests were not allowed to bear arms or to host females in their houses and that it was one of their primary tasks to eradicate pagan beliefs, his father had confiscated church property to reward his followers and to pay for the standing army that had brought him victory at Tours.
By 742 the Carolingians were wealthy enough to support the Church. For Carloman, a religious man, it was a duty of love. Both saw the necessity of strengthening the ties between the Church. Carloman donated the land for one of the monastery of Fulda. Despite his piety, Carloman could be ruthless towards perceived opponents. After repeated armed revolts and rebellions, Carloman in 746 convened an assembly of the Alemanni magnates at Cannstatt and had most of the magnates, numbering in the thousands and executed for high treason in the Blood Court at Cannstatt; this eradicated the entire tribal leadership of the Alemanni and ended the independence of the tribal duchy of Alemannia, thereafter governed by counts appointed by their Frankish overlords. These actions strengthened Carloman's position, that of the family as a whole in terms of their rivalries with other leading barbarian families such as the Bavarian Agilolfings. On 15 August 747, Carloman renounced his position as majordomo and withdrew to a monastic life, being tonsured in Rome by Pope Zachary.
All sources from the period indicate that Carloman's renunciation of the world was volitional, although some have speculated that he went to Rome for other, unspecified reasons and was "encouraged" to remain in Rome by the pope, acting on a request from Pepin to keep Carloman in Italy. Carloman founded a monastery on Monte Soratte and went to Monte Cassino. All sources from the period indicate, he withdrew to Monte Cassino and spent most of the remainder of his life there in meditation and prayer. His son, demanded from Pepin the Short his father's share of the family patrimony, but was swiftly neutralised. Seven years after Carloman's retirement and on the eve of his death, he once more stepped on the public stage. In 754, Pope Stephen II had begged Pepin, now king, to come to his aid against the king of the
The Lombards or Longobards were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili, who dwelt in southern Scandinavia before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in north-western Germany. By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia north of the Danube river, where they subdued the Heruls and fought frequent wars with the Gepids; the Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552. Following this victory, Alboin decided to lead his people to Italy, which had become depopulated and devastated after the long Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom there. In contrast with the Goths and the Vandals, the Lombards left Scandinavia and descended due south through Germany and Slovenia, only leaving Germanic territory a few decades before reaching Italy.
The Lombards would have remained a predominantly Germanic tribe by the time they invaded Italy. The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Gepids, Bulgars and Ostrogoths, their invasion of Italy was unopposed. By late 569 they had conquered all of northern Italy and the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in southern Italy, they established a Lombard Kingdom in north and central Italy named Regnum Italicum, which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the Kingdom was integrated into his Empire. However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula, well into the 11th century when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily. In this period, the southern part of Italy still under Longobardic domination was known to the foreigners, by the name Langbarðaland, in the Norse runestones, their legacy is apparent in the regional name Lombardy. The fullest account of Lombard origins and practices is the Historia Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon, written in the 8th century.
Paul's chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum tells the story of a small tribe called the Winnili dwelling in southern Scandinavia; the Winnili were split into three groups and one part left their native land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was overpopulation; the departing people were led by the brothers Ybor and Aio and their mother Gambara and arrived in the lands of Scoringa the Baltic coast or the Bardengau on the banks of the Elbe. Scoringa was ruled by the Vandals and their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, who granted the Winnili a choice between tribute or war; the Winnili were young and brave and refused to pay tribute, saying "It is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute." The Vandals prepared for war and consulted Godan, who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise. The Winnili were fewer in number and Gambara sought help from Frea, who advised that all Winnili women should tie their hair in front of their faces like beards and march in line with their husbands.
At sunrise, Frea turned her husband's bed so that he was facing east, woke him. So Godan spotted the Winnili first and asked, "Who are these long-beards?," and Frea replied, "My lord, thou hast given them the name, now give them the victory." From that moment onwards, the Winnili were known as the Longbeards. When Paul the Deacon wrote the Historia between 787 and 796 he was a Catholic monk and devoted Christian, he thought the pagan stories of his people "silly" and "laughable". Paul explained. A modern theory suggests that the name "Langobard" comes from a name of Odin. Priester states that when the Winnili changed their name to "Lombards", they changed their old agricultural fertility cult to a cult of Odin, thus creating a conscious tribal tradition. Fröhlich inverts the order of events in Priester and states that with the Odin cult, the Lombards grew their beards in resemblance of the Odin of tradition and their new name reflected this. Bruckner remarks that the name of the Lombards stands in close relation to the worship of Odin, whose many names include "the Long-bearded" or "the Grey-bearded", that the Lombard given name Ansegranus shows that the Lombards had this idea of their chief deity.
The same Old Norse root Barth or Barði, meaning "beard", is shared with the Heaðobards mentioned in both Beowulf and in Widsith, where they are in conflict with the Danes. They were a branch of the Langobards. Alternatively some etymological sources suggest an Old High German root, meaning “axe”, while Edward Gibbon puts forth an alternative suggestion which argues that: …Börde still signifies “a fertile plain by the side of a river,” and a district near Magdeburg is still called the lange Börd
Chronicle of Fredegar
The Chronicle of Fredegar is the conventional title used for a 7th-century Frankish chronicle, written in Burgundy. The author is unknown and the attribution to Fredegar dates only from the 16th century; the chronicle begins with the creation of the world and ends in AD 642. There are a few references to events up to 658; some copies of the manuscript contain an abridged version of the chronicle up to the date of 642, but include additional sections written under the Carolingian dynasty that end with the death of Pepin the Short in 768. The Chronicle of Fredegar with its Continuations is one of the few sources that provide information on the Merovingian dynasty for the period after 591 when Gregory of Tours' the Decem Libri Historiarum finishes. None of the surviving manuscripts specify the name of the author; the name "Fredegar" was first used for the chronicle in 1579 by Claude Fauchet in his Recueil des antiquitez gauloises et françoises. The question of who wrote this work has been much debated, although the historian J. M. Wallace-Hadrill admits that "Fredegar" is a genuine, if unusual, Frankish name.
The Vulgar Latin of this work confirms. As a result, there are several theories about the authorship: The original view, stated without argument as late as 1878, was that the Chronicle was written by a single person. In 1883 Bruno Krusch, in his edition for the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, proposed that the Chronicle was the creation of three authors, a theory accepted by Theodor Mommsen, Wilhelm Levison, Wallace-Hadrill. Ferdinand Lot critiqued Krusch's theory of multiple authorship and his protests were supported in 1928 by Marcel Bardot and Leon Levillain. In 1934, Siegmund Hellmann proposed a modification of Krusch's theory, arguing that the Chronicle was the work of two authors. In 1963, Walter Goffart renewed the notion of a single author, this view is now accepted. Fredegar is assumed to have been a Burgundian from the region of Avenches because of his knowledge of the alternate name Wifflisburg for this locality, a name only coming into usage; this assumption is supported by the fact that he had access to the annals of many Burgundian churches.
He had access to court documents and could interview Lombard and Slavic ambassadors. His awareness of events in the Byzantine world is usually explained by the proximity of Burgundy to Byzantine Italy; the chronicle exists in over thirty manuscripts, which both Krusch and the English medievalist Roger Collins group into five classes. The original chronicle is lost, but it exists in an uncial copy made in 715 by a Burgundian monk named Lucerius; this copy, the sole exemplar of a class 1 manuscript, is in the Bibliothèque nationale de France and is sometimes called the Codex Claromontanus because it was once owned by the Collège de Clermont in Paris. A diplomatic edition was prepared by the French historian Gabriel Monod and published in 1885; the Codex Claromontanus was the basis of the critical edition by Krusch published in 1888 and of the partial English translation by Wallace-Hadrill published in 1960. Most of the other surviving manuscripts were copied in Austrasia and date from the early ninth century or later.
The first printed version, the editio princeps, was published in Basel by Flacius Illyricus in 1568. He used MS Heidelberg University Palat. Lat. 864 as his text. The next published edition was Antiquae Lectiones by Canisius at Ingolstadt in 1602; the manuscript was made available on the World Digital Library on December 20, 2017 In the critical edition by Krusch the chronicle is divided into four sections or books. The first three books are based on earlier works and cover the period from the beginning of the world up to 584. In the prologue the author writes: I have most read the chronicles of St Jerome, Hydatius and a certain wise man, of Isidore as well as of Gregory, from the beginning of the world to the declining years of Guntram's reign. In fact, Fredegar quotes from sources that he does not acknowledge and drastically condenses some of those he does, he inserts additional sections of text that are not derived from his main sources. These inserted sections are referred to as "interpolations".
For most of them the sources are not known. Some of the interpolations are used to weave a legend of a Trojan origin for the Franks through the chronicle. Book IThe initial 24 chapters of the first book are based on the anonymous Liber generationis which in turn is derived from the work of Hippolytus; the remainder of the book contains a compendium of various chronological tables including a list of the Roman Emperors, a list of Judaic kings, a list of popes up to the accession of Theodore I in 642 and Chapter 3 of the chronicle of Isidore of Seville. On the reverse of the folio containing the papal list is an ink drawing showing two people which according to Monod represent Eusebius and Jerome. Book IIThe first 49 chapters of the second book contain extracts from Jerome's Latin translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius; the text includes some interpolations. The remaining chapters contains extracts from the Chronicle of Hydatius. Book IIIThe third book contains excerpts from Books II–VI of the Decem Libri Historiarum by Gregory of Tours with several interpolations.
Fredegar's source appears to have lacked the last four books of Gregory's text and his narrative ends in 5
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France. It is a commune and the capital of the Vienne department and of the Poitou. Poitiers is a major university centre; the centre of town is picturesque and its streets include predominantly historical architecture religious architecture and from the Romanesque period. Two major battles took place near the city: in 732, the Battle of Poitiers, in which the Franks commanded by Charles Martel halted the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate, in 1356, the Battle of Poitiers, a key victory for the English forces during the Hundred Years' War; this battle's consequences provoked the Jacquerie. The city of Poitiers is strategically situated on the Seuil du Poitou, a shallow gap between the Armorican and the Central Massif; the Seuil du Poitou connects the Aquitaine Basin to the South to the Paris Basin to the North. This area is an important geographic crossroads in Western Europe. Poitiers's primary site sits on a vast promontory between the valleys of the Clain.
The old town occupies the slopes and the summit of a plateau which rises 130 feet above the streams which surround it on three sides. Thus Poitiers benefits from a strong tactical situation; this was an important factor before and throughout the Middle Ages. Inhabitants of Poitiers are referred to as Poitevins or Poitevines, although this denomination can be used for anyone from the Poitou province. One out of three people in Poitiers is under the age of 30 and one out of four residents in Poitiers is a student; the climate in the Poitiers area is mild with mild temperature amplitudes, adequate rainfall throughout the year although with a drying tendency during summer. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this type of climate is "Cfb". Poitiers was founded by the Celtic tribe of the Pictones and was known as the oppidum Lemonum before Roman influence; the name is said to have come from the Celtic word for Lemo. After Roman influence took over, the town became known as Pictavium, or "Pictavis", after the original Pictones inhabitants themselves.
There is a rich history of archeological finds from the Roman era in Poitiers. In fact until 1857 Poitiers hosted the ruins of a vast Roman amphitheatre, larger than that of Nîmes. Remains of Roman baths, built in the 1st century and demolished in the 3rd century, were uncovered in 1877. In 1879 a burial-place and tombs of a number of Christian martyrs were discovered on the heights to the south-east of the town; the names of some of the Christians had been preserved in inscriptions. Not far from these tombs is a huge dolmen, 6.7 metres long, 4.9 metres broad and 2.1 metres high, around which used to be held the great fair of Saint Luke. The Romans built at least three aqueducts; this extensive ensemble of Roman constructions suggests Poitiers was a town of first importance even the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Aquitania during the 2nd century. As Christianity was made official and introduced across the Roman Empire during the 3rd and 4th centuries, the first bishop of Poitiers from 350 to 367, Hilary of Poitiers or Saint Hilarius, proceeded to evangelize the town.
Exiled by Constantius II, he risked death to return to Poitiers as Bishop. The first foundations of the Baptistère Saint-Jean can be traced to that era of open Christian evangelization, he was named "Doctor of The Church" by Pope Pius IX. In the 4th century, a thick wall 6m wide and 10m high was built around the town, it was 2.5 km long and stood lower on the defended east side and at the top of the promontory. Around this time, the town began to be known as Poitiers. Fifty years Poitiers fell into the hands of the Arian Visigoths, became one of the principal residences of their kings. Visigoth King Alaric II was defeated by Clovis I at Vouillé, not far from Poitiers, in 507, the town thus came under Frankish dominion. During most of the Early Middle Ages, the town of Poitiers took advantage of its defensive tactical site and of its location, far from the centre of Frankish power; as the seat of an évêché since the 4th century, the town was a centre of some importance and the capital of the Poitou county.
At the height of their power, the Counts of Poitiers governed a large domain, including both Nouvelle-Aquitaine and Poitou. The town was referred to as Poictiers, a name commemorated in warships of the Royal Navy, after the battle of Poitiers; the first decisive victory of a Western European Christian army over a Muslim power, the Battle of Tours, was fought by Charles Martel's men in the vicinity of Poitiers on 10 October 732. For many historians, it was one of the world's pivotal moments. Eleanor of Aquitaine resided in the town, which she embellished and fortified, in 1199 entrusted with communal rights. In 1152 she married the future King Henry II of England in Poitiers Cathedral. During the Hundred Years' War, the Battle of Poitiers, an English victory, was fought near the town of Poitiers on 19 September 1356. In the war In 1418, under duress, the royal parliament moved from Paris to Poitiers, where it remained in exile until the Plantagenets withdrew from the capital in 1436. During this interval, in 1429 Poitiers was the site of Joan of Arc's formal inquest.
The University of Poitiers was founded in 1431. During and after the Reformation, John Calvin had numerous converts in Poitiers and the town had its share of the violent proceedings which underlined the Wars of Religion throughout France. In 1569 Poitiers was defended by Gui de Daillon, comte du Lude, against G
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river. It is the capital of the department of Cher, was the capital of the former province of Berry; the name of the city derives either from the Bituriges, the name of the original inhabitants, or from the Germanic Burg, for "hill/village". The Celts called it Avaricon. In 52 BC, the sixth year of the Gallic Wars the Gauls were practicing a scorched earth policy to try to deny Caesar's forces supplies, but the inhabitants of Avaricum begged not to have their city burned, it was temporarily spared due to its good defences provided by the surrounding marshes, a river that nearly encircled it, a strong southern wall. Julius Caesar's forces captured and destroyed the city, killing all but 800 of its inhabitants. Rome reconstructed Avaricum as a Roman city, with a monumental gate, thermae and an amphitheatre, reaching a greater size than it would attain during the Middle Ages; the massive walls surrounding the late Roman city, enclosing 40 hectares, were built in part with stone re-used from earlier public buildings.
The third-century AD Saint Ursinus known as Saint Ursin, is considered the first bishop of the city. Bourges is the seat of an archbishopric. During the 8th century Bourges lay on the northern fringes of the Duchy of Aquitaine and was therefore the first town to come under Frankish attacks when the Franks crossed the Loire; the Frankish Charles Martel captured the town in 731, but Duke Odo the Great of Aquitaine re-took it. It remained under the rule of counts who pledged allegiance to the Aquitanian dukes up to the destructive siege by Frankish King Pepin the Short on independent Aquitaine in 762, when Basque troops are found defending the town along with its count. During the Middle Ages, Bourges served as the capital of the Viscounty of Bourges until 1101. In the fourteenth century it became the capital of the Duchy of Berry; the future king of France, Charles VII, sought refuge there in the 1420s during the Hundred Years' War. His son, Louis XI, was born there in 1423. In 1438, Charles VII decreed the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges.
During this period, Bourges was a major capital of alchemy. The Gothic Cathedral of Saint Etienne, begun at the end of the twelfth century, ranks as a World Heritage Site, it is considered as one of the earliest examples of the High Gothic style of the thirteenth century. The city has a long tradition of history. Apart from the cathedral, other sites of importance include the 15th-century Palace of Jacques Cœur and a sixty-five-hectare district of half-timbered houses and fine town-houses. Bourges sits at the river junction; the disused Canal de Berry follows alongside the course of the Auron through Bourges. The climate is oceanic with a regular precipitation. However, its location in the center of France, makes the city has a better experience in the distinctions of the seasons, for example: its cold record is lower than that of Lille in the far north of the country at the same time that its heat record is higher than that of Marseille in the Mediterranean, its summers are quite hot for a marine climate of the west coast, but its winters are still mild to qualify in a continental climate due to the latitude and influence of the Atlantic Ocean and not only of seas like East Germany.
The temperatures can be compared to the valleys of the interior of western Washington like East Renton Highlands, although Val de Loire has less humidity of the air due to the greater distance of the ocean and less precipitation. The wettest month is May on average and April, the driest previous month although precipitation differences are small. July tends to be the hottest month and unlike coastal cities, January is the coldest month, its Gothic cathedral was added to the list of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1992 Jacques Cœur's palace Lallemant's hotel, from the early French Renaissance The Berry museum, located in the Cujas' hotel The Estève museum, located in the so-called aldermen's hotel The marshes of the Yèvre and Voiselle rivers were listed in 2003 as a French Natural Monument or Site The ruins of the Gallo-Roman walls The Conservatoire national du Pélargonium The railway station Gare de Bourges offers direct connections to Paris, Orléans, Tours and several regional destinations.
The A71 motorway connects Bourges with Clermont-Ferrand. Bourges Airport is a small regional airport. Bourges' principal football team are Bourges Football 18, it is home to the women's basketball club CJM Bourges Basket, which has won multiple titles in domestic and European basketball. Bourges XV is the premier rugby team in the region playing in French National Division, Federal 3. University of Bourges École des Beaux Arts Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Ingénieurs ENSI Bourges is twinned with: Augsburg, Germany Aveiro, Portugal Forlì, Italy Koszalin, Poland Palencia, Spain Peterborough, United Kingdom Yoshkar-Ola, Russia The Printemps de Bourges music festival takes place in Bourges every year; every summer, since 2002, « les milles univers » hosts a writing workshop in collaboration with Oulipo. 17th-century composer and singer François Bourgoing was born in Bourges. The merchant Jacques Cœur was born in Bourges; the manuscript illuminator. John Calvin was a student in the University of Bourges.
The legal expert Jacques Cujas lived in Bourges during 1555-1557 and 1575-1590. The Impressionist painter Berthe Morisot was born in Bourges on
Saint Pardulphus was a Frankish saint and Benedictine abbot. He is the author of the Vita Pardulfi, notable for the insight it provides into life in Aquitaine at the time, he was born from a family of peasants. His legend states that he was a shepherd who decided to live as a hermit after experiencing a terrible storm; the count of Lantaire had built a monastery at Guéret. Pardulphus joined this monastery serving as its abbot, he followed strict penances, never keeping himself warm, only eating once a week. He is alleged to have rejected heat from any source but the rays of the sun. However, as he grew old he did make use of “hot stones” to keep himself warm, he rejected the consumption of all poultry, eating only the mushrooms the local peasants brought him. The Vita Pardulfi records a miracle performed by Pardulphus; some carpenters were cutting wood with. After they loaded the wood onto carts and returned to the building works, it was determined that the wood was too short; the carpenters’ superintendent wished to have the carpenters whipped in punishment for this, but Pardulphus intervened with a miracle that made the wood the right size and surpassed the intended length.
As a result, the excess wood was hung in the church as an object of veneration. According to tradition, during the Umayyad invasion of southern France, Pardulphus remained in his monastery. Umayyad forces, retreating after the Battle of Tours, arrived at the monastery. However, his monastery was spared from attack, his feast day is October 6. A reliquary that contained his arm had been preserved at the church of Sardent. However, it is now found at the Museum of Fine Art at Guéret. A number of places in France, such as Saint-Pardoux-de-Drône, take their name from him. St. Pardulphus LA LÉGENDE DE SAINT PARDOUX