Taiwanese cuisine has several variations. In addition to the following representative dishes from the majority Hoklo, there are Aboriginal and local derivatives of Japanese cuisine and Chinese cuisine. Taiwanese cuisine itself is associated with influences from mid to southern provinces of China, most notably from the south of Fujian which leads to it being classified or grouped with'Southern Fujianese cuisine'. However, influences from all of mainland China can be found after the Kuomintang retreat to the island which brought along a large number of Chinese chefs from the mainland. A notable Japanese influence exists due to the period when Taiwan was under Japanese rule. Traditional Chinese food can be found in Taiwan, alongside Fujian and Hakka-style as well as native Taiwanese dishes, including dishes from Guangdong, Chaoshan, Hunan and Beijing. Pork, chicken and soy are common ingredients. Beef is far less common, some Taiwanese still refrain from eating it. A traditional reluctance towards slaughtering precious cattle needed for agriculture, an emotional attachment and feeling of gratitude and thanks to the animals traditionally used for hard labour.
However, due to influences from the influx of out of province Chinese in the early 1900s, the Taiwanese version of beef noodle soup is now one of the most popular dishes in Taiwan. Taiwan's cuisine has been influenced by its geographic location. Living on a crowded island, the Taiwanese had to look aside from the farmlands for sources of protein; as a result, seafood figures prominently in their cuisine. This seafood encompasses many different things, from large fish such as tuna and grouper, to sardines and smaller fish such as anchovies. Crustaceans and cuttlefish are eaten; because of the island's sub-tropical location, Taiwan has an abundant supply of various fruit, such as papayas, starfruit and citrus fruit. A wide variety of tropical fruits and native, are enjoyed in Taiwan. Other agricultural products in general are rice, tea, poultry, beef and other fruits and vegetables. Fresh ingredients in Taiwan are available from markets. In many of their dishes, the Taiwanese have shown their creativity in their selection of spices.
Taiwanese cuisine relies on an abundant array of seasonings for flavor: soy sauce, rice wine, sesame oil, fermented black beans, pickled radish, pickled mustard greens, chili peppers, a local variety of basil. An important part of Taiwanese cuisine are xiaochi, substantial snacks along the lines of Spanish tapas or Levantine meze; the Taiwanese xiaochi has gained much reputation internationally. Many travelers go to Taiwan just for xiǎochī; the most common place to enjoy xiǎochī in Taiwan is in a night market. Each night market has its own famous xiǎochī. Moreover, the Taiwanese xiǎochī has been improving to a higher level. Nowadays, Taiwanese xiǎochī not only served in night markets but some luxury and high-end restaurants; these restaurants use higher quality ingredients and creative presentations, reinventing dishes whilst keeping the robust flavors. The prices jump by twice the price or higher in the restaurants; the Taiwanese government supports the Taiwanese xiǎochī and has held national xiǎochī events in Taiwan regularly.
Vegetarian restaurants are commonplace with a wide variety of dishes due to the influence of Buddhism and other syncretistic religions like I-Kuan Tao. These vegetarian restaurants vary in style from all-you-can-eat to pay-by-the-weight and of course the regular order-from-a-menu. There is a type of outdoor barbecue called khòng-iô. To barbecue in this manner, one first builds a hollow pyramid up with dirt clods. Next, charcoal or wood is burnt inside until the temperature inside the pyramid is high; the ingredients to be cooked, such as taro, yam, or chicken, are placed in cans, the cans are placed inside the pyramid. The pyramid is toppled over the food until cooked. Many non-dessert dishes are considered snacks, not entrees; such dishes are only salted, with lots of vegetables along with the main meat or seafood item. Taiwanese dishes Aiyu jelly – a gelatinous dessert made from the seeds of a fig-like fruit, Ficus pumila var. awkeotsang. Served on ice. Baobing – a Chinese shaved ice dessert common in China, Taiwan and Vietnam.
Bubble tea, aka boba milk tea. Traditional cakes are not always of the same composition depending on the flavor. There is the moon cake which has a thick filling made from lotus seed paste or sweetened red bean paste and surrounded by a thin crust and may contain yolks from salted duck eggs, it is traditionally eaten during the festival for lunar moon watching. Mooncakes are offered on family gatherings while celebrating the festival; the Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the four most important Chinese festivals. There are other cakes that can mix salty ingredients with sweet ones to create a balance while enjoying these delicacies with tea; the crust could be shiny from applying a layer of egg yolk before putting in the oven, or not in that case it is whiter and the crust has more layers. Grass jelly – Served hot or cold. Moachi (麻糍
Buddhist cuisine is an East Asian cuisine, followed by monks and many believers from areas influenced by Chinese Buddhism. It is vegetarian or vegan, it is based on the Dharmic concept of ahimsa. Vegetarianism is common in other Dharmic faiths such as Hinduism and Sikhism, as well as East Asian religions like Taoism. While monks and a minority of believers are vegetarian year-round, many believers follow the Buddhist vegetarian diet for celebrations. Vegetarian cuisine is known as sùshí, chúnsù, zhāicài in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia and Taiwan; the dishes that comprise Buddhist cuisine in any given place will be influenced by the general local cuisine. The origin of "Buddhist food" as a distinct sub-style of cuisine is tied to monasteries, where one member of the community would have the duty of being the head cook and supplying meals that paid respect to the strictures of Buddhist precepts. Temples that were open to visitors from the general public might serve meals to them and a few temples run functioning restaurants on the premises.
In Japan, this practice is known as shōjin ryōri, served at many temples in Kyoto. A more recent version, more Chinese in style, is prepared by the Ōbaku school of zen, known as fucha ryōri. In modern times, commercial restaurants have latched on to the style, catering both to practicing and non-practicing lay people. Most of the dishes considered to be uniquely Buddhist are vegetarian, but not all Buddhist traditions require vegetarianism of lay followers or clergy. Vegetarian eating is associated with the East Asian tradition in China, Vietnam and Korea where it is practiced by clergy and may be observed by laity on holidays or as a devotional practice. Theravada Monks and nuns traditionally feed themselves by gathering alms, must eat whatever foods are given to them, including meat; the exception to this alms rule is when monks and nuns have seen, heard or known that animal have been killed to feed the alms-seeker, in which case consumption of such meat would be karmically negative, as well as meat from certain animals, such as dogs and snakes, that were regarded as impure in ancient India.
The same restriction is followed by some lay Buddhists and is known as the consumption of "triply clean meat". The Pali Sutras describe the Buddha as refusing a suggestion by his student Devadatta to mandate vegetarianism in the monastic precepts. In the Mahayana tradition, by contrast, several sutras of the Mahayana canon contain explicit prohibitions against consuming meat, including sections of the Lankavatara Sutra and Surangama Sutra. Japanese Buddhist sects believe that Buddha ate meat. All Japanese Kamakura sects of Buddhism have relaxed Mahayana vinaya, as a consequence, vegetarianism is optional; the monastic community in Chinese Buddhism, Vietnamese Buddhism and most of Korean Buddhism adhere to vegetarianism. Tibetan Buddhism has long accepted that the practical difficulties in obtaining vegetables and grains within most of Tibet make it impossible to insist upon vegetarianism. Both Mahayana and Theravada Buddhists consider that one may practice vegetarianism as part of cultivating Bodhisattvas's paramita.
In addition to the ban on garlic all Mahayana monastics in China, Korea and Japan avoid eating strong-smelling plants, traditionally asafoetida, mountain leek and Allium chinense, which together with garlic are referred to as wǔ hūn or wǔ xīn as they tend to excite senses. This is based on teachings found in the Brahamajala Sutra, the Surangama Sutra and the Lankavatara Sutra. In modern times this rule is interpreted to include other vegetables of the onion genus, as well as coriander; the origins of this additional restriction is from the Indic region and can still be found among some believers of Hinduism and Jainism. Some Taoists have this additional restriction but the list of restricted plants differs from the Buddhist list; the food that a strict Buddhist takes, if not a vegetarian, is specific. For many Chinese Buddhists beef and the consumption of large animals and exotic species is avoided. There would be the aforementioned "triply clean meat" rule. One restriction on food, not known to many is the abstinence from eating animal innards and organs.
This is known as xiàshui. Alcohol and other drugs are avoided by many Buddhists because of their effects on the mind and "mindfulness", it is part of the Five Precepts which dictate that one is not to consume "addictive materials". The definition of "addictive" depends on each individual but most Buddhists consider alcohol and drugs other than medicine to be addictive. Although caffeine is now known to be addictive, caffeinated drinks and tea are not included under this restriction. There are many legends about tea. Among meditators it is awake without overexcitement. In theory and practice, many region
Chifa is culinary tradition based on Chinese Cantonese elements fused with traditional Peruvian ingredients and traditions. Though originating in Peru, the Chifa tradition has spread to neighboring countries like Ecuador and Bolivia. Chinese immigrants came to Peru from the southern province of Guangdong and its capital city Guangzhou in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, they settled for the most part in the capital city of Lima. The term chifa is used to describe a restaurant where this type of food is served. Chinese-Peruvian food has become one of the most popular types of food in Peru; the origin of the term chifa comes from the Cantonese 饎飯 which means "to cook rice or to cook a meal." A similar loanword, "chaufa", comes from the Cantonese 炒饭 or "fried rice." Many other words in the Peruvian colloquial language that are of Chinese origin include: "kion" from Cantonese 薑, "sillao" from the Cantonese 豉油. As Chinese immigrants in Peru progressed economically, they imported a limited number of ingredients to be able to produce a more authentic version of their home cuisine.
Additionally, they began to plant a variety of Chinese vegetables with seeds imported from China. However, due to a lack of ingredients, the Chinese were not able to prepare their cuisine in the authentic manner of their homeland. Around 1920, the first Chinese Peruvian restaurants were opened in Lima and were given the name Chifa; the Limean aristocracy was amazed by the bittersweet sauce, chaufa rice, the soup, other dishes of the ancient cuisine. From that moment on, wealthy Limeans became fascinated by Chifa, to an extent that in some regions of the country there are more chifas than creole restaurants. Additionally, Peruvian chefs began to use products used in traditional Chinese cooking such as ginger, soy sauce, a variety of other ingredients which began to make their way into daily Limean cuisine. There are different accounts on the development of chifa restaurants in Lima, the Peruvian capital, such as the following: "Why is the Chinatown of Lima near the central market called Capon?
Because on Ucayali Street pigs, bulls and goats were fattened to be made more appetizing. Near Capon Street there was a piece of land known as Otaiza, rented by a group of Chinese free of the contract, free to chart their own horizon doing what they best knew how to do: cooking and merchanting Capon turned into the birthplace of Chinese food and of the first Peruvian chifas, a blessing from the sky. Soon all of Lima comes to eat at Ton Kin Sen, to Thon Po, to Men Yut, to San Joy Lao where there was dancing to a live orchestra. At one time or another, nobody knows. For some this word was derived from the Chinese ni chi fan or "Have you eaten yet". Soon would come the dish chau fan, chaufa, a dish that comes with every chifa meal." - León, R. 2007 pp.134-136.color As stated, the history of chifa is rooted in the development of the Chinatown of Lima prepared by unhealthy or unsavory methods, but which has become focal point in cultural, artistic and gastronomic interest. Chinatown is located in the Historic Centre of Lima.
Peruvian chifa is distinct due to its Peruvian cuisine influences, from Chinese food found in other parts of the world although certain aspects found in Chinese food internationally are common to Peruvian chifa such as wontons, fried rice and sour sauce, soy sauce. Like most Chinese food internationally and within China, meat and vegetables are important staples to chifa. Chifa is enjoyed by all socioeconomic levels, as evident by the ability to find chifas directed towards those with a more ample budget and seeking a more refined atmosphere whereas chifas de barrio are directed towards a different social strata and do not have the same level of atmosphere and are directed towards consumers accustomed to the type of food which they serve. In the city of Lima there are over 6,000 chifa restaurants. Since at least the 1970s, Chinese immigrants had opened chifas in neighboring Ecuador. Chifas have been opened in Bolivia and Chile. Chinese cuisine Peruvian cuisine Chinese Peruvians Chinatown of Lima Chifa León, Rafo.
Lima Bizarra. Antiguía del centro de la capital. 2da edición. Lima-Perú: Aguilar. ISBN 978-9972-848-17-9
Chinese Indonesian cuisine
Chinese Indonesian cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians brought their legacy of Chinese cuisine, modified some of the dishes with the addition of Indonesian ingredients, such as kecap manis, palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili and local spices to form a hybrid Chinese-Indonesian cuisine; some of the dishes and cakes share the same style as in Malaysia and Singapore which are known as the Nonya cuisine by the Peranakan. Chinese influences are evident in Indonesian food, with several quintessential Chinese favourite has made their way into mainstream Indonesian culinary scene. Popular Chinese Indonesian foods including bakmi, mie ayam, bakso, kwetiau goreng and mie goreng. Chinese culinary culture is evident in Indonesian cuisine through the Hokkien and Cantonese loanwords used for various dishes. Words beginning with bak signify the presence of e.g. bakpau. Mi or mie signify noodle as in mi goreng. Most of these loanwords for food dishes and their ingredients are Hokkien in origin and are used throughout the Indonesian language and vernacular speech of large cities.
Because they have become an integral part of the local language, many Indonesians and ethnic Chinese do not recognize their Hokkien origins. Some of popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng, mi goreng, kwetiau and bakpia can trace their origin to Chinese influence; some food and ingredients are part of the daily diet of both the indigenous and ethnic Chinese populations as side dishes to accompany rice, the staple food of most of the country. Chinese influence is so evident in cities with large Chinese settlements since colonial era in Jakarta, Semarang, Medan and Pontianak; as the result numbers of mi and tahu recipes were developed in these cities. Chinese influence is so evident in Betawi people cuisines, formed as peranakan culture, as the result Betawi people held Chinese Indonesians dishes such as asinan and rujak juhi as theirs. To a certain extent, Javanese in Semarang and Surabaya willingly absorbs Chinese culinary influences, as the result they considered Chinese-influenced dishes such as mi goreng, lumpia and tahu gunting as theirs.
Because food is so prevalent in Chinese culture as Chinese families allocate their quality time to go eating out—just like banquet customs found in Chinese communities worldwide—many Pecinan in Indonesian cities are well known as the culinary hot spots of the city, with rows of shops and restaurants. As Chinese and native Indonesians establishing their food business, many eating establishments sprung up, from humble street side cart hawker to fancy restaurants offering their specialty. Areas such as Glodok and Kelapa Gading in Jakarta, Gardu Jati in Bandung, Kya-kya Kembang Jepun in Surabaya, Pecinans in Cirebon, Semarang and Medan are teeming with lots of warungs and restaurants, not only offering Chinese Indonesians' dishes, but local and international cuisines; the Indonesian Chinese cuisine vary with locations. For example, in different parts of Java the dishes are adapted to local culture and taste, in return Chinese Indonesians residing in this region had developed a taste for local cuisine.
In central Java, the food tends to be much sweeter. In East Java, Chinese food there is more savory with a preference of petis shrimp paste. In Medan, North Sumatra and in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, a more traditional Chinese style can be found. Chinese cuisine in Indonesia have absorbed local preference of spicy food and local ingredients. For example, it is common to have sambal chili sauce, acar pickles and sprinkle of bawang goreng crispy fried shallot as condiment. Chinese cuisine influences on Indonesian cuisine is evident in Indonesian take on Chinese dishes, such as mie goreng, lumpia and siomay; however the culinary influences is taken another way around. Vice versa, Chinese Indonesian been influenced by native Indonesian cuisine, it is believed that Lontong Cap Go Meh is a Chinese Indonesian take on traditional Indonesian dishes. The dish reflect the assimilation among Chinese immigrants with local community; because Indonesia is Muslim majority country, some of ingredients were replaced to create a halal Chinese food.
Most of Chinese eating establishments with significant Muslim native Indonesian clientele would do so. However, in Chinatowns in major Indonesian cities where there is significant Chinese and non-Muslim population, Chinese restaurants that serve pork dishes such as babi kecap, char siew, crispy roast pork, sweet pork sausage and sate babi are available. There are different styles of Chinese food in Indonesia: Traditional Chinese food, such as the Teochew, Hakka dishes. Chinese-Indonesian food with recipes borrowed from local Indonesian cuisine and other European cuisine. Chinese dishes adapted to the local culture and taste, such as replacing pork with chicken or beef to make it halal. New style Chinese food with chefs from China, Hong Kong or Taiwan. Most of the times, the name of Chinese Indonesian foods are preserved from its original Chinese Hokkien name. However, sometimes the name are derived from the translation of its meanings, ingredients or process
Sichuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Szechuan cuisine is a style of Chinese cuisine originating from Sichuan Province. It has bold flavours the pungency and spiciness resulting from liberal use of garlic and chili peppers, as well as the unique flavour of Sichuan pepper. There are many local variations within Sichuan Province and the neighbouring Chongqing Municipality, part of Sichuan Province until 1997. Four sub-styles of Sichuan cuisine include Chongqing, Chengdu and Buddhist vegetarian style. UNESCO declared Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, to be a city of gastronomy in 2011 to recognise the sophistication of its cooking. Sichuan in the Middle Ages welcomed Middle Eastern crops, such as broad beans and walnuts. Since the 16th century, the list of major crops in Sichuan has been lengthened by New World newcomers; the characteristic chili pepper came from Mexico, but overland from India or by river from Macau, complementing the traditional Sichuan peppercorn. Other newcomers from the New World included maize, which replaced millet.
The population of Sichuan was cut by three quarters in the wars from the Ming dynasty to the Qing dynasty. Settlers from the adjacent Hunan Province brought their cooking styles with them. Sichuan is colloquially known as the "heavenly country" due to its abundance of food and natural resources. One ancient Chinese account declared that the "people of Sichuan uphold good flavour, they are fond of hot and spicy taste." Most Sichuan dishes are spicy. Sichuan cuisine is composed of seven basic flavours: sour, hot, bitter and salty. Sichuan food is divided into five different types: sumptuous banquet, ordinary banquet, popularised food, household-style food and snacks. Milder versions of Sichuan dishes remain a staple of American Chinese cuisine; the complex topography of Sichuan Province, including its mountains, plains and the Sichuan Basin, has shaped its food customs with versatile and distinct ingredients. Abundant rice and vegetables are produced from the fertile Sichuan Basin, whereas a wide variety of herbs and other fungi prosper in the highland regions.
Pork is overwhelmingly the most common type of meat consumed. Beef is somewhat more common in Sichuan cuisine than it is in other Chinese cuisines due to the prevalence of oxen in the region. Sichuan cuisine uses various bovine and porcine organs as ingredients, such as intestine, head, tongue and liver, in addition to other used portions of the meat. Rabbit meat is much more popular in Sichuan than elsewhere in China, it is estimated that the Sichuan Basin and Chongqing area consume about 70 percent of China's rabbit meat consumption. Yoghurt, which spread from India through Tibet in medieval times, is consumed among the Han Chinese; this is an unusual custom in other parts of the country. The salt produced from Sichuan salt springs and wells, unlike sea salt, does not contain Iodine, which lead to goiter problems before the 20th century. Sichuan cuisine contains food preserved through pickling and drying. Preserved dishes are served as spicy dishes with heavy application of chili oil; the most unique and important spice in Sichuan cuisine is the Sichuan pepper.
Sichuan peppercorn has an intense fragrant, citrus-like flavour and produces a "tingly-numbing" sensation in the mouth. Other used spices in Sichuan cuisine are garlic, chili peppers and star anise. Broad bean chili paste is one of the most important seasonings, it is an essential component to famous dishes such as double-cooked pork slices. Sichuan cuisine is the origin of several prominent sauces/flavours used in modern Chinese cuisine, including: Yuxiang Mala Guaiwei Common preparation techniques in Sichuan cuisine include stir frying and braising, but a complete list would include more than 20 distinct techniques. Although many dishes live up to their spicy reputation, there is a large percentage of recipes that use little to no hot spices at all, including dishes such as tea-smoked duck. Hunan cuisine Chen Kenmin Chen Kenichi List of Chinese dishes Fuchsia Dunlop. Land of Plenty: A Treasury of Authentic Sichuan Cooking. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003. ISBN 0393051773. Fuchsia Dunlop. Shark's Fin and Sichuan Pepper: A Sweet-Sour Memoir of Eating in China..
ISBN 9780393066579. The author's experience and observations in Sichuan. Jung-Feng Chiang, Ellen Schrecker and John E. Schrecker. Mrs. Chiang's Szechwan Cookbook: Szechwan Home Cooking. New York: Harper & Row, 1987. ISBN 006015828X. Eugene Anderson. "Sichuan Cuisine," in Solomon H. Weaver William Woys Katz. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture.. Vol I pp. 393–395. Lu Yi, Du li. China Sichuan Cuisine Bilingual. Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, 2010. ISBN 9787536469649. NPR story on Sichuan cuisine and a cookbook about the cuisine
Cantonese cuisine or more Guangdong cuisine known as Yue cuisine, refers to the cuisine of China's Guangdong Province the provincial capital, Guangzhou. "Cantonese" refers to only Guangzhou or the language known as Cantonese associated with it, but people refer to "Cantonese cuisine" to all the cooking styles of the speakers of Yue Chinese languages from within Guangdong. The Teochew cuisine and Hakka cuisine of Guangdong are considered their own styles, as is neighboring Guangxi's cuisine despite being considered culturally Cantonese, it is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine. Its prominence outside China is due to the large number of Cantonese emigrants. Chefs trained in Cantonese cuisine are sought after throughout China; until most Chinese restaurants in the West served Cantonese dishes. Guangzhou City, the provincial capital of Guangdong and the center of Cantonese culture, has long been a trading hub and many imported foods and ingredients are used in Cantonese cuisine.
Besides pork and chicken, Cantonese cuisine incorporates all edible meats, including offal, chicken feet, duck's tongue, frog legs and snails. However and goat are less used than in the cuisines of northern or western China. Many cooking methods are used, with steaming and stir frying being the most favoured due to their convenience and rapidity. Other techniques include shallow frying, double steaming and deep frying. For many traditional Cantonese cooks, the flavours of a dish should be well balanced and not greasy. Apart from that, spices should be used in modest amounts to avoid overwhelming the flavours of the primary ingredients, these ingredients in turn should be at the peak of their freshness and quality. There is no widespread use of fresh herbs in Cantonese cooking, in contrast with their liberal use in other cuisines such as Sichuanese, Lao and European. Garlic chives and coriander leaves are notable exceptions, although the former are used as a vegetable and the latter are used as mere garnish in most dishes.
In Cantonese cuisine, a number of ingredients such as sugar, soy sauce, rice wine, vinegar and sesame oil, suffice to enhance flavour, although garlic is used in some dishes those in which internal organs, such as entrails, may emit unpleasant odours. Ginger, chili peppers, five-spice powder, powdered black pepper, star anise and a few other spices are used, but sparingly. Although Cantonese cooks pay much attention to the freshness of their primary ingredients, Cantonese cuisine uses a long list of preserved food items to add flavour to a dish; this may be influenced by Hakka cuisine, since the Hakkas were once a dominant group occupying imperial Hong Kong and other southern territories. Some items gain intense flavours during the drying/preservation/oxidation process and some foods are preserved to increase their shelf life; some chefs combine both fresh varieties of the same items in a dish. Dried items are soaked in water to rehydrate before cooking; these ingredients are not served a la carte, but rather with vegetables or other Cantonese dishes.
A number of dishes have been part of Cantonese cuisine since the earliest territorial establishments of Guangdong. While many of these are on the menus of typical Cantonese restaurants, some simpler ones are more found in Cantonese homes. Home-made Cantonese dishes are served with plain white rice. There are a small number of deep-fried dishes in Cantonese cuisine, which can be found as street food, they have been extensively documented in colonial Hong Kong records of the 20th centuries. A few are synonymous with Cantonese breakfast and lunch though these are part of other cuisines. Old fire soup, or lou fo tong, is a clear broth prepared by simmering meat and other ingredients over a low heat for several hours. Chinese herbs are used as ingredients. There are two ways to make old fire soup – put ingredients and water in the pot and heat it directly on fire, called bou tong; the latter way can keep the most original taste of the soup. Soup chain stores or delivery outlets in cities with significant Cantonese populations, such as Hong Kong, serve this dish due to the long preparation time required of slow-simmered soup.
Due to Guangdong's location along the South China Sea coast, fresh seafood is prominent in Cantonese cuisine, many Cantonese restaurants keep aquariums or seafood tanks on the premises. In Cantonese cuisine, as in cuisines from other parts of Asia, if seafood has a repugnant odour, strong spices and marinating juices are added. For instance, in some recipes, only a small amount of soy sauce and spring onion is added to steamed fish. In Cantonese cuisine, the light seasoning is used only to bring out the natural sweetness of the seafood; as a rule of thumb, the spiciness of a dish is inversely proportionate to the freshness of the ingredients. Noodles are served either in soup fried; these are available as home-cooked meals, on dim sum side menus, or as street food at dai pai dongs, where they can be served with a variety of toppings such as fish balls, beef balls, or fish slices. Siu mei is the Chinese rotisserie
Shandong cuisine, more known in Chinese as Lu cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine and one of the Four Great Traditions. It is derived from the native cooking style of Shandong Province, a northern coastal province of China. Shandong cuisine is famous for its wide selection of use of different cooking methods; the raw materials are domestic animals and birds and vegetables. The masterly cooking techniques include bao, liu, pa, kao and using sugar to make fruit and crystallising with honey. Shandong cuisine is divided into two sub-regional styles: Jiaodong. Shandong cuisine is known for its light aroma and rich taste, it puts emphasis on two types of broths and milky. Both broths go well with the freshness of seafood. Jiaodong style, encompassing dishes from eastern Shandong: Fushan, Qingdao and the surrounding regions, it is characterised by seafood dishes with a light taste. Jinan style, made up of dishes from Jinan, Tai'an and the surrounding regions. One of its features is the use of soup.
Although less available in overseas Chinese restaurants, Shandong cuisine is considered one of the most influential schools in Chinese cuisine. Modern cuisines in North China are branches of Shandong cuisine, meals in most Northern Chinese households are prepared using simplified Shandong methods. During the Spring and Autumn period, Shandong was a territory of the Lu states. Both states, with mountains and fertile plains, were economically and culturally developed and had abundant aquatic products and sea salt; some of the earliest known descriptions of Chinese culinary methods come from the states. Yi Ya, a retainer of Duke Huan of Qi, was renowned for his culinary skill. Confucius was quoted in the Analects as saying, "One should not indulge overly in fine flour, or in kuai, sliced too thinly". About food, he recommended: "Do not consume food which looks spoiled, smells spoiled, is out of season, is improperly butchered, or is not made with its proper seasoning"; the cuisine as it is known today was created during the Yuan dynasty.
It spread to northern and northeastern China and Tianjin, where it influenced Imperial cuisine. Shandong cuisine is made up of eastern Shandong and Jinan dishes. Although modern transportation has increased the availability of ingredients China, Shandong cuisine remains rooted in tradition, it is noted for its variety of seafood, including scallop, prawn/shrimp, sea cucumber and squid. In addition to seafood, Shandong is unique for its use of maize, a local cash crop not cultivated in northern China. Unlike the sweet corn of North America, Shandong maize is chewy and has a grassy aroma, it is served as steamed cobs, or the kernels are removed from the cob and fried. Shandong is noted for its peanuts, which are fragrant and sweet. Large dishes of peanuts are common at meals, they are served raw in a number of cold dishes from the region. Shandong uses a variety of small grains. Millet, wheat and barley can be found in the local diet eaten as congee or milled and cooked into a variety of steamed and fried breads.
People in Shandong tend to prefer steamed breads rather than rice as a staple food. Despite its agricultural output, Shandong has not traditionally used the variety of vegetables seen in southern Chinese cooking. Potatoes, cabbages, onions and eggplant are staple vegetables, with grassy greens, sea grasses and bell peppers common; the large, sweet cabbages grown in central Shandong are known for their delicate flavour and hardiness. Shandong's greatest contribution to Chinese cuisine is arguably its vinegar. Hundreds of years of experience and unique local methods have led to the region's prominence in Chinese vinegar production. Unlike the lighter, sharper types of vinegar popular in the south, Shandong vinegar has a complexity which some consider fine enough to stand alone; some well-known dishes in Shandong cuisine Jinan cuisine: The cooking methods of Jinan cuisine focus on quick frying and boiling. Jinan-style food is sweet, aromatic and tender. A famous dish from Jinan is stir-fried large yellow croaker with vinegar.
Jiaodong cuisine: Jiaodong cuisine focuses more on cooking and cutting skills. The Jiaodong area is located close to the sea, so most raw materials are seafood. Sea cucumber and scallop are common in this area. A famous Jiaodong dish is stir-fried sea cucumber with green onions. Kongfu cuisine: "Kongfu" refers to the descendants of Kong Qiu; the Kong family have high standards for the quality of every dish. This is why all Kongfu dishes are beautifully prepared with excellent cutting skills. Luxinan cuisine: "Luxinan" refers to southwestern Shandong Province. People living in this area like to eat health food with raw materials. Dezhou braise