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Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts from 1337 to 1453, waged between the House of Plantagenet, rulers of England and the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war, it was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, the development of strong national identities in both countries. Tensions between the French and English crowns had gone back centuries to the origins of the English royal family, French in origin. English monarchs had therefore held titles and lands within France, which made them vassals to the kings of France; the status of the English king's French fiefs was a major source of conflict between the two monarchies throughout the Middle Ages. French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power, stripping away lands as the opportunity arose whenever England was at war with Scotland, an ally of France.

English holdings in France had varied in size, at some points dwarfing the French royal domain. In 1328, Charles IV of France died without sons or brothers and a new principle disallowed female succession. Charles's closest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, whose mother, Isabella of France, was Charles's sister. Isabella claimed the throne of France for her son, but the French rejected it, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right she did not possess. Political sentiment favoured a Frenchman for the crown rather than a foreign prince; the throne passed instead to Charles's patrilineal cousin, Count of Valois. The English had not expected their claim to be successful and did not challenge the succession. French disagreements with Edward, induced Philip to confiscate Edward's lands in France, which prompted Edward to reclaim the French throne; the early years of the war saw resounding English successes. But by 1378, the French under King Charles the Wise had reconquered most of the lands they lost in the Treaty of Brétigny leaving the English with only a few cities on the continent.

In the following decades, the weakening of royal authority, combined with a difficult economic context, led to a period of civil war in both countries, struggles from which England emerged first. The newly crowned Henry V of England seized the opportunity presented by the mental illness of Charles VI of France and the French civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundians to revive the conflict. Overwhelming victories at Agincourt in 1415 and Verneuil in 1424 as well as an alliance with the Burgundians raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph and persuaded the English to continue the war over many decades. However, a variety of factors such as the death of Henry V, the emergence of Joan of Arc which boosted French morale and the loss of Burgundy as an ally marking the end of the civil war in France prevented it; the Siege of Orléans in 1429 announced the beginning of the end for English hopes of conquest. With the eventual capture of Joan by the Burgundians and her execution in 1431, a series of crushing French victories such as those at Patay in 1429, Formigny in 1450 and Castillon in 1453 concluded the war in favour of the Valois dynasty.

England permanently lost most of its continental possessions, with only the Pale of Calais remaining under its control on the continent until the Siege of Calais in 1558. Historians adopted the term "Hundred Years' War" as a historiographical periodisation to encompass all of these events, thus constructing the longest military conflict in European history, but they divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War, the Caroline War, the Lancastrian War. Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession, the Castilian Civil War, the War of the Two Peters in Aragon, the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were used by the parties to advance their agendas. By the war's end, feudal armies had been replaced by professional troops, aristocratic dominance had yielded to a democratisation of the manpower and weapons of armies. Although a dynastic conflict, the war inspired French and English nationalism; the wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, artillery became important.

The war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the Western Roman Empire, helped change their role in warfare. In France, civil wars, deadly epidemics and bandit free-companies of mercenaries reduced the population drastically. In England, political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture; the dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, as well as the general shock at losing a war in which investment had been so great, helped lead to the Wars of the Roses. The root causes of the conflict can be found in the crises of 14th-century Europe; the outbreak of war was motivated by a gradual rise in tension between the kings of France and England involving Gascony and Scotland. The question that arose, was the official pretext due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetian dynasty; the question of female succession to the French throne was raised after the death of Louis X in 1316

Systems science

Systems science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, cognition, engineering and science itself. To systems scientists, the world can be understood as a system of systems; the field aims to develop interdisciplinary foundations that are applicable in a variety of areas, such as psychology, medicine, business management, computer science and social sciences. Systems science covers formal sciences such as complex systems, dynamical systems theory, information theory, linguistics or systems theory, it has applications in the field of the natural and social sciences and engineering, such as control theory, operations research, social systems theory, systems biology, system dynamics, human factors, systems ecology, systems engineering and systems psychology. Themes stressed in system science are holistic view, interaction between a system and its embedding environment, complex trajectories of dynamic behavior that sometimes are stable, while at various'boundary conditions' can become wildly unstable.

Concerns about Earth-scale biosphere/geosphere dynamics is an example of the nature of problems to which systems science seeks to contribute meaningful insights. Since the emergence of general systems research in the 1950s, systems thinking and systems science have developed into many theoretical frameworks. Systems analysis Systems analysis is the branch of systems science that analyzes systems, the interactions within those systems, and/or interaction with its environment prior to their automation as computer models; this field is related to operations research. Systems design Systems design is the process of "establishing and specifying the optimum system component configuration for achieving specific goal or objective." For example in computing, systems design can define the hardware and systems architecture which includes many sub-architectures including software architecture, modules and data, as well as security and others, for a computer system to satisfy specified requirements. System dynamics System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behavior of complex systems over time.

It offers "simulation technique for modeling business and social systems," which deals with internal feedback loops and time delays that affect the behavior of the entire system. What makes using system dynamics different from other approaches to studying complex systems is the use of feedback loops and stocks and flows. Systems engineering Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering, that focuses on the development and organization of complex systems, it is the "art and science of creating whole solutions to complex problems," for example: signal processing systems, control systems and communication system, or other forms of high-level modelling and design in specific fields of engineering. Systems methodologies There are several types of Systems Methodologies, that is, disciplines for analysis of systems. For example: Soft systems methodology: in the field of organizational studies is an approach to organisational process modelling, it can be used both for general problem solving and in the management of change.

It was developed in England by academics at the University of Lancaster Systems Department through a ten-year Action Research programme. System development methodology in the field of IT development is a variety of structured, organized processes for developing information technology and embedded software systems. Viable systems approach is a methodology useful for the understanding and governance of complex phenomena. Systems theories Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field that studies complex systems in nature and science. More it is a conceptual framework by which one can analyze and/or describe any group of objects that work in concert to produce some result. Systems science Systems sciences are scientific disciplines based on systems thinking such as chaos theory, complex systems, control theory, sociotechnical systems theory, systems biology, systems chemistry, systems ecology, systems psychology and the mentioned systems dynamics, systems engineering, systems theory. Systems sciences cover formal sciences like dynamical systems theory and applications in the natural and social sciences and engineering, such as social systems theory and system dynamics.

General systems scientists can be divided into different generations. The founders of the systems movement like Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, James Grier Miller, George J. Klir, Anatol Rapoport were all born between 1900 and 1920, they all came from different natural and social science disciplines and joined forces in the 1950s to establish the general systems theory paradigm. Along with the organization of their efforts a first generation of systems scientists rose. Among them were other scientists like Ackoff, Margaret Mead and Churchman, who popularized the systems concept in the 1950s and 1960s; these scientists inspired and educated a second generation with more notable scientists like Ervin Laszlo and Fritjof Capra, who wrote about systems theory in the 1970s and 1980s. Others got acquainted and started studying these works in the 1980s and started writing about it since the 1990s. Debora Hammond can be seen as a typical representative of these third generation of general systems scientists.

The International Society for the Systems Sciences is an organisation for interdisciplinary collaboration and

Neelagiriseya

Neelagiriseya is an ancient colossal Stupa situated in Lahugala, Ampara District, Sri Lanka. It is the largest Buddhist Stupa in the Eastern Province of the country, it has 22 m height in the current status. In the recent history the Stupa and its monastery site had been neglected and abandoned over three decades as the rise of activities of military organization LTTE in the area. Neelagiriseya is believed to be built by either King Kavan Tissa or King Bhathikabaya and has been called as Uttara Seevali Pabbata Viharaya in ancient times. According to an inscription belongs to the 1st century, found during the archaeological excavations done in 2011, describes about a grant to the temple by the Maharaajinee Chula Sivalee Queen, a daughter of the King Bhatikabaya. In historical resources Bhatikabaya is described as a viceroy, who reigned in Ruhuna when King Kutakanna Tissa was ruling the country. Another inscription recovered from the site in 2011 excavation reveals about donations made by king Jettatissa I or by the King Jettatissa II.

The first reference about the Nilgiriseya in modern history could be found in the early decades of the 20th century. A. M. Horcart, who had visited this place in 1928, has published some details about the Stupa after 2 years of his journey. Efforts to restore the Stupa were carried out by the archaeological department during 1979 – 1984 time period, but the initiatives were abandoned as the increase of threats from Tamil Tigers separatists in the area. Since any development or conservation activities haven't taken place for this site till defeat of LTTE in 2009. In 2011 a survey was carried out as a pre-requisite of the proposed restoration of the Stupa by a team consisted of 13 archaeologists, funded by the department of archaeology. During the survey archaeologist identified remains of an ancient aramic complex surrounding the Stupa extending about 36 hectares; the complex includes a central Stupa with irregularly scattered ruins of the buildings, boundary walls and ponds associated with it. They have found a golden casket with relics in Stupa among the many items found from their excavations.

According to the archaeologists, the relics recovered from Neelagiriseya, are the relics of Buddha due to inscription on the casket. Ancient stupas of Sri Lanka